«Институт отраслевого менеджмента ЛИДЕР И КОМАНДА: ПУТЬ К УСПЕХУ Сборник докладов XI Международной научно-практической студенческой конференции Апрель 2018 Москва ...»
Российская Академия народного хозяйства и государственной службы
при Президенте Российской Федерации
Институт отраслевого менеджмента
ЛИДЕР И КОМАНДА:
ПУТЬ К УСПЕХУ
XI Международной научно-практической
Издательско-торговая корпорация «Дашков и К°»
О. П. Гаврилина – кандидат экономических наук
Н. Б. Сафронова – кандидат технических наук, доцент .
Лидер и команда: путь к успеху: Сборник докладов Л55 XI Международной научно-практической студенческой кон ференции. Москва, апрель 2018 г. / Сост. О. П. Гаврилина, Н. Б. Сафронова. – М.: Издательско-торговая корпорация «Дашков и К°», 2018. – 348 с .
ISBN 978-5-394-03388-9 В сборник включено 48 докладов на английским и русском языке, посвященных различным практическим и теоретическим вопросам командного взаимодействия, актуальным для развития проектного управления во всех сферах экономики страны. Тексты докладов представлены в авторской редакции .
© РАНХиГС, 2018 ISBN 978-5-394-03388-9 СОДЕРЖАНИЕ От составителей
1. Afanas'eva V. E. Psychology of teamwork and leadership in exhibition events
2. Alexeenkov E. A., Bryuhanova G. D. Leadership and effective team work in thrifty hospitality (on example of Sochi)
Assaf Basem, Kolesnichenko Е. А. Model of crisis management in 3 .
the hotel business
4. Atinovi T., Varenik E. S., Sonnova S. V. Using social media to leadership and teamwork
5. Baglai N. Role of the leader in internal PR
Balandin I. I., Gavrilina O. Р. Leader of a sport team “Pittsburgh 6 .
Bogdanovi Duan. Leader selection on the IPA project 7 .
by implementing PROMETHEE-GAIA method: the case study of Serbia
Bolshacova T. О., Gavrilina O. Р. The role of psychologist 8 .
in sport team’s success
Brzakovi P., Brzakovi M., Janoik М., Radlovaki К .
Motivation as a key factor of the successful leadership
10. Buczen A., Korczak M. Be the first: How National Contest of accounting knowledge should be organised?
11. Chelnokova A., Urazova E., Zhukova T. How to start a project with 6 team members and end up with 4. Leadership and teamwork during “I am with #MYRANEPA” project............... 84
12. Elskamp W. BIMM and its potential to change the work processes in the construction sector
13. Generalova A. Hierarchy, method of the organization and communication in modern media startups
14. Isaeva A., Belyaeva P. Approaches of an automobile industry leader to lean manufacturing
15. Izmaylova M., Mordvinova A. The role of female team leaders.......... 114
16. Janoik M., Radlovaki K., Brzakovi M., Tomi G .
The influence of leaders on team efficiency in business systems.. 120
17. Leonova Y. I, Volovshchikova E. A. The role of leader in managing the organization
18. Makhlouf Aghiad, Shevyakov А. Y. Management of various risks in hotel business
19. Malozemov V. V., Gavrilina O. P. Sport team and its leader:
analysis of success (The analysis of the theory and the result of the study on the example)
20. Manusheva E. Modern leadership styles in global companies........... 150
21. Matrokhin F. Porsche AG: Leadership and effective teamwork in lean management application
22. Miclaus Victor-Liviu. Management and leadership in Eastern Europe: Building and sustaining a startup in Romania based on the model of collective leadership
23. Mikhaylova Y. Creation of a community for foreign students of RANEPA
24. Minina V. S. FOSSA 2017. Leading universities practices in developing leadership through student government
25. Neshpay A., Tarkhova A. The role of team-working in the organization of the dental clinic project
26. Oboskalova L. E., Baranova A. Y. Event-volunteering as a form of communicative skills development
27. Popkova A. Specificity of organizing of teamwork in communication agencies
28. Reshilova O., Lukin V. Modern trends in leadership qualities.......... 207
29. Ryzhova V. How to set up the organization of the future, when you are only 17
30. Shkolovaya M., Razhanskaya D. The role of EQ in leadership and group forming
31. Slibi Rana. Health and safety in the hospitality sector
32. Torosyan А., Kokhanova M. Socio-psychological basics of leadership, as one of the criteria of success in the hospitality industry
33. Uchadze A. S., Baranova A. Y. Volunteering as an instrument for developing leadership and teamwork
34. Vasileva A. Radisson hotel group. How a strong team makes client’s dream come true
35. Velickovska I. The importance of teamwork in marketing:
a case study
36. Zannoni A. Olivetti: An Italian approach to team building................ 254
37. Акишкина Д. В., Карионова А. М., Третьякова Т. Н .
Диагностика лидерских способностей у студентов туристских специальностей
38. Бадоева К. Корпоративная социальная ответственность как фактор конкурентоспособности компании
39. Буняков В. В. Основные тенденции развития потенциала персонала в современных условиях
40. Дубинина В. С., Болотова В. О., Сафронова Н. Б. Методы диагностики административного стиля лидера
41. Иванова А. И. Стратегия развития бизнес-клуба малых инновационных предприятий
42. Котлярова А. А., Зилинский А. И., Зинов И. А., Горавская К. П. Тенденции разработки концепций туристско-гостиничных комплексов (на примере Вологодской области)
43. Ладышева Е. В. Роль личности социального предпринимателя в успешной реализации стратегии социального предприятия.... 307
44. Макагонюк Е. C., Жуковец М. В. Услуги средств размещения: классификация и ее влияние на качество услуг.. 313
45. Пронкина А. А., Жуковец М. В. Дополнительные услуги гостиниц и их влияние на привлекательность средств размещений
46. Смирных П. Д. Влияние туристской деятельности на формирование командного взаимодействия среди студентов
47. Хрипина К. О., Пашоликов М. С. Как построить команду мечты для управления событиями?
В 2018 году Институт отраслевого менеджмента Российской академии народного хозяйства и государственной службы провел XI Международную научно-практическую студенческую конференцию .
Тема конференции – «Лидер и команда: путь к успеху» – заинтересовала рекордное количество участников, из более 100 были отобраны 40 работ, которые вошли в данный сборник .
География студенческой конференции широка: это и иностранные, и российские участники. В 2018 году конференция приняла гостей из Италии, Испании, Нидерландов, Болгарии, Бельгии, Эстонии, Сербии,
Румынии, Польши, Армении, Сирии, а также российских городов:
Белгорода, Челябинска, Сыктывкара, Санкт-Петербурга, Сочи, Волгограда .
Ключевыми партнерами студенческой конференции стали компании Coleman Services UK in Russia и AECOM Russia. Ольга Банцекина, глава представительства Coleman Services UK в России, заместитель председателя Ассоциации Европейского Бизнеса, исходя из своего опыта рассказала студентам, что означает быть лидером и как развивать лидерские качества. Раймонд Абу Фадел, региональный директор представил студентам свое видение AECOM Russia, командообразования и лидерства на примере компании сферы недвижимости .
В программе конференции, помимо пленарного заседания с участием студентов и вышеупомянутых спикеров, была проведена интерактивная деловая игра от всемирно известной консалтинговой компании E&Y. Тема игры – «Эмоциональный интеллект». От Виктории Карякиной, старшего тренера Академии Бизнеса EY, MBTI практика, участники узнали, что означает EQ, а также выделили ключевые аспекты лидера-менеджера, которые помогают ему привести к успеху организацию, стать успешным и влиятельным среди команды .
Также конференция состояла из мастер-классов и международного междисциплинарного конкурса магистерских проектов и секций по направлениям:
1. Лидерство и командная работа в индустрии коммуникаций и маркетинге .
2. Сервис. Тенденции развития, технологии, стандарты, квалификационные требования .
3. Лидерство и управление командой в индустрии гостеприимства .
4. Лидерство и эффективная работа проектных команд в бережливом производстве .
К публикации в сборнике было представлено 48 докладов участников из 7 зарубежных и 10 отечественных вузов, большинство докладов представлено на английском языке. Тематика работ, посвященных актуальным проблемам лидерства и формирования лидерских качеств у молодых специалистов, очень разнообразна и отражает различные аспекты понятия «лидер». Например, участники конференции, обучающиеся по профилю «Менеджмент спорта»
представили в своих докладах анализ опыта спортивных клубов по развитию лидерских качеств в спорте. Участники конференции на пленарном и секционных заседаниях уделили большое внимание изучению вопросов управления взаимодействием между лидером и командой, рассмотрев как теории лидерства, так и практику применения управленческих технологий. Значительный интерес вызвала работа по формированию аналитического аппарата диагностики лидерских качеств с использованием программного комплекса PROMETHEEGAIA, представленная участниками конференции из Белградского университета .
Большое внимание авторы научных докладов уделили теме влияния лидера на результаты командной работы в стартапе. В ряде исследований рассматривается опыт реализации командных проектов и изучаются современные формы организации коммуникаций между командой и лидером. Часть докладчиков в качестве фокуса исследований выбрали социально-психологические аспекты лидерства .
Рассматривались также гендерные аспекты поведения лидера .
Отраслевые особенности командной работы подробно изучены в статьях, посвященных сфере гостеприимства и ивент-менеджмента на примере курортного кластера г. Сочи. Показано, что слаженность и высокая мотивация членов команды определяют конечный результат деятельности .
Для большинства авторов статей, включенных в сборник, эта публикация – первый шаг в науку. Оргкомитет конференции и составители сборника желают всем авторам новых научных результатов .
Доцент, к.э.н. О. П. Гаврилина Доцент, к.т.н. Н. Б. Сафронова
PSYCHOLOGY OF TEAMWORK AND LEADERSHIP
IN EXHIBITION EVENTS
Abstract. Global economic competition forces organizations to become more flexible changes. Therefore, some organizations have changed their structure and turned to experience of working teams, which are responsible for the collective responsibility for organizational work. Nowadays, creation of teams is completely meaningless if the company does not have the leader who is ready to create such environment where the team can work effectively .
Therefore, we should develop effective management system. In the present work I research principles of my team using some instruments to show a project work in exhibition company .
Keywords: teamwork, leadership, project, development, management, competition .
Today we have a big amount of opportunities in different spheres of businesses and of course each industry has their own plans, strategies and techniques. Moreover, everybody know that a final result depends on effective personal and organizational leadership by centering their actions and decisions .
Talking about exhibition industry managers should use the right paradigm in their organization, evaluate their environment objectively and know how to manage the time, negotiate, control team's functions, plan future activities and of course always smile, be polite with exhibition's participants and have a business look .
Teamwork and leadership during an exhibition illustrated by the company “International Congresses and Exhibition” approach (The Industry of Tourism, Sport and Outdoor) .
The main idea of organizing one of the largest national forums in Russian Federation is to unite and integrate sports and active tourism congress and exhibition projects in a single event. The project realization is offered in a multiformat which combines a large-scale business component, accompanying thematic exhibition expositions and also unique demonstration programs. The forum of the sports industry, domestic and inbound tourism and outdoor activities is aimed at increasing the effectiveness of federal bodies of executive and legislative authority, enterprises and organizations operating in the field of stimulating the national sports, tourism and outdoor industries development for Russian citizens and foreign tourists, and also the development of domestic and inbound tourism .
The forum will being 4 days at September (25–29) and the place is Military-Patriotic Recreation Park of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation “Patriot” .
Target audience – professional visitors, sponsors who will be ready to pay for improving Russian tourism and ordinary visitors .
Project manager – George Zacharov is a collaborator of “International congresses and exhibitions” Ltd. He usually gives some functions and tasks for 2-3 days because we have working meetings 2 times a week .
My project team includes 4 students who are working in this company now .
Principles of the creation of the team are a casual choice. Each of student started to work at September of 2017 and we had different tasks from director who decided give us a common aim to this project after 1-month separate work .
KPI1 (Key Performance Indicators) shows how well teams are
achieving specific goals and KPIs within project management include:
• project schedule: team always has meetings about 2 times per week and we have a plan to visit 5 exhibitions that have a relation to our project;
• current development backlog: today we have a readiness of participant's contacts, conception, booklets, thematic sectors, the information to future website;
• labor costs spent per month: each of team's participant has a salary 17 400 RUB per month .
Analysis of teamwork Team members have different characters and I asked each of them “What roles of Belbin are the same to each member?”. And they said that I am a Resource Investigator who uses their inquisitive nature to find ideas to bring back to the team; Irina is a Team worker who helps the team using their versatility to identify the work required; Anna is a Plant who tends to be highly creative and good at solving problems; Kristina is a Completer Finisher who is a most effectively used at the end tasks to polish and scrutinize the work for errors .
Our team had only one problem that each participant had their own approach and sometimes we could not understand each other totally when we were doing thematic sectors because we heard information by own way in the meeting after that we tried to hear each other and to realized it into general result .
Today when we get a big task, we try to distribute this on the part to each other and our project manager appoints a deadline to be ready this task .
ConclusionIn this article I would like to say that any teamwork success depends on common goals and desire to achieve it. Sometimes miscommunication can result in controversial understanding of project aims and priorities. Therefore, you should know how to assign tasks, set responsibilities and manage time .
Finally, ask yourself how much time and how many resources you would need to meet the project's demands. And team members appreciate that you value their opinions and suggestions .
1. Covey S. R. Principle-centered Leadership: Translation from English. M.: Alpina Business Books, 2008. 400 p .
2. http://www.businessstudio.ru/articles/article/sistema_kpi_key_perfo rmance_indicator_razrabotka_i
4. http://www.belbin.com/about/belbin-team-roles http://форумсто.рф 5 .
ПСИХОЛОГИЯ КОМАНДНОЙ РАБОТЫ
И ЛИДЕРСТВО В ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ ВЫСТАВОЧНОЙ
Аннотация. Глобальная экономическая конкуренция вынуждает организации к более глобальным изменениям. Некоторые организации уже изменили свои структуры и обратились к опыту рабочих команд, которые отвечают за коллективную ответственность в организации командной работы. На сегодняшний день создание команд совершенно бессмысленно, если у компании нет лидера, готового создавать такую среду, в которой команда может работать эффективно. Поэтому мы должны развивать эффективную систему управления. В настоящей работе я исследовала психологические аспекты команды, используя различные методы для повышения эффективности работы выставочных компаний .
Ключевые слова: командная работа, лидерство, проект, развитие, менеджмент, конкуренция .
1. Кови С. Лидерство, основанное на принципах: Пер. с англ. М.:
Альпина Бизнес Букс, 2008. 400 с .
2. http://www.businessstudio.ru/articles/article/sistema_kpi_key_performan ce_indicator_razrabotka_i
5. http://форумсто.рф UDC 502/504.332.3
LEADERSHIP AND EFFECTIVE TEAM WORK
IN THRIFTY HOSPITALITY (ON EXAMPLE OF SOCHI)
Abstract. It is shown that a root of ecology modern problems is the rapid growth of the economy, aimed at stimulating consumption by the population of developed countries. Global significance of the Russian Federation, as a global environmental donor, is shown, the main directions of system for managing the ecological well-being of the country are listed. The example of Sochi proposed a draft of thrifty hospitality – improving the environmental sustainability of tourist sight (arboretum “Yuzhnyye Kultury”) – a specially protected natural area (PA) .
Keywords: specially protected natural areas, tourism, informative routes, principles, systems, management methods .
Rationale of relevance of the draft Modern civilization is characterized as a consumer type of behaviour of population of developed countries and the rapid development of services, which is largely determined by dictates of processes of globalization of socioeconomic space. Meanwhile, wasteful consumption of goods and services in many regions of the world has already led to depletion of resources, reduction of environmental friendly recreation areas and global crisis of biological diversity. The Russian Federation hosted “climatically neutral” 2014 Winter Olympic Games, using innovative technologies that were presented at the World Conference of Sport and Environment called “Change the world today for better tomorrow”. Technologies presented at the conference received high expert assessments from the International Olympic Committee in cooperation with the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) in 2013 in Sochi. It should be especially noted that the Russian Federation is an “environmental donor” of global importance, since the country's biological potential is 6.6 hectares per capita against the world’s average of 1.78 hectares per capita, and with forest resources leadership, Russia has a high priority: 4.22 hectares against 0.76 ha of the world’s average. On these bases, it is obvious that safety of Russia’s unique natural capital is referred to national (ecological) security issues, where PAs occupy a special place. The very system of managing the ecological well-being of the
country has a complex character and includes a number of directions:
• definition of goals for achieving the optimal result (depending on initial status of environment);
• highlighting the priorities of rational development (according to a developed long-term strategy) and formulation of the problem;
• development of principles (territoriality, complexity, timeliness, adequacy, sufficiency), criteria and indicators of ecological well-being;
• development and correction of political, economic, legal, administrative, scientific, technical, health, environmental, information, communication and educational activities aimed at the formation of environmentally friendly and favourable human environment in subjects of the Russian Federation .
To assess the ecological status of the resort and tourist territory, it is necessary to conduct ecological and architectural monitoring of environmentally-oriented objects aimed at identifying the features of the ecological infrastructure, and determining geography of their distribution .
Thus, the high level of development of the ecological infrastructure of the resort and tourist territory creates backgrounds for creation and effective operation of environmental-friendly facilities, which generally contributes to a rational use of natural resources, and, as a result, the ecological balance environment preservation .
The idea and concept of the draft Principles of sustainable development of tourism and hospitality, on the one hand, are the foundation of ecological well-being for present and future generations. On the other hand, they have to envisage the development and implementation of measures to restore the ecological capital of territories, the volume and content of which depends on anthropogenic destruction of the environment. In the development and implementation mechanism of such measures, the main thing is effective environmental management, which allows finding optimal solutions in the field of saving and restoring biological diversity. At the same time, people’s reasonable attitude to PAs is also an important factor. It, in a way, measures maturity and responsibility of a man for his future. Mission of the draft: development of hospitality industry, compatible with environmental, social and cultural requirements .
Purpose: development of tourist activity in Sochi based on following the fundamental principles of thrifty relation to nature. Tasks: adapting environmental protective technologies, formation of citizens and tourists’ ecological culture .
Strategy, description Nowadays, it becomes more and more obvious that environmental measures are not equivalent to prohibitions, and effectiveness of nature preservation is increased with the interested participation of local population both in tourism activity itself (including in adjacent kinds of employment, providing a multiplier effect) and in the preservation of a unique heritage – natural capital – for future generations. The value of this heritage in process of time only increases. For instance, in Barcelona the ingenious parking lots’ arrangements for cars are applied (pic. 1) .
Picture 1 – Eco-parking, Barcelona The parking lot uses a perforated cover. It does not cover ground surface completely and can withstand a light-car-like weight, so it allows
solving several problems simultaneously:
Firstly, it allows free moisture absorption into the ground during heavy rains, reducing the load on drainage in a subtropical climate .
Secondly, it prevents a risk of forming, so called, “thermal islands” due to more active absorption of solar radiation by the greened soil (in comparison with a concrete, asphalt or tile coating that have a higher heating temperature) .
Finally, it forms an aesthetically comfortable environment-oriented space for residents and visitors of the city due to the possibility of greening a parking area .
The relevance of such a technology for Sochi is determined by typical types of parking, for example, near the arboretum “Yuzhnyye Kultury” (pic. 2), which are not environmentally oriented and do not form aesthetic value of the city. To sum up, the essence of the draft is to organize an “environmental friendly concept” for the development of car parks in the city .
Picture 2 – A car parking in Sochi Draft management system When managing a project, it is necessary to take into account internal and external factors that can have a significant (and sometimes decisive) impact on its implementation. External factors include the development and provision for approval by the Government of the Russian Federation of the “Development Strategy. Krasnodar Region 2030». In its development took part such organisations as: the Consortium “Leontief Centre” – AV groups, the executive and legislative authorities of Krasnodar Region with participation of business, State enterprises, universities, incl. Sochi State University. “The Strategy...” is designed to make Sochi a “Smart city”, based on efficient economy and nature-friendly technologies .
Internal factors. In 2017 Sochi State University organized and conducted the ecologically-scientific educational forum “Secret Boundaries and Prospects for the Development of PAs: Caucasian State Reserve”, covering more than 27 thousand citizens and guests of Sochi. The most important results of the forum include the growth of the ecological and cultural self-awareness among local population and the strengthening of incentive to develop an environmentally friendly hospitable sphere for tourists. The internal motive for development and implementation of the project is also SSU students-volunteers’ active ecological position .
The project team: a student (1) who studied and performed an analysis of modern environmental problems in Sochi, and proposed to implement a modern technology project of thrifty hospitality on arranging eco-parks in Sochi (the best modern solution). Masters consultants (2) who participated as volunteers in hosting of the 2014 Olympic Games in Sochi and visited Barcelona to compare the ecological legacy of the 1992 Olympic Games;
professor – the head of student researches. The principles of team formation:
leadership qualities, consciously environmentally oriented activities (for example, active participation in environmental actions), the ability to work in a team .
Theoretical bases for the research Unfortunately, one of the negative features of modern society is imitation of ecological orientation in territorial development. In this case, the term “camouflage ecology” was qualified. For instance, in the sphere of hospitality and tourism, there are such facts as “green politics” inside a hotel, practice of discharging sewage into the soil, agro tourism with the use of nonecological technologies of crop production, etc. Such a “hard”, exhausting type of conducting tourist activity was not a long time ago also a characteristic of Sochi: the industrial transformation of landscapes in favour of mass consumer of tourist services, the extremely poor improvement of informative routes, when 90% of Sochi is actually a PA, etc .
Methodology and analysis of the research A survey of guests and residents of Sochi has shown that 54% of respondents in pre-Olympic period were not satisfied with the state of environment in the city and coverage of this problem in media. Among the reasons of dissatisfaction were named traffic jams on the roads during a high holiday season, felling green spaces due to constructional works and the transformation of the city into a “business center”. In general, this had an impact on the overall assessment of guests’ satisfaction with recreation .
Concerning the arboretum “Yuzhnyye Kultury”, as well as a number of other recreational facilities, the main city guests and residents’ claims, judging by the reviews on the Internet, are uncomfortable and located at a considerable distance from a facility parking lots. At the same time, it is important to note that, due to the 2014 Winter Olympic Games, significant changes have taken place in Sochi environmental management system, primarily related to the formation of population’s environmentally responsible behaviour, which has passed a certain line of awareness of ownership to global environmental problems. Obviously, the population of the city is ready to support projects aimed at increasing the ecological attractiveness of tourism and hospitality .
1. The reasons for dissatisfaction with guests’ recreation in Sochi have been revealed .
2. One of the important outcomes of the Olympic Games in 2014, as well as the results of the University's research in the sphere of hospitality, ecology, organization and involvement of broad masses of population and guests of Sochi in the events of environmental science and education forum, was the formation of prerequisites for development of the city as a hospitable tourist centre and a resort region .
3. As a result of the development and financing development strategy of the Krasnodar Region and Sochi for the period until 2030, resource limitations on the use of environmental technologies in lean hospitality management system will be removed .
4. Generally, the implementation of the project will lead to an increasing in competitive advantage of Sochi due to effective environmental protection activities – removal of inconvenient, environmentally “negative” parking lots, formation a culture of thrifty hospitality. This will allow not only to preserve an ecological potential of the resort and tourist territory, but also to give it a new look for further development of a comfortable hospitable environment .
1. Дендрологический парк «Южные Культуры». URL:
2. Ошовская Н. В. Рациональное природопользование курортнотуристической территории в социальном аспекте // Международный научноисследовательский журнал. 2016. № 5 (47). Ч. 1. С. 138–139 .
Abstract. With the increased globalization and interconnectivity, no economy of the world is able to stay immune to recessions. Similarly, recessions and crises are part of normal business cycle and hospitality industry is not an exception to it. Therefore, development of a crisis management system in the field of hospitality management has become very relevant. Several models have been developed to deal with the necessity of implementing successful crisis management strategies in hotel industry. After taking into consideration the specific characteristics of small hotels, a conceptual model is proposed in this paper. The model has been conceptualized in order to provide a highly flexible and universal tool, that can be adopted by various hotels in different countries and that can address different types of crisis, in different stages by using different approaches .
This four stage model has been developed especially regarding the preparation stage and the crisis warnings’ detection: Indeed, preparation is the first step to a successfully crisis management strategy. A further ability of this model is linked to the possibility of working with potential crisis and to turn them into business opportunities .
Keywords: crisis management, hotel companies, crisis warnings, preparation, strategy .
Introduction The development of crisis management in the field of hospitality has become very relevant during the last years: indeed, there is an increasing number of threats affecting the tourism and hospitality industry. Thus, several models have been developed to deal with the necessity of implementing successful crisis management strategies. Hotel companies are high vulnerable to crisis, even more vulnerable than any other tourism infrastructure .
As common hotels, small hotel companies facing a crisis suffer from reducing customers. Undeniably, a crisis always decreases the number of tourists: people, for instance, are less willing to travel when facing an economic crisis since, in such case, the first spends that they reduce are travelling spends. Moreover, such impact is further amplified by the inner characteristics of the small hotel companies. Due to their dimensions, small hotel companies have less resources for crisis’s resistance and less specialized management, with the proper knowledge that a crisis management strategy. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to conceptualize a model, specifically related to the small hotel business and aiming at creating procedure precisely matched with their structural problems .
To implement an effective crisis management strategy in a small hotel company, the most important element to be considered is the level of efficiency presented by the crisis management procedures, with minimum resource spent in conditions of the deficit of time and disability of the environment. Due to the way small hotel companies are organized, quickly eliminating crisis warnings is difficult, but keeping stability and the status quo of the company requires the implementation of a crisis management model .
With the aim of optimizing the procedures of crisis management in small hotel companies, a model of crisis management in small hotel companies was developed. the model consists of 4 stages; all stages are focused on achieving results, the achievement of each specific result being fundamental for the successful implementation of the entire model .
The four stages of the model are to be considered independent and consequential. On the one hand, each stage can be completed, reviewed and modified before, or even without, moving to the next stage, so that the strategy can be reformulated several times without requiring to go through the entire process. To, move to the next stage requires that previous one has been completed .
The advantage of this model is that it allows small hotels to take into account the different variations of situations occurring in the small business sphere of hotel services during its stabilization and recovery .
The first stage of the model “evaluating crisis-warnings”, allows small hotels to diagnose the presence of crisis-warnings and to proceed in two different ways: either by quickly eliminating them, where possible or by reorganizing the ordinary hotel activities including extraordinary procedures aiming at eradicating the early crisis-warnings. A third possible way is to analyze the positive properties of these crisis-warnings, to establish new patterns of behavior inside the hotel that can result in the creation of an advantage and in a new development path for the company .
The first stage is articulated in four steps. The first step consists in assessing the impact of the external environment and the internal environment on the ordinary activities with the main purpose of evaluating the performance of the hotel companies to define their status and their sensitiveness to eventual shocks. The assessment of the impact of the internal and the external environment can be conducted through a variety of assessment methods as follow: Quantitative assessment, Functional assessment, Analytical assessment, Expert assessment, Expert-analytical assessment .
As a result of the performance’s assessment of the small hotel company, it will be possible to identify the presence of potential crisis-warnings affecting the activities of the company at various levels .
During the evaluation of the impact of the crisis phenomena on the activities of small hotel companies, all symptoms of crisis phenomena and their prerequisites, are eventually organized into classes of problems. The organization into classes is necessary when either there is a set of crises, already affecting the work of the small hotel companies, or there is one huge crisis, which affects different sides of the company. Formation of the crisis, phenomena into the classes is not accidental. If it subsequently and positive, the problems do not accidentally block something that specifically given point work small hotel companies to destabilize the proper working of small business at this point is exactly the problem that justifies the logic block definitions as “classes” of problems. Organization of classes of problems is also possible in case of accumulation of small hotel services as a result of lack of care management for timely diagnosis of your company for the anticrisis prevention. The organization of the crisis phenomena in the classes of problems should be assessed for each symptom, crisis phenomena or their
• the complexity of the solution: the complexity of decisive problems or resolve for a crisis phenomenon helps prioritize the solution of this problem;
• the speed of decisions: considering that almost always for a small hotel company there is the probability to face times of crisis, is, therefore, necessary to allocate the emerging crisis warning into different classes of problems according to the priority with which they should be handled;
• the Importance of elimination: in this case, it must be clearly understood that the sight of management of small hotel companies should address in the first place-what aspects of their businesses are most important to maintaining small enterprises of hotel services for a longer period. When applied to small hotel companies, more often than not, it is service and financial issues;
• the level of influence: an indicator or prediction of the crisis influence on the activities of the small hotel companies. Organization into the classes of problems from the first to the last will prioritize the primary work on these issues;
• the speed of growth: as a rule, during the process of facing a crisis of a company the primary responsibility during the crisis of crisis management is to address the shortage of work time. For small hotel companies, when crisis impact phenomena occur, it is also very important during the organization of classes for priority issues to put priority on addressing these situations given the quickly growing crisis conditions, phenomena or situations;
• the possibility of capitalization of circumstances: rare crises caused by internal factors, can carry positive properties for small hotel companies, but unfortunately, there is a recognizable infrequent potential of the positive effect of any crisis phenomena. However, this positive effect must be taken into account by the management of small hotel companies. Some potential positive effects can be seen, and in the implementation of crisis management should crises develop, taking into account the maximum impact positive impact in favor of small hotel companies .
Practically the organization of problems into classes, taking into account the factors: the speed of decisions, the complexity of the problem, the priority of the decision, the degree and speed of impact and the capitalization of circumstances, is defined through meetings between the crisis managers, the owners of small hotel companies, and the chiefs of departments. Moreover, during this meeting, those responsible for the elaboration of the crisis management strategy are appointed, taking into account the qualification and their level of specialization and ability to work with data .
The results of the first stage of work with the symptoms of crisis allow moving into a second phase: Selection of procedures of crisis management. It is important to note that the activity of control must be implemented not only during the periods of crisis, in order to address the one that already exist and attempting to eradicate it or reversing it in a positive way, but also in periods of unstable conditions emerging in both in the external environment and the internal environment of the small hotel companies. The first step of this second stage consists in identifying the procedures to eliminate the crisis, dividing between the situational ones, the short-term ones and the long-term ones .
A situational procedure applies in two cases: first, when the problem or the crisis occurred is short-lived and is not particularly critical, thus not requiring the engagement of a large number of resources and means to address it. Seconds, the small hotel company has implemented a successful planning strategy guaranteeing a safe environment and the ability to manage the crisis so as not to imply the necessity of dealing with it through a longterm planning. Thus, situational procedures can be useful both if the influence exerted by the crisis over the small hotel company is not too relevant and if there is a lack of time for implementing a more comprehensive anti-crisis management strategy. As a result, the situational procedures are assessed regarding the consistency and the completeness of their capability for a solution to the crisis. The second step consists of the prognosis of the impact of the potential crisis, both on the general activities of the small hotel company and on those carried out by each department .
Finally, a decision about the strategy for addressing the crisis is taken, and recommendations are given .
In case, the crisis presents a higher degree of relevance and proper time and resources are available, short-term and long-term strategies can be implemented to deal with the crisis. The choice of implementation between a short-term strategy and a long-term strategy must be made by taking into consideration the degree of the relevance the threat imposes and the speed of action available. First of all, the group decision, after consultations, formulates the crisis prevention procedure according to its level of consistency and efficiency in dealing with the crisis. Of course, it also makes considerations about the possible alternative procedures, a case under any circumstances, the main decision results not to be as effective as expected. In this case, the most efficient alternative procedure will be the one that will allow eliminating the crisis in the shortest period, by involving the least amount of resources. Once the decision about the operative procedure is taken, and the alternative ones are defined, it is fundamental to test how many the activities, both of the company as a whole and of each department, fit with the selected strategy .
During the formulation of the procedure and its evaluation, it is also necessary to make considerations about the resources required for the implementation. In facing the crisis, using the resources already available is the most reasonable way to proceed. For instance, if you formulate a specific crisis management procedure requiring financial resources, then you should consider only those funds that are already in place, and try not to rely on additional loans, credits and financial income that the small hotel company will receive in the future (i.e. profit). In case the constraints over the resources do not enable the small hotel company to execute the procedure that has been formulated, it is necessary to proceed through an alternative procedure .
The adoption of the procedure and the formulation of its implementation to resolve the crisis, by eliminating the warnings or optimizing the activities, is the final step of the second stage .
The third stage is the operational stage through which the procedure chosen is fully implemented. It should be noted that according to the crisis life cycle the crisis warnings evolve first, into crisis symptoms, second into crisis phenomena and finally crisis situation. Each stage of this life cycle is characterized by different critical elements and produces a different impact on the small hotel company’s ordinary activities. Moreover, given how rapidly crises can evolve, in implementing a crisis management procedure it is fundamental to consider the variable of the time-deficit .
Every step of the operational stage must be implemented under the total control of the responsible manager. Furthermore, the operational stage is the stage through which the monitor and the evaluation of the alternative procedures in term of effectiveness must be conducted. This is because it is important to be able to shift quickly towards an alternative effective solution in case problems regarding the implementation of the main procedure arise .
The operational stage is also the stage through which it becomes clear if the crisis emerging can be promptly addressed and absolutely eliminated .
Moreover, it is possible to adjust and adapt the procedure according to the changing circumstances. It is fundamental to remember that if the previous stages have not been fully completed, and any previous emerging problem has not been adequately faced, this third stage can result to be the most complex and time-consuming one of the entire process. Indeed, it is easier to address the emerging problems and crisis’s implications during the previous stages than during this one. The extent of the monitoring step depends on the amount of time necessary to fully implement the procedure and the resources required: the longer the time and the larger the quantity of resources will be, the leading to a longer period of monitoring .
At the final stage, anti-crisis procedures must be tested. In this regard, for each department, the responsible manager must check and keep the report about the effectiveness of the anti-crisis package of measures implemented in that specific department. The assessment of the activities of each department must be conducted in a specific period .
The fourth stage “prognosis of the situation” consists in monitoring the already implemented crisis management procedures and in forecasting the prospects of their impact on the future development of the small hotel company. The first step is to monitor the activities during the crisis period .
Draw conclusions based on the outcome of the integration of the crisis management procedures implemented in each department, describing the main results achieved. First, an assessment of the general activities implemented must be conducted. Second, the activities of each specific department must me mapped separately and evaluated regarding their effectiveness in addressing the event. The second step is the assessment of the prospects for the development of the small hotel company, which includes the formulation of strategies for development in the short, medium and longterm. The assessment is conducted regarding the major features and directions of the possible development path, by a comprehensive balance of internal and external development of the parties, taking into account the risks and development prospects. Practically, the final stage of the implementation of the procedure addressing the crisis consists in the necessity of choosing one of the following final solutions for the future development of the small hotel company: liquidation, business diversification, downsizing the business, the acquisition of a competitive advantage, progressive development .
ConclusionNowadays, crisis management has become fundamental in the field of hospitality. In particular, the features of the small hotel companies require the development of specific models of crisis management. By taking into consideration these characteristics, the model illustrated in this paper has been conceptualized so to provide a high flexible and universal tool, that can be adopted by different countries and that can address different types of crisis, at different stages and using different approaches. Indeed, the four stages evaluating crisis warnings, selection of procedures of early warning crisis management, operational step and prognosis of the situation, combine different assessment methodologies aiming at defining proper procedures for dealing with a different stage of a crisis lifecycle. Moreover, since the lack of expertise and a proper managerial knowledge is the main issue affecting the real ability to face a crisis for the small hotel companies, the main aim of the model is to develop successful managerial practices especially regarding the preparation stage and the crisis warnings’ detection. Undoubtedly working at the pre-crisis stage is easier than working at the post-crisis stage, since it contributes avoiding crises, if possible, or at the list to reduce their impact. A further ability of this model is linked to the option of working with potential crisis and to turn them into business opportunities: the pre-crisis’s assessments provide the possibility to identify the presence of issues that could potentially evolve into a crisis stage and to implement an ad hoc strategy that can also result in increasing efficiency a competitive advantage for the small hotel companies .
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Abstract. As the title implies the article describes how to become a leader in the industry using social media. Much attention is given to positive and negative effects social media has on society and, in this case on team members. The article is of interest to scientific community since social media phenomenon became relevant nowadays .
Keywords: social media, teamwork, business .
Among the many people involved in the workflow and aimed at solving a common problem, there is one who is the link. It is a team leader. About leadership, many books and articles have been written; the topic of leadership is developed by psychologists, sociologists, and specialists in the field of the management .
In Ozhegov's explanatory dictionary it is said that the leader is the head, the head of the political party of the socio-political organization or in general of any group of people; a person who enjoys authority and influence in any team  .
The theory of leadership characteristics or the theory of the “great man” is based on the assertion that define a person as a leader and retain this status under any conditions solely his personal qualities – a natural gift, heredity .
In the social psychologist’s ABC, leadership is defined as the relationship of domination and subordination, influence and following in the system of interpersonal relationships in a group  .
Otherwise, in the conflictologist's dictionary, leadership is a specific phenomenon that occurs when the leader and workers interact, at the junction of two problems  .
A successful leader and a company leader must have certain personal qualities. All successful people have clearly defined goals. Having a plan is the key to success in any business. Why do some people do not have time to do anything in a day, while leaders perform many tasks, manage to do everything well and on time? An important thing that unites any actions of a successful leader is a positive attitude. A good mood, a smile, goodwill and a sense of humour – all these fits both of them  .
Great leader can build very tight-knit team. It should be remembered that people are different and their culture differs too. The culture is the collective phenomenon that embody people's responses to the uncertainties and chaos that are inevitable in human experience. This includes history, tradition, expectations of behaviour and values .
There are ten key variables that define a culture: structure, time, thinking, specific environment, power, individualism, competitiveness, action, communication, and space. Teams are transitory cultures therefore other factors need to be identified rapidly .
Other factors are assessing leadership skills, identifying availability of technology and resources, the use of power, and strategically managing a changing environment. Understanding how these elements work in concert to impact upon a team’s performance is the main objective of the model. The model includes assessments of some of these areas of influence leader and team will encounter. Setting the goals of the team takes skilful discussion and clarification  .
For a certain amount of work, different teams are formed. Therefore, it is necessary to understand what kind of commands exist .
Table 1 – Classification of command types (survey overview) 
Social networks became essential part of modern communication. From the beginning of the century many types of social networks were formed, which are used in all types of teams all over the world .
Nowadays, the most popular networks in Russia are VK and Одноклассники (Odnoklassniki). According to the research results, following number of surveyed use social networks: VK – 52%, Одноклассники (Odnoklassniki) – 42%, Facebook – 13%, Instagram – 12 % and Twitter – 7%  .
Mostly, these networks are used for informal communication .
Communication inside business industry develops other way. Making a decision on which digital software to use can play a great role. This social platform can either increase or slow down the speed of communications among team members. These platforms differ on the level of access of open interactions between employees .
On the one hand, for corporate communications were developed special Intranet portals. Intranet is a static website made for use of exact organization. It allows managing operational and transactional content .
Intranet software is generated for company to deliver information to their employees (one way only). The problem of this platform it does not provide the access to social communication. Therefore, employees can only complete their work issues. However, it will not help to strengthen teamwork and team spirit .
One the other hand, there are Enterprise social networks (ESN), which are like a usual relationship network (Facebook, VK, etc.). These networks form platform for a free-flowing newsfeed. Clear interface allows every member of the company to post, comment, like and share content. These platforms, otherwise, can negatively influence on efficiency of the teamwork, because it is just an open source for chattering about anything besides the working issues .
The golden mean of organizational collaboration is social intranet software. They combine the best of both previous types of networks software .
Social intranet software is a single platform for social collaboration and managing of documents, knowledge. Majority of companies already have a corporate portal or intranet. Nowadays, Russian market is represented by large world software as well as by domestic ones. Bitrix24, DaOffice, Jive, Yammer, Pryniki, IBM Connections, Facebook Workplace and some other are the most popular corporative networks  .
Just few platforms among them are enterprise social networks. Mostly, companies began to integrate social intranet as the most effective platform .
By the way, digital media channels are often used for external corporate communications (CRM). According to the survey 97% of interweaved companies create own digital platforms for customer relationship management, mostly websites or usual social networks . Company’s current or potential customers can monitor the corporative culture through this CRM channels .
Unfortunately, according to the research of Harvard Business Review, only 12% of surveyed companies (out of 2100) are effective social users, despite two-third of them are currently using some social media channels for internal communications between co-workers  .
McConnel writes that one of the main reasons is an organization’s operating culture. A culture of trust influence positively on employees’ aspiration to express their thoughts through digital workplace  .
Some might like or dislike social media, but there is need to realize that technology and more specifically social media are here, and both of them are here to stay for a long time. Companies need to accept the fact that importance of social media is very high nowadays. Most companies just fail at
using social networks because they do not see all the benefits of it. Some are:
1. Social media allows to work from any location There is no need in eye-to-eye communication with team colleague to discuss business issues company faces. Social media can bring flexibility into working hours and freedom to work from any location. It is important for 55% of millennials, according to a study by RingCentral  .
Skype might do communication, for example, just from home. Hence, the following benefit comes out .
Picture 1 – Skype business chat example
2. Social media helps to share content faster and a lot easier To share documents without making copies of it, sending papers immediately and deliver memorandums became faster than never before. If the team lead needs to share the latest news, he or she will be able to write down them in team’s Facebook chat. It is unnecessary to talk in person with everyone .
3. Social media means equality It is important to remember that the team members are different; some might be shy, others – confident. In this case, social media gives all the members equal opportunity to speak up .
4. Social media provides friendly atmosphere between team lead and team members Informal or friendly communication increases the chance of better results. According to Globoforce, 89% of workers say work relationships matter to quality of life. Informal communication on social media leads to better understanding of your team members and team leader  .
5. Social media can form companies’ reputation Last, but not least, social media is very good at giving feedback. If a team uses Facebook comment section as a feedback zone, customers or users will be able to feel closer to this particular team .
It is obvious that social media may not be suited to every company .
Some of the disadvantages companies are afraid of are:
1) social media is immediate. Social networks need to be monitored always. It is hard to be up-to-date and not to miss important information;
2) social media reduces employees’ productivity;
3) according to a study by Nucleus Research; a company which allows its employees to use Facebook in the workplace loses 1,5% of its productivity ;
4) social media is not immune to technical problems .
Blackouts, technical issues, software update and not only listed problems can destroy whole working day .
As the popularity of social media rises, increasing numbers of companies are incorporating social media inside their organizations. The majorities of team leaders turn to social media, such as Facebook, Skype and LinkedIn, because they fundamentally altered the business landscape which makes social media powerful tools that enhance and empower teamwork .
There is a big future in using social media for teamwork, as it is people’s life nowadays .
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https://www.govloop.com/community/blog/5-benefits-social-media-teamwork Аннотация. Статья посвящена актуальной на сегодняшний день проблеме применения социальных сетей в бизнес-индустрии .
Значительное внимание уделяется положительным и отрицательным сторонам использования социальных сетей на рабочем месте в целях сближения коллектива и становления лидера. Также в работе рассматриваются практические примеры их применения .
Ключевые слова: социальные сети, коллектив, бизнес-индустрия .
ROLE OF THE LEADER IN INTERNAL PR
Abstract. It is very essential question for leaders about using or not using PR within their companies to achieve success. In this article, several objectives will be highlighted, such as opinions of business people about internal PR, the main PR functions and methods within a company, role of the leader in company, in internal PR and two different examples of famous leaders and their relation to internal PR .
Keywords: leader, company staff, internal PR .
Brief introduction Nowadays, more and more attention is paid to the internal PR of the company as an important aspect of its work. According to the dictionary of business terms, an internal PR is a creation of favorable and trusting relations between the company's management and personnel at all levels of management  .
It is proved that the loss of companies from disloyal attitude of staff on average three times higher than from the activities of competitors or hostile media. However, in modern Russian practice, only a few companies are working consciously to establish favorable communications with their staff .
“According to modern statistics, no more than 15% of Russian companies are consistently and successfully engaged in internal PR – building communications between employees, promotion of the company's values,” – Sergey Gurov, the manager of PR-Agency “Feedback” says. In his opinion, in most medium and large companies, the internal PR is reduced to holding festive parties. Susan Walker, Head of the Department of research in the field of communications in British marketing company MORI, agrees with him. “The main top managers' mistake is an unwillingness to maintain feedback with employees, inability to use the benefits from establishing contacts with them”, – she claims  .
At the same time, Victoria Chuprovskaya, the Director of “Capital PR Agency”, says: “Managers of companies resort to external PR Agency with the offer of development of PR strategy and internal communications with great reluctance. This happens only in case of serious problems (lack of motivation of staff, feeling of not belonging to team and, as a result, – decrease of efficiency in the company)”  .
Importance of internal PR for the company Inside the company, PR performs a number of vital functions for employees; they are shown in the picture 1  .
The internal PR is often compared with the heart, which ensures the life of the entire system. Indeed, it is followed by personnel policy, staff motivation, and the foundation for a stable reputation. However, the difficulty is in the fact that the internal PR is effective only when it is supported by real management decisions, and vice versa  .
Like the introduction of any management solution, effective internal communication is built “from top to bottom” from the first person down vertically .
The object of the internal PR is the staff of the company, and the solution of all issues related to it, becomes one of the tasks of the HR Department. Successful implementation of internal PR-events gives meaning to all other HR-tasks  .
Methods of internal PR
Here are the main methods of internal PR presented:
1. Internal media is the most common tool for internal PR. Specifics of the audience and the technical capabilities of the company, determine circulation of media .
Corporate culture Guide should address the aspects of behavior inside the company and outside it. When writing, it is better to avoid dogmas and approach to this process creatively .
Corporate identity is a very powerful tool of visual communication .
Knowledge of the logo, signs, etc. contributes to the unification of the team because of belonging to something specific .
As for mass events (sports, art, tourism, etc.), it is better to choose activities that as many people as possible can participate .
Bulletin Board is an open source of information that encourages discussion and, therefore, promotes communication between people in the team. Even if Bulletin Board is an electronic one, it may be also the traditional Board in the place of the largest flow of people (dining room, smoking room, entrance) .
Concerning Board of honor, the company, which is proud of its employees, deserves to be proud of employees. For many teams, especially the young one, fame was very strong motivation .
Trainings of interpersonal communication, works in groups, etc. help to maintain a positive climate in the team in a difficult situation .
According to the specifics of your team, meetings can be hold as quarterly meetings in assembly halls with reports of the work done or a weekly fiveminute meetings in which the head sets the task, divides work and sums up the previous week .
When creating your own internal PR strategy, it is important to use only those tools that are acceptable to specific organization  .
Role of the leadership in company and in internal PR The role of leadership in an organization cannot be overestimated .
Without a person leading the team behind them, organizations will not be able to work effectively, even with a full staff of highly qualified personnel inside it. Leader creates a cohesive team of followers, unites the efforts of specialists for effective work and monitors their activities .
In the process of personnel management, the role of the leader is determined by his efforts to choose qualified candidates for the team. The informal leader can tell exactly whether candidate will join the team and how quickly he will be able to adapt to corporate values  .
A great role of the leader is in creation and management of corporate culture and values of the enterprise .
This importance in the work of employees will appear when senior management and top managers will treat them as individuals, understand and respect their needs for information about what is happening in the organization, positive feedback .
Therefore, the successful development and implementation of internal PR begins with the creation of a positive image of managers as leaders for a sense of faith and pride of employees in their company  .
Internal PR for two different leaders Here are the two examples of famous men presented, each of them has already achieved success with his team, but their attitude to corporate culture is different .
First of them, Ma Yun, professionally known as Jack Ma, Chinese business magnate, co-founder and executive chairman of Alibaba Group. For March 2018, he is one of China's richest men with a net worth of US $42.4 billion, as well as one of the wealthiest people in the world  .
When Alibaba website only began to turn out to be a successful Internet project and two large companies began to invest money in it, the team of company only consisted of non-professionals who were just followed the idea, enthusiasts who never gave up .
In the office of the company, there is always an atmosphere of fun, joint participation in the common ground and openness .
A sense of humor never left Jack MA. On the day when the company stopped to be unprofitable and brought the first profit, MA gave to the employees bottles of multi-colored aerosol-serpentine and held a party in the office. In the early 2000s, when Taobao (Chinese equivalent of eBay) was found, during breaks he taught employees to stand on hand to support the efficiency  .
“I made a mistake in 2001. I explained to my employees with whom I founded the company that the career limit in the company for them is the level of managers. In order to hire top managers at the Vice President level and above, I thought I needed to find professionals outside the company .
Years later, none of these hired professionals does not work in the company any more, but those whom I doubted in, perfectly carry out roles of Vicepresidents and even above” .
He has a principle that guides him: your attitude to work and the decisions you make are more important than your abilities. You cannot make everyone think the same way, but you can make everyone believe in one common goal .
“Do not try to make your employees think in the same way, it is impossible. Do not let them work “on the person”. Instead, gather them around one common goal. It is easier to unite people around a common idea, than around a single leader, no matter how incredible he or she may be” .
He claims that the head of the company should never compare his technical skills with the skills of employees. Technical skills of employees should always be better than his. Otherwise, he hired the wrong people  .
In Jack MA’s tips to future businesspersons, we may also see his approach to internal PR .
According to MA, manager should lower the dependence of his team on him – share the skills that he has, teach them what he knows. With time, he will be able to shift a significant portion of his duties for the team, and later fully trust them to guide and to pursue other projects .
Whether it is a difficult or a favorable time – the leader should always stay calm, confident and ambitious. Being at the foot of the mountain and not seeing its top, it is easy to start panicking and turn back. However, he can look at the top with the height that he wants; achieving the goal depends on his own point of view .
When hiring an employee, manager needs to pay attention not only to qualifications. Professionalism and excellent characteristics of a specialist does not mean that they both will get along fine. For example, after a while of taking a job to a fine qualified member, you will realize that you simply do not trust him and therefore cannot build an effective labor relationship. In addition, a thick and solid resume will not tell you whether its owner is ready to continue professional growth and develop with your company  .
The second one, Elon Reeve Musk, South African-born Canadian and American business magnate, investor, and engineer. He is the founder, CEO, and lead designer of SpaceX, co-founder, CEO, and product architect of Tesla, Inc.; and co-founder and CEO of Neuralink  .
His position about this theme is shown under .
Staff of his first startup Zip 2 often discovered that the boss had changed things without consulting with them. Years later, thinking about it, Musk admitted that he could treat his colleagues more gently: “You need to try to look at the case through the eyes of those with whom you speak” .
Even knowing that he has good team members, Mask up to the end did not trust them. For example, Zip 2 had excellent computer scientists, but Elon believed that he was able to write code better, and made changes to the product, which caused many complaints .
To work in X.com (original name PayPal) Elon Musk picked up a star team – the best engineers, financiers. Talented specialists were inspired by the new idea of banking and the promise of the Mask that together they will make a revolution in the market .
Soon conflicts in the team started to appear. Musk did not give employees the right to vote, sharply criticized all the initiatives. In the end, the Deputy Director Harris Fricker has put the ultimatum: or Mask transfers him control of the company or Fricker goes and takes people with him. The scandal ended up with mass layoffs. Musk created a new team, lost his time and money, but still created new team, which were executed only by his will .
From his point of view, at the first stages of creation of the company, as well as throughout its development, it is necessary to involve in a staff outstanding experts. The overall success of the company depends on how high-class employees are, how well established communication within the team is, how much the whole team follow a single idea .
He personally conducts the interview, controls each step and ruthlessly dismisses employees. All this Musk considers as important principles of a successful leader. Perhaps, thanks to this approach, SpaceX employees cope with the tasks in a week that take years to perform in other companies  .
ConclusionTo sum up, after familiarizing with a lot of information about other famous managers’ experience and this theme in general, I have come to conclusion: personally, if you want to be a leader in the company, you should use experience of different approaches with their strong and weak sides .
Difficulty of being a leader is to find out appropriate actions to combine in a right ratio .
The proof of the relevance of this problem is that it has begun to rise at the nationwide level. Recently, the results of the all-Russian contest of managers “Leaders of Russia” were summed up, in which were evaluated such competencies as leadership, focusing on results, strategic thinking, ability to work in a team, communication and influence, and others. This is promising and thus proves the idea of the demand for leaders with good communication skills and the ability to create a favorable environment within the team .
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Abstract. This work is based on the analysis of the theoretical material about the leadership qualities that the leader / captain of the team should have for achieving success and their application in real life. In the course of our work we have used the example of the hockey team “Pittsburgh Penguins” .
Key features of Mario Lemieux have been analyzed .
Keywords: leader, leadership, sporting character, coach, player, structure, team .
Sport has always played an important role in our life. However, while some people prefer individual kinds of sports, others choose team sports saying that they are not only more exciting but also develop team skills .
Team sports are definitely more beneficial to people than individual sports .
Firstly, they encourage the players to interact with each other which is a skill we need in our everyday life. In contrast, individual players are used to relying only on themselves, which is not always the best strategy. Secondly, playing sport becomes a much more exciting activity when people take part in it with their team members. Every year interest in these activities grows;
many people begin to do sports .
The study of the phenomenon of leadership began in the early 20th century. Famous scientists and psychologists made a huge contribution to the study of this phenomenon. The concepts of the origin of leadership began to be formed: the “theory of traits” – a significant contribution to the development of this theory was made by American scientists K. Baird and R .
Stogdill, who tried to determine the set of qualities necessary for the leader .
A leader is a member of a group who has necessary organizational skills and occupies a central position in the structure of interpersonal relations of group members, setting an example of organizing and managing the group and achieving the goals in the best possible way. According to the generally accepted definition, leadership is the process of managing a group and organizing the behavior of people who are led by leaders .
It is obvious that in the role of the leader of a sports team people usually see the most authoritative and experienced athlete. But there were teams that did not have the most authoritative and experienced members of the team in the role of their leaders. In the sport of higher achievements, the leader is almost always one of the strongest team athletes. The opportunity to participate in the team for the leader is wide enough. Here, if the leader acts in accordance with the plan and tasks of the coach, then, as a rule, maximum positive effect is achieved in organizing and coordinating the overall efforts of team members. The class of captain is a hidden force that creates the world’s greatest teams. Sometimes between the official leader (coach) and the leader there is no complete agreement, no mutual understanding is established. This can lead to a certain disorganization, to the violation of the management processes in the team. In this situation the coach does not always manage to immediately find the most optimal way to manage the team .
Let us consider this theory using the example of the leader, the owner, the former player of “Pittsburgh Penguins” Mario Lemieux. Mario Lemieux is a legend of Pittsburg and its current owner. He was the leader of the team from 1985 to 1992 .
One of the most admired figures in professional sports, Mario Lemieux has enjoyed a lengthy career filled with dramatic moments. He possessed the basic leadership qualities: imagination, talent, determination, attraction .
A member of two Stanley-Cup winning squads with “Pittsburgh Penguins”, Lemieux was sidelined after a diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease, a form of cancer, in 1993. After completing radiation therapy and missing the 1994–1995 season he returned to the Penguins the following year and scored sixty-nine goals on his way to winning the Hart Trophy as the National Hockey League's (NHL) Most Valuable Player. Citing the indifferent refereeing that plagued the NHL in the mid-1990s, Lemieux went into retirement in 1997. When the Penguins franchise encountered financial difficulties, Lemieux stepped in to negotiate a part-ownership of the team that helped it recover from bankruptcy. Even more surprising, Lemieux came out of retirement to rejoin the Penguins as an active player in 2000, an event that immediately revived the team's fortunes .
After being cured from cancer, Mario Lemieux could have just given up but he continued to play and continued to be one of the league leaders. He also showed dedication when he bought “Pittsburgh Penguins” out of bankruptcy Another key to success is an important role of coaching staff and their way of training and managing the team. In 1992 Scott Bowman became Head coach. He had always been able to manage people and due to his efforts, the team was able to show its best results .
The training process is quite essential as well. In the course of trainings experienced coaches will notice all weak and strong sides of players and finally create some new links between players according to their opportunities, powers and characters. All coaches, captains, leaders should be psychologists as well, because they can face any type of problem and knowledge in this sphere will help them and their team a lot .
The team as a system always acts in its environment. To achieve the desired goals in such conditions the team needs to manage the actions of all players in the course of the game. In a team as a closed system such management is possible only in the form of self-government, i.e. the system is self-governing. It is known that self-government in a small group is realized by leaders .
So, how did Lemieux take the lead of the hockey team? According to the theory, a leader is a member of a small group nominated to perform this role to increase interaction of its members in a particular situation, to facilitate the organization of the group and manage it to achieve its goal. The leader also acts as a psychologist with a high level of competence and status in the group .
The leadership process has a complex structure. In this process two
components are identified:
• procedure, as a sequential implementation of control actions in the course of the game process; this component is called “playing roles”;
• carriers, as subjects of leadership roles in the management of the game process – these are “potential leaders” .
Thus, the leader in the group is the bearer of certain leadership roles .
All these qualities are observed in Mario. In 1985 he became the team captain and spent one of the greatest seasons. The most important seasons were in 1991 and 1992 when the team from Pittsburgh had been taking the leading position in the NHL for two years. Everything changed with the advent of the coach Scott Bowman. He was able to find the chemistry between the players and the release of Mario Lemieux. He put Mario against weak defenders on the ice and Mario at the expense of his speed beat them and scored lots of goals .
Thus, in the course of the theoretical analysis, we have revealed that the leader has a huge role to play. In a sports team the leader can perform various functions. He can be a playing leader or a communicating leader. Another critical element is the analysis of the opponent. It is important to know what to expect from the enemy. Knowing their weaknesses can be extremely useful both for the game process and achieving desired goals .
1. Topyshev O. P. Theory and practice of leadership in the sports team // Collection of works of scientists RGAFK. 2000. P. 144–149 .
2. Crettie B. J. Psychology in modern sports: Trans. from English Khanina Yu. L. M.: Physical Culture and Sport, 1978. 224 p .
3. Official website: https://nhl.com/news/doug-lidster-analyzes-howpenguins-controlled-play/c-289469260 (reference date: September 20, 2017) .
4. Official website: http://penguins.ice.nhl.com/ (reference date: December 20, 2017) .
5. Official website: https://scienceforum.ru/2017/ (reference date:
December 20, 2017) .
6. Official website: http://peoples.ru/sport/hockey/lemieux/ (reference date:
December 20, 2017) .
ЛИДЕР В СПОРТИВНОЙ КОМАНДЕ«ПИТТСБУРГ ПИНГВИНЗ»
Аннотация. Данная работы основана на анализе теоретического материла о лидерских качествах, которые должны быть у лидера / капитана команды для достижения успеха, и на их применении в реальной жизни. В качестве примера используется хоккейная команда «Питтсбург Пингвинз». Проанализированы ключевые особенности Марио Лемье в спортивной сфере .
Ключевые слова: лидер, лидерство, спортивный характер, тренер, игрок, структура, команда .
1. Топышев О. П. Теория и практика лидерства в спортивной команде // Сборник трудов ученых РГАФК. 2000. С. 144–149 .
2. Кретти Б. Дж. Психология в современном спорте: Пер. с англ .
Ханина Ю. Л. М.: Физкультура и спорт, 1978. 224 с .
3. Официальный сайт: https://nhl.com/news/doug-lidster-analyzes-howpenguins-controlled-play/c-289469260 (дата обращения: 20.09.2017) .
4. Официальный сайт: http://penguins.ice.nhl.com (дата обращения:
20.12. 2017) .
5. Официальный сайт: https://scienceforum.ru/2017 (дата обращения:
20.12. 2017) .
6. Официальный сайт: http://peoples.ru/sport/hockey/lemieux (дата обращения: 20.12. 2017) .
LEADER SELECTION ON THE IPA PROJECT
BY IMPLEMENTING PROMETHEE-GAIA METHOD:
THE CASE STUDY OF SERBIA
Abstract. In this paper, the multi-criteria decision analysis was conducted for the purpose of ranking the various types of leaders of the candidates and finding the most suitable one for the team leader on the IPA project which was implemented by the NGO organizations. The process of prioritizing the alternatives by using the PROMETHEE-GAIA method was carried out according to the competences which were set as the important for the team leader on the IPA cross-border project between Serbia and Bulgaria .
The project was realized on the side of Serbia by the “Resource Center Bor” (Lead Partner), and on the side of Bulgaria by the foundation “Phoenix – 21 Century” (Project Partner) and Association “European Prosperity” (Project Partner). In this paper, there were defined methodological aspects, where the alternatives were ranked by the mentioned multi-criteria decision making method, according to defined criteria .
Keywords: PROMETHEE-GAIA, multi-criteria decision making, IPA cross-border project, team leader .
1. Introduction Leadership is mostly defined as an ability of inspiring and impressing followers by providing them the purposes to fight for the company or the project goals (Yldz Sebahattin et al., 2014, page 786). An effective leader should know how to motivate and direct his followers, how to solve the problems creatively, to have the ability to communicate and resolve conflicts and to have the multicultural approach in working with people (ivkovi ivan et al., 2004, page 233). Considering that, the aim of this paper is the implementation of the MCDM methodology in selecting the best candidate for the team leader within the international multicultural project, where the last mentioned feature of multiculturality has the particular importance .
Leaders are very important for the project teams. The project (team) leader should bring the project to the successful completion (Jovanovi Aca, 2005, page 129). That is why the selected candidate must be the best from all other candidates and to have the required references .
The subject of this paper is to prioritize the candidates who are recognized by the particular type of leadership according to their competencies and characteristics required in the selection for the project leader by using the PROMETHEE-GAIA method. The selection was performed of the criteria which were defined by the Resource Center Bor, the lead partner on the IPA cross-border project between Serbia and Bulgaria .
The IPA project between Serbia and Bulgaria “Preserve for us, Youth teaches adults” has had the topic of preserving ecologically sound and clean environment, through the education of older people .
2. Methodology In the process of making the list of alternatives in order to find the team leader on the IPA cross-border project “Preserve for us, Youth teaches adults”, the author has used the internal competition announced by the Resource Center Bor, which has involved the potential candidates exclusively from the partner organizations on the project (Serbian “Resource Center Bor” and Bulgarian “European Prosperity” and “Phoenix – 21 Century”). On the foundation of a list of seven applicants for the position of the team leader, through the interviews and CVs, their leadership skills were analyzed and candidates were clasified according to the type of leader they belong to. So, these types of leaders are the key alternatives according to which the selection of candidates was carried out. Also, the list of criteria was defined on the basis of characteristics that each leader must have and specifically required characteristics that were defined as significant for this international project .
Then, the prioritization of these alternatives, obtained through the applications of candidates from partner organizations according to the type of leader to which the candidates belong to, was carried out by implementing the PROMETHEE-GAIA method (Bogdanovi Duan et al., 2017, page 37) .
The PROMETHEE-GAIA method is a high-order method by which two or more alternatives can be compared at the same time for each criterion in order to identify the preference among the alternatives. It is based on positive (out -) and negative (in -) preference flows for each alternative in the valued outranking relation to rank the alternatives according to the selected preferences (weights). Positive flow expresses how much the specific alternative is dominating other alternatives, and negative flow expresses how much that alternative is dominated by the others (Vego Goran et al., 2008, page 2195) .
The reason of using the PROMETHEE-GAIA method (PROMETHEE II – GAIA method, to be more precise) in this paper is in the advantage of structuring the problem, in the amount of data that can be processed, in the possibility of quantifying the qualitative variables and in a good software support and presentation of the results by the GAIA modeling (ivkovi ivan & Nikoli ore, 2016, page 94) .
The procedure of implementation the PROMETHEE-GAIA method was carried out through the following steps (Bogdanovi Duan et al., 2017,
1) creating a matrix / table of decision-making;
2) allocating the preference functions P(a, b) for each criterion;
3) calculating the Index of preferences IP(a, b) which represents the
intensity of preference A in relation to B:
n n (1) IP(a, b) = w P (a, b); ( w = 1) j j j j =1 j =1
In the process of ranking alternatives, the Visual PROMETHEE software program was used for the analysis, and based on it, appropriate relevant results were obtained .
3. Results The basic alternatives between which will be determined the priority ranking list of the best, are defined as follows: A1 – Charismatic leader (CAN1 – Resouce Center Bor); A2 – Visionary leader (CAN2 – Resource Center Bor); A3 – Bureaucratic leader (CAN3 – Foundation “Phoenix – 21 Century”); A4 – Project oriented leader (CAN4 – European Prosperity);
A5 – Democratic leader (CAN5 – European Prosperity); A6 – Functional leader (CAN6 – Foundation “Phoenix – 21 Century”); A7 – Authoritative leader (CAN7 – Resource Center Bor). The criteria by which will be carried out the comparisons, are defined as follows: C1 – Level of education; C2 – Level of English language proficiency; C3 – Number of realized EU projects at the position of the project leader; C4 – Knowledge of Project Management;
C5 – Number of years working in the youth sector; C6 – Knowledge in the field of ecological management; C7 – The level of interpersonal and communication skills .
A visionary leader is effective in manifesting his or her vision because he or she creates specific goals, initiates actions and engages others with the implementation of the project approach. A charismatic leader is a leader whose influence and ability to lead are the results of his personality. He is distinguished by a strong personality characterized by the charisma that influences the other people. A project-oriented leadership explains the key leadership models of managerial, intellectual and emotional leadership and shows how they can be applied within projects to lead processes, functions and people, and ensure an ethical and inclusive approach within projects and programs (Mller Ralpf & Turner Rodney, 2010, page 4). A democratic leader is a leader who shares his or her own responsibility in making decisions with other team members and respects their opinions .
A bureaucratic leader has the power based on his or her position in the team or organization and focuses all the attention on bureaucratic problems .
A functional leader provides the leadership position through the his / her own work and he / she is forced to adapt to the needs of the situation in which he / she operates (ivkovi ivan et al., 2004, page 237). The authoritative leader is a leader which has total decision-making power and absolute control over his subordinates .
Based on previously defined alternatives and criteria, the decisionmaking table is determined with the values that will be used for the further multi-criteria decision analysis (Table 1). The relevant information in terms of the type of preferential function, the threshold values q and p and the weights, are defined for each criterion taking into account the characteristics of alternatives. In this case, the Level and Linear types of the preferential function (types IV and V) was selected for PROMETHEE/GAIA model with the threshold of indifference q = 0,5 and the threshold of preference p = 1,5 for the 5-point scales of qualitative criteria (Tavana Madjid, 2013, pages 718–721) .
Picture 1 – Level and Linear functions of preference (types IV and V) (Brans Jean-Pierre & Vincke Philippe, 1985, pages 650–652) The weights of criteria were determined by using the AHP methodology, while the three-point and five-point scales were used for quantifying the qualitative criteria as it is shown in the Table 1. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is an intuitive method for formulating and analyzing decisions, based on hierarchical problem structuring and making a pairwise comparison, based on the Saaty’s 1–9 comparison scale (Mimovi Predrag & Krsti Ana, 2016, page 76). In this paper only a part of the AHP methodology was used in order to obtain the weight coefficients for each criterion, but the overall weight vector is based on the expert decisionmaking of two experts in front of the Resource Center Bor and it was determined by using the geometric mean of the comparisons of these two experts .
Table 1 – Decision-making table
The process of ranking the options was carried out by using the software package Visual PROMETHEE. On the basis of the input data, positive, negative and network flows of the alternatives, the results were obtained and presented in the Table 5 .
Table 5 – Rank of the alternatives
Picture 2 shows the GAIA diagram, which is a projection of a set of alternatives and criteria. The diagram presents a decision-making stick (red stick) that shows the direction of the compromise solution .
4. Discusion of results and conclusion The obtained final results of the overall priorities of alternatives have enabled their prioritization in descending order: Visionary leader (CAN2 – Resource Center Bor) Project oriented leader (CAN4 – European Prosperity) Bureaucratic leader (CAN3 – Foundation “Phoenix – 21 Century”) Charismatic leader (CAN1 – Resouce Center Bor) Democratic leader (CAN5 – European Prosperity) Functional leader (CAN6 – Foundation “Phoenix – 21 Century”) Authoritative leader (CAN7 – Resource Center Bor). It can be concluded that it was defined the various types of leaders of the candidates and found the most suitable one for the team leader on the IPA project which was implemented by the NGO organizations. So, the best type of leadership and the ones that may be considered as the most suitable type that one of the candidates belongs to is the Visionary leader – A2 (Candidate from Resource Centre Bor) .
The obtained results are expected, because the visionary leaders are social innovators and agents of change, seeing the broad picture and thinking strategically. There is a profound interconnectedness between the leader and the others, and true visionary leaders serve the good of the others. A visionary leader is effective in manifesting his or her vision because he or she creates specific goals, initiates actions and engages others. Also, this type of leader has a project-oriented approach to all tasks, which was crucial for selecting
the best candidate in this case. (Group of authors, 2018, web page:
http://www.visionarylead.org/visionary-leadership-article.html) Taking into account the different preferences in terms of the compared pairs of decision-making elements conducted by the two Experts, applied methodology yielded the adequate results. So, the subjectivistic approach in the process of determining the weight coefficients of criteria was superseded by the objective estimates of two experts .
5. Acknowledgement The author would like to thank professors Isidora Miloevi and ore Nikoli for their help in data analysis and valuable discussion on obtained results .
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Abstract. This work is based on the analysis of theoretical material on the psychologist’s role in the team’s success. In the course of the work modern sources are used .
Keywords: sport team, sport psychologist, team’s success keys .
This article points up the psychologist’s role in team sports and relations among team members. The psychology of team sports is primarily different from individual ones that is why we should not confuse them .
Furthermore, it is directly wrong to take groups of amateur sportsmen to sport teams. While the objective of the first groups is to keep fit and maintain activity, the second type of groups is targeted to achieve high results at competitions. We will concentrate on the second type of groups: sport teams .
In this work, we are going to find answers to three main questions:
1. Is it necessary for the team to consult the psychologist?
2. What are the techniques used by sport psychologists?
3. Are there any negative aspects of the psychologists’ performance?
To begin with, it is vital to mention that not only sportsmen, but coaches, sport managers, doctors, psychologists, referees and reporters are involved in the teams’ training and performing processes. That is the reason, why team training demands considerable amounts of financial costs and upto-date achievements in the field of the theory and methodology of training, medicine, pharmacology, psychology and management. Undoubtedly, the central part of the performance is kept by the team, other agents are solely looking for the new talents and create conditions for sportsmen. One of such agents is a sport psychologist .
Coming back to the first question about the psychologist’s necessity for a team, let’s point out the words of Vladimir Sopov, President of the Russian Association of sport psychologists, who’s been requested: “Is it possible to dispense with psychologists’ services in the modern sport?” The response was: “Of course, it is possible, but results will be worse”. As we can see, Vladimir Sopov highlighted the influence of the psychologist role and its connection to the team’s success. He also mentioned that the modern sport of highest achievements is a complicated system, where every opportunity must be used by the team to blossom, unless it wants to become an outsider .
Likewise, Anatoliy Hmelev, honored coach of the USSR, said that in the sport of highest achievements much attention was not paid to the psychological part of training. Frequently, vain coaches satisfied themselves with a belief that they were psychologists. Later, Anatoliy Hmelev said, he had understood, why so many young and talented sportsmen had not reached their goals. He believed, that with help and recommendation of psychologists he had not only kept sportsmen in the team, but also helped the team to progress .
A similar opinion is showed by Vladimir Alekno, the previous coach of the national men team of Russia in volleyball. He said, that the position of the team psychologist was occupied by him, as he had thought. The same had been supposed by his predecessor, Gayich. Time passed and came the understanding that there was a real need in gaining some experience in psychology and team-building. Admitted his weakness, Vladimir Alekno enrolled a team psychology program to orient in the team-building processes .
Now he can easily define if the psychologist, training the team, doesn’t work efficiently .
Onwards, since we have discovered an advantage in psychological services in team sports, the structure of this essay leads us to the next problem. It is connected to the set of particular methods, used by sport psychologists. In order to understand the meaning of the methods, we need first to understand conditions a team have to follow to be successful .
One of North America’s leading mental coaches, working in the areas of enhancing performance and team building, Dr. Saul L. Miller defines these
keys for a sport team to succeed:
• A Sense of Purpose: A Meaningful Goal;
• Strategy / Plan;
• Identity .
Importantly, that all the keys accumulatively lead to the team’s success, though none of them is the single most influencing factor. The role of psychologist is to keep the balance among all the factors .
First of all, the process of setting specific goals at one competition, or for the whole season, is connected to such psychological phenomenon as the level of claims, writes Prof. Evgeny Ilyin. The level of aspiration is a measure of the difficulty of purpose that confronts a team. The case when the team sets goals that are clearly above capabilities of sportsmen is called “inadequate high level of aspiration”. On the contrary, the case when the target is set below the capabilities of the athletes, is called “inappropriate low level of aspiration”. “Adequate level of aspiration” occurs when the target is set within the capability of the team. The role of psychologist in this case is to regulate the goal-setting procedure and normalize the goals to the appropriate level .
Interesting, that the data obtained in the study conducted by M. Klein and G. Christiansen on the basketball teams (ss. 18 youth teams (ages 10–16) and 17 teams composed of college men (ages 19–22), confirms that those groups, whose members had the same level of aspiration, were not as successful, as the teams, where players had various levels of aspiration. A team must be psychologically ready even to fail in one particular game to achieve high results in the long perspective. No doubts, it is psychologist, who helps the team to manage with this .
The second team’s key to succeed is identified as “talent”. Rich Kromm, a hockey coach says, that teams win, because “Because they have talent, and the talent is focused, committed, and able to perform their strategy”. And to integrate a “talent”, psychologist should carefully fill the newcomer in on the team training process. What’s more: “A highly skilled person with a poor attitude can be more destructive to team culture than a person with a great attitude and limited skills. People with a good attitude are coachable”, – claims Annemarie Chapman, a specialist in the field of talent sourcing. That is to say that psychologists have to remember this “golden rule” and help coaches to examine particular team members .
The third key, called “leadership” is very meaningful to the team and is build up by the means of individual characters and the team’s attitude towards them. Significantly, the psychologist has to keep the leadership and consult leaders .
Notably, that the plan or strategy is an outstanding key of the plan:
often created by the coaches, mostly it does not affect team members .
Nevertheless, if a serious decision is made, members should be prepared to in by the psychologist .
Talking about the commitment of the team, psychologist’s part 1stly is to motivate teams to do as much as it can to achieve the best results and 2ndly is to maintain the balance between the sportsmen “I” and group “we” .
The key #6 is called post-game feedback. Self-rating in the post-game period is very important, because psychologists can understand, why team members rated themselves in ways they did and what features belong to each player .
Next point is confidence and Dr. Saul L. Miller defines it as a combination of success and preparation. Again, the great role of the coach must be provided for this key. The more team trains, the better it pays and the more it succeeds. Though, moments could appear when the quality of playing is high, but the confidence is low. That can be linked to the level of the opposite team or others factors. And the psychologist has to work in this situation, using special techniques to the confidence of the team to be increased .
Another key is good team chemistry consists of: respect/ love, selfless action, and trust. Often it is connected to the team-building activities held by the team psychologist. They can be: recreational; problem-solving;
developing awareness. That is the most complicated activity, because it is not often clear to the team members why they should participate, and psychologist has to motivate the team. New strong connections can be established by the team-building process, so it is essential to use this technique .
On the next aspect there is a citation of Scotty Bowman, the winningest coach in NHL history: “A team’s identity is one of the most important ingredients in winning”. This key is closely connected with the very first one “goal-setting”. The picture of a team, which is in minds of members, should be positive and the task of the psychologist is to “draw” it .
Approaching the third of the main questions of this study, linked to the issue of possible harmfulness of sport psychologist for a team, let’s look at the list of specialized knowledge a qualified specialist must possess (defined
by American Psychological Association):
• Theory and research in social, historical, cultural and developmental foundations of sport psychology;
• Issues and techniques of sport specific psychological assessment and mental skills training for performance enhancement and participation satisfaction;
• Clinical and counseling issues with athletes;
• Organizational and systemic aspects of sport consulting;
• Developmental and social issues related to sport participation;
• Biobehavioral bases of sport and exercise (e.g., exercise physiology, motor learning, sports medicine);
• Specific knowledge of training science and technical requirements of sport and competition, IOC, NCAA rules, etc .
Provided that all the aspects are familiar to the psychologist, we can say that the specialist is ready to work with a team as well as it could be harmful to take in a specialist without this knowledge .
All things considered, we would like to highlight the importance of well-qualified psychologist for sport team’s success. Only psychologist can use the set of special psychological methods correctly and use the mental and psychological power of the team and its members. Such a specialist is essential if we talk about the both long and short established planning. And, with no doubts, sport psychologist with a degree cannot be replaced with a coach or a leader, despite coaches’ or leaders’ experience .
1. Ilyin E. P. Psychology of sports. M.: Peter, 2008. P. 6, 30–31 .
2. Klein M., Christiansen G. Group composition, group structure and group effectiveness of basketball teams: A reader on the sociology of sport // Sport, Culture and Society / In J. W. Loy, G. S. Kenyon (eds.). London: Macmillan,
1969. Р. 397–408 .
3. Miller, Saul L. Why Teams Win: 9 Keys to Success in Business, Sport and Beyond (Jossey-Bass Leadership Series – Canada) 2009. P. 15–17, 25–27, 33– 34, 49–51, 77–82, 169–174 .
4. Official website: http://www.m24.ru/articles/лекции/05052014/41943 (reference date: December 22, 2017) .
5. Official website: http://www.apa.org/ed/graduate/specialize/sports.aspx (reference date: December 22, 2017) .
РОЛЬ ПСИХОЛОГА В УСПЕХЕ КОМАНДЫ
Аннотация. Данная работа основана на анализе теоретического материала о роли психолога в успехе спортивных команд. В работе используются современные источники .
Ключевые слова: спортивная команда, спортивный психолог, ключи успеха команды .
1. Ильин Е. П. Психология спорта. М.: Питер, 2008. С. 6, 30–31 .
2. Кляйн М., Кристиансен Дж. Состав группы, структура группы и групповая успешность баскетбольных команд // Спорт, культура и общество / Под ред. Дж. В. Лой, Дж. С. Кенион. Лондон: Макмиллан, 1969. С. 397–408 .
3. Миллер С. Л. Почему команды выигрывают: 9 правил успеха в бизнесе, спорте и за пределами этих сфер // Джосси-Бэсс Лидершип Сириэс – Канада. 2009. С. 15–17, 25–27, 33–34, 49–51, 77–82, 169–174 .
4. Официальный сайт: http://www.m24.ru/articles/лекции/05052014/ 41943 (дата обращения: 22.12.2017) .
5. Официальный сайт: http://www.apa.org/ed/graduate/specialize/ sports.aspx (дата обращения: 22.12.2017) .
Abstract. The role of the leader should be to support employees, rather than manage them as if they were machines. In order to realize business plans and business success, it is necessary to establish partnership relations, not the hierarchical ones, between the leader and the employees. Leaders should ask questions more often in order to find out how they can help their employees in realizing their goals. The task of the leader is to encourage capable and intelligent employees in the implementation of their visions and ideas. If they do not do so, it is obvious that there are problems in their relations. The goal is to create the best possible cooperation between leaders and employees .
Given that people has different knowledge, skills, character, the leader would have to find suitable ways to motivate employees considering these differences. Motivation is what drives every person to action .
Keywords: leader, employees, motivation, vision, idea .
1. The importance of a leader in motivating employees Leadership is the influence of an individual on members of the organization and teams. It can appear in formal or informal groups, various political movements, etc. A leader is essential for employees to effectively carry out business activities. One of the best management experts, Peter Drucker states: “It is still necessary for knowledge workers to have their superiors, but knowledge based work does not know the hierarchy, because there is no higher and lower knowledge. There is only knowledge that is relevant for a particular job or knowledge that is not. The nature of the work determines its course, not the name, experience or hierarchical position of any individual” .
Leaders tend to motivate employees in the best way possible, because they have common business goals and results. Motivation represents the relationship between the individual and the situation. Depending on the source of motivation, individuals are different, but as we already mentioned, motivation differs from situation to situation. Motivation means the will of an individual to invest a lot of effort in order to realize business goals, conditioned by the ability to achieve individual needs. There are no universal guidelines on how to motivate employees; each leader, in accordance with the situation and psycho-social characteristics of employees, assesses the
methods to apply, which can be1:
• Observe individual differences;
• Job distribution;
• Use goals;
• Enable goals to be understood as achievable;
• Individualization of prizes;
• The reward ratio related to the achieved results;
• Establish a system of justice;
• Use recognition;
• Money can’t be ignored .
These guidelines indicate that, according to the situation, the leader will evaluate what motivates employees best, so he can maximize the effort in order to better and more creatively perform business activities that lead to the company's market success .
2. Suggested techniques for motivating employees Even though it is not easy to motivate employees to keep up with the company goals, it is necessary to be done, if company wants its employees to Robbins S. P., Coulter M. Management // Data status. Beograd, 2005. Р. 415–416 .
grow and be satisfied with their jobs. It is the key factor that makes people work harder, be more productive and give more contribution to the organization. If employees are motivated to do their best and increase the company's profit that means that they are satisfied with their jobs and their current position .
There is no successful strategy that will automatically motivate all the employees to work harder and stay motivated throughout their employment .
The reason is that everyone is unique as an individual; all of us have unique values and ideas and different habits and views. So, if a company wants for all of its employees to be satisfied, it must find multiple strategies to reach each individual .
There are six motivation secrets that may help a company to make
every employee happy and driven to succeed1:
• Attention should be paid to every employee. Team spirit is very important aspect of a company success in order to make the work more effective and faster, but also for exchanging ideas, knowledge and experience. Teamwork reduces costs, shortens deadlines and brings pleasure to learning. But nothing beats individual attention when it comes to individual motivation. This is particularly true for multinational companies because people can feel alone and isolated among a large number of employees. Therefore, it is considered that human resource management needs to take care of its employees, talk to them and help them if any problem arises. For example, if someone is underperforming or feels overwhelmed by a specific obligation, it is proposed to take a person aside for some personal coaching or one-on-one talks that can help the employee work through problems. This type of individual approach shows that company cares about the individuals and their comfort .
• The possibility of professional progress influences the motivation of employees. After a while, employees become poorly motivated to work the same job and they easily get into routine. Being very long time in the same position, with no change or even hope for any change, will probably demotivate even the most ambitious employees. Therefore, every company has to give an opportunity to all the employees to improve https://www.inc.com/jayson-demers/6-motivation-secrets-to-inspire-your-employees .
html and to keep up in the career. If an employee knows that there is a large possibility to make a progress in a career, he or she will be motivated to work harder. The best way to motivate an employee is to offer him a higher salary .
Offering new trainings or education opportunities may be also motivating, because employees are aware that the company wants to invest in their professional development. That is why employees will be far more excited about work .
• Leaders are the right example. The leader's influence on the motivation of employees is very important given that the leader is a person who leads his team, tasks, and controls and rewards those who have the best performance. Very often the leader is an example to his team members, if he is able to adequately lead his team and delegate individual tasks to everyone .
Regarding this, if a team leader works hard and stays optimistic, despite many challenges, then team members will be likely to do the same. For example, if the leader spreads positive energy and understanding for the team members, coworkers will mirror him, and the entire culture of the work environment will become more motivating. In multinational companies, it's important to communicate this idea to all the leaders who work individually with others, especially bosses and supervisors. Having good examples across the company can dramatically change the landscape of any workplace .
• Business environment affects the motivation of employees. The environment of the office space can affect how employees feel at work. For this reason, it is often suggested for offices to be warm and comfortable .
Clean white marble and cold tones can make an employee feel uncomfortable and alienated. For example, companies can cancel cubicle walls in order to make space more open and comfortable – team-based workspace. If this is too complicated and expensive for a company, implementing something simple like a separated break room could also be effective. Motivational posters will not make one team become motivated every day, but some pictures, quotes and artwork on the walls of the office may inspire creativity and make the office much more human, comfortable place to work. It's much easier to become and stay motivated this way, with only a little effort and creativity. In order to make sure that employees are satisfied with the business environment, it is recommended to ask them if they would change something in the workspace and what would it be .
• Socialization affects the employee's commitment to the company. Although it is advised that business and private life should be separated, it is not negative to have a few friends at work to spend time during the breaks. They do not need to convey secrets or personal problems, but being friend with colleagues can positively affect the sense of belonging to the organization. Being friendly with colleagues also builds new connections and a collective sense of teamwork, and makes it seem less like a mechanical work. Large companies have the habit of gathering their employees by organizing various events and activities known as a “team building”. Events can have thematic character, such as conferences, parties, lunches or sports events. The main goal of these gatherings is to encourage employees to talk to each other, exchange experience and knowledge .
• Open door policy is the key to successful communication. It is very important to create a transparent environment where employees can come to their managers and talk openly about any problem or a business idea .
If employees know that they have support they can rely on, they will feel free to express their creativity and to do their best. When employees know that their manager is not hiding anything from them, they will far more respect and appreciate him. Something simple, like an “open door policy”, can make people feel more appreciated and more valued. It also opens a new ways of communication, and it can strengthen team spirit. In order for the company to be successful in motivating its employees, it has to find a strategy that will adapt to the needs of employees, taking into account that each employee differs according to its personal wishes and values. Successful implementation of the strategy ensures that every employee is satisfied with its work .
3. The leadership influence on the motivation of employees on the case of faculty activities In order for employees to be motivated to work diligently and achieve the expected results, it is very important for the superiors to build a relationship based on trust and respect. Like any other company, a faculty is an academic institution that takes care of its employees and ensures their satisfaction and fulfillment at the workplace, which drives them to effectively carry out their tasks and constantly to develop. The leader plays a major role in motivating members of his team. He is the person who represents the role model for employees, ready to help and to listen. Being a leader is something that is being learned over time because leaders gain their skills through experience. In addition to their professional skills, leaders must be able to invest in employees by organizing various courses and trainings. During these events employees can acquire new knowledge and friendships. It is therefore important to gather employees out of the office, at lunches and celebrations, in order to relax and feel the affinity of one community through mutual communication .
Considering the importance of employees' motivation for effective performance, the Faculty of Management, Economics and Finance works daily on employees' development, organizing various types of events. These events can be work related; employees are sent to trainings that will help them perform their tasks more easily. Also, they can be social event, so called team building. Considering that the faculty is an academic institution, emphasis is placed on sending employees to conferences, both in the country and abroad. Participation on the conferences requires employees to write scientific papers. The idea is for employees to write together and interlink ideas and knowledge. In this way, employees are encouraged to work in the team and to prosper together. Presentation of the paper at the conference comes after the writing and it enables the employees to demonstrate the presentation skills, as well as to establish partnerships with other scientists .
Writing papers enables to the employee to collect a certain number of points thanks to which they make a career move from an assistant to a professor .
The average working hours of each employee are eight hours, which means that they spend a lot of time in the workplace, so the Faculty strives to make working pleasant in order for the employees to feel relaxed and comfortable. The whole space is branded and painted in warm colors, where prevail pink, purple and white. Also, there is the Club, where employees can drink tea or coffee, have breakfast and relax with their colleagues. As lessons are held at the Faculty, a large number of students are present on a daily basis, and they are provided with additional benefits that they can use during breaks, such as video games, table football, coffee and juice .
If any company wants to run its business successfully, it must have a successful team, and in order for the team to be such, it must be willing to work successfully. That is why it is very important to work on the professional development of employees and build a pleasant business environment because the employees will thus feel unique and worthwhile .
4. ConclusionIt can be concluded that there is no successful company on the market without the right vision of leaders and competent employees, whose goal is business success. For everything to function properly, it is necessary to have good communication between leaders, which creates a working atmosphere where everyone can express their opinions and ideas, where each one gives its best, as it contributes to valorization of the company in the market .
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Abstract. Students association “Audytor” organized first contest at Kozminski University. The competition had two part: first was online test, second was exam at Kozminski University. 192 competitors tried solved the first step. Students learned about Polish Accounting Act and IFRS. Final part was placed in Kozminski University with the best competitors .
The aim of this study is presenting organized national contest and strength and weakness of organization. Authors will present posed challenges which realized. This article analyses contest based on Porter's Five Forces .
Keywords: Contest, Porter’s Five Forces, University .
Introduction Students association “Audytor” in Kozminski University organized, first in the association history, competition for the student from polish universities. 192 students were signed to the first stage of the competition .
The aim of the contest was a promotion of accounting faculty and association “Audytor”. This article shows strength and weakness of preparing contest. To analyse the process of organization of this contest authors use Porter’s Five Forces .
As is known, Porter’s Five Forces is a management tool to analyse the profitability and attractiveness of the current industry. Nowadays the globalization, government influence and digitalization impact on a schema of five star's porter. Each company needs to consult these trends in the analyse of the Porter if it may be properly applied [Dalken, 2014] .
We decided to use this technique of analysing in the universities’ student associations as an “industry”. The properly applied model always generates very important insights. Due to new management trends this technique could become forgotten [Grundy, 2006] .
Porter’s Five Forces is used to analyse for example universities. Pringle and Huisman  writing about understanding universities in Ontario .
Several other authors have highlighted the competitive nature of higher education; therefore, we can think of higher education as an industry. This article helps to understand how the economic value can be created by industry – project .
The next example of using the Porter’s Five Forces which has been adaptable by university analyse is Batangas State University College of University [Ronquillo, 2012]. They decided to check their engineering faculty attractiveness on the education market. The result of the analyse highlighted high competitiveness of Batangas State University College and the others attributes which are important for the students. After this analyse the border of directors at the Universities has the knowledge about things which they may improve to be much more competitiveness in the education market [Ronquillo, 2012] .
The analyse of Porter’s Five Forces could be also a way to find weaknesses of the project. In this case public Universities of Kenya use this analyse to find the strategy to improve the level of higher education. In the result of analyse they needs to be open for entering in the new market of education for example: new faculties, e-learning programmes, connect new technologies in teaching. This is the key to success in Kenya education market [Mathooko, Ogutu, 2015] .
These projects show that contest should add value, be innovation and use new technologies like the Internet. From a lot of event this contest has to distinguish in the market .
Project title 1st. National Accounting Competition organized by student scientific association “Audytor” .
Project Description The project was made as a part of scientific association “Audytor” activity. We co-operate in this project with Kozminski University and also companies such as Vistra Corporate Services Sp. z. o. o and organization Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA). Organizations of the National Contest of the knowledge from accounting for universities is the subject of our project which we decided to analyse and descript .
The idea of the competition was to make student interest in accounting, especially in Polish Accounting Act of Law and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Our goal was to have registration from many universities from Poland .
Time and Place of the project Strategy renders choices about what not to do as important as choices about what to do [Porter, 1996]. Project had many tasks and organizers should choose which was more important than another .
The organization process has taken six months (started in September 2017), during that we: Created an official website of the contest; Found the company partners; Advertised our project; Planned a budget of the competition .
The 20th of March and the 24th of April were the dates of the contest .
The contest was consist of two parts. To take part in the contest each person needed to meets follows requirements: to had a student status and also the student’s study needs to be connected with the contest topic .
In the first part all registered students had to participate. The people who signed correctly to the contest, received from organization the twenty questions – one choice test. Only the best 50 scores qualify for the Second part of the contest. The whole processed was made by the Internet .
The second part of the contest was held at Kozminski University place .
This day was parted on four main points: Time of writing a test (type open questions); The ACCA lecture as a time of relaxing for the competitors and also to get some valuable knowledge; Lunch time; The Results .
Target and Audience of the project Our project was targeted to students of Finance and Accounting, which interested in the Accounting Act and IFRS .
Details of project The synergy that is clearly defined often fails to materialize a company that can define the synergies it is pursuing still faces significant organizational impediments in achieving them [Porter, 1987] .
The idea of the project made by Management board of student association “Audytor”. They had contact with the company, which helped organise the competition. Team of the project consisted of representative scientific association, company “Vistra” and employee of ACCA Poland .
As the competition had been organized in first time of the university and company history, organisers had to share their knowledge with each other .
Companies must be flexible to respond rapidly to competitive and market changes [Porter, 1996]. So, team created by friendship and professional to could respond quickly to opportunities. Relationship in team was unformal and directed to the goal. Team had not formal team leader .
Memberships had designated tasks. Communication in a team was made by email, meeting, phoning and discussing in a smaller group. The decision had been taken by all team .
The Gannt Diagram is the graphically way to present planning and controlling in the current project. In the main concept you are taking duties to do on board and putting them into the time [Harvard Business School, 2006] .
We decided to use this technique to portray the challenges which we have met putting them into the time during this project .
Figure 2 – The amount of competitors divided in City and Gender The results We received about 192 reports of the competitors to this contest .
As we see from the graph the majority of the competitors was from the following cities: Warsaw; Cracow; Czestochowa; Poznan; Lublin; Katowice .
The structure of all participants by gender was 77% women and 23% men. Competitors could fill the questionnaire after the first step of the competition. The survey had 4 questions about difficult of questions, valuable awards and good and bad side of substantive question or organisation first step of competition. 33 people answer this question. They measure question like hard (73%) and very hard (18%). Valuable awards were mark like good (39%) and very good (33%). Substantive questions were interesting, difficult and hard to check in Polish Accounting Act and IFRS. Time to answer questions, online form were the good side of organisation. The bad side of the questions competitors suggest too much text in one task, grammar. Technical online answers, no results and no correct answers were the bad side of the competition .
Conclusion Connecting to the Porter’s Five Forces scheme we analyse our project .
Threat of new entrants Partners of the competition – the partners always add to the project value. Next step is the knowledge about managing – it was the big project, so we have to precisely make a plan of organizations. Moreover is the fact that it was the first in history organized National Contest form knowledge of accounting in the history of Kozminski University. We needed to create an official website of competition, find a place to examine competitors etc .
The threat of substitutes In this point as a substitutes we treat the others contest organized by the students organizations or the university. The topic of this competition is connected with the faculty of Finance and Accounting .
Bargaining power of customers In this case the customers were Students. They are usually looking for the contest with the valuable prize .
Bargaining power of suppliers In this point we apart two suppliers/supporters of the contest. The first one was Kozminski University, it supply facilities such as: Created official website, helped with the promotion, organized a place for the second part of the contest. The second supplier was the partners of the competition. Their duties were to prepare the examination question for each part of the contest and to buy the prize for the best three participants .
Industry rivalry As a rival, we treated the others Students Associations which organized the contest in the same area of the faculty. The example of the most recognisable competitors are: PAC Contests (organized by Student Associations form Lodz University) and the contest form knowledge of accounting (organized by Student Associations form Torun University) .
From the organizations side in our project the hardest point was “Bargaining power of customers”. In this area we spend a lot of time to analyse how to encourage to take part students in our contest. We focus on the prize (it must be attractive for the students age and also valuable), the form of the contest (the first part must be flexible such as: the sending answer from the test by the Internet). Moreover, at this point we were also considering the way of the promotion. The best opportunity to advertise this type of the contest is using the Universities channel as a promotion .
Definitely we need to avoid Social media (such as Facebook or Instagram) .
The results of structure of the competition show us low diversification of the gender on this faculty at universities in Poland. In the next few years the effect of that it will be seen at employers .
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HOW TO START A PROJECT WITH 6 TEAM MEMBERS
AND END UP WITH 4. LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK
DURING “I AM WITH #MYRANEPA” PROJECT
Abstract. The article is dedicated to the performance of the “I am with #myranepa” project and its results. The authors raise the issue of working as a team of friends and describe problems that may arise during that work .
Keywords: Project management, teamwork, communication projects, project leadership, planning .
Student years are the perfect time to realize ideas and to try yourself in scientific community. As nowadays there are lots of contests aimed at revealing talents and skills of the young, ambitious and creative generation .
Participating in such events develops analytical and communication skills .
The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration gives numerous opportunities to take part in different contests and to gain valuable experience. We would like to describe how we have grabbed this opportunity and enhanced our abilities .
Our main objective was to create a single community that consists of diverse target audiences. So, we set up an Instagram account and introduced #myranepa hashtag .
Among the tasks of the project there were:
1. Setting up and distributing the #myranepa .
2. Routine posting on Instagram page @myranepa, including reposting other user’s content at #myranepa .
3. Announcement of the virus video “Я с #myranepa” on social networks .
4. Giveaway of the project’s merchandise .
5. Encouraging branches of RANEPA for the purpose of participating in the project “Я с #myranepa” .
Duration of the project: October 13, 2016 – April, 2017 and our target audience included following groups: applicants (age 17–20), students (age 18–25), parents, scientific conferences attendants and speakers, Academic community .
The project team included 6 members. Alyona Chelnokova was our project manager and the informal leader. Tatiana Zhukova and Ksenia Yakushkina were responsible for shooting and editing videos. Elizaveta Urazova and Albina Fadeeva took care of our Instagram account maintenance and the promotion. Last but by no means least, Arina Shuraeva was our designer .
At the beginning of the first course every team member attended extracurricular training on developing and running projects provided by the Institute of Industry Management. During this course we got on well, decided to work as a team, we found out that as a team we would be able to implement an original idea: we had to cover all the necessary team roles and make use of a range of acquired skills such as communication, analytical and cooperation skills. Speaking of team roles, as has been said above we had our informal leader, Alyona Chelnokova, who was chosen due to her leadership skills and initiative. There are some of her characteristics we need to emphasize: responsible, imperious, ambitious, cooperative, determined, but what is crucial for proper teamwork – easy-going .
And it is thanks to her leadership skills, that we had good morale, got on well, managed to work as a cohesive unit, and were able to produce astonishing results. Alyona helped us to stick to the schedule and monitored our progress. She helped us to establish a method of working, delegated responsibilities and of course inspired us to work better .
As has already been mentioned, each team member had a skill in something special, for example, videography, social media marketing, photography, design, etc. Therefore, it was obvious for us how to delegate responsibilities and distribute tasks. Each member understood their role .
Undoubtedly, some bureaucratic issues emerged from time to time (e.g. the need to get permission to create an official social media account), and our leader managed to cope with them .
In addition, each team member took part in running @myranepa, the project’s Instagram page. This included a selection of photos and videos about the life of the Academy and its branches which were later published on this page, the promotion of the hashtag by monitoring and analyzing posts of RANEPA’s students and increasing the number of account’s subscriptions .
Now we would like to describe the stages of team development
Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr .
Developing the brief of the project Presentation of the brief Discussion of realization and details with the team Obtaining permission from Anastasiya Kozlova, the Chairman of the ISM Student Council, to create an account Shooting the launch video Increasing the number of subscriptions on Instagram Producing valuable content for the Instagram account Posting students’ photos with hashtag #myranepa Cooperating with new clothes brand “Casual RANEPA” (t-shirt with #myranepa hashtag) Picking content for the final video, “Я с #myranepa” Filming and editing the final video Creating a design for branded t-shirts, notebooks (the idea hasn’t been realized because one member left the project) Holding a giveaway linked to the International Women Day Uploading and promotion of the final video Cooperating with RANEPA’s branches Efficiency evaluation During the work on the project we would evaluate the whole project performance rather than assess the contributions towards the project of each team member. But now we can use the system of parameters of evaluating teamwork, provided by Rise Company, business consulting company, that specialises in the area of HR .
The Rise Company have designed 5 metrics, which helps to measure teamwork performance: attendance, helpfulness, efficiency, initiative, and quality. Here are the results of our measurement .
1. Attendance. Not all the team members devoted much time to the project. Some of us did not take part in discussions and did not appear in the meetings .
2. Helpfulness. All of the team members were helpful and everybody had a role and was aware of their responsibilities. Due to all this, we managed to create a harmonious working environment .
3. Efficiency. At the time we were not experienced enough to be able to evaluate team performance .
4. Initiative. At the beginning of the project every team member had lots of creative ideas on how to develop the project, and we were full of willingness to realise it. But later on, some of us have lost interest in realising those ideas, so they were only capable of creating more new ones and were not able to develop what we had already built .
5. Quality. Our opportunities and purposes were not quite clear for us .
We did not set up global goals, as we knew we did not have enough resources to implement all our ideas, including the needed experience for running such projects .
Among the positive results of the project’s performance there are regular publications from different RANEPA’s branches including Ivanovo, Kurgan and Tula. So, our goal of spreading the hashtag among the branches and creating a single community has been achieved .
The task to attract attendants has also been achieved: a participant of an IIM event “Test IIM” uploaded the photo on her Instagram account with hashtag #myranepa .
Teamwork analysis Some team members were impressed with the idea of developing the project and its further perspectives, so they set up unrealistic goals, which were not achieved due to the loss of their interest in the project. One of them, our designer was willing to produce limited edition of branded merchandise, but her striving to do that has faded away before she got to do that. Shortly she left the team, and we had to continue with only 5 members .
We could not pick only one member whose work was to search for ways of development of the project, as every team member had their own techniques on attracting external information resources. A good example is Ksenia’s assistance to get the support of Tula local government member Yaroslav Rakov for the project. Despite her impact towards the project, her intentions to develop the project has disappeared, she started to implement her duties unwillingly, and eventually she decided to leave the team .
As a result, the project was completed by other 4 members. We started losing our interest in the project as we have been losing team members. As our team was based on friendship, we did not want to invite other people into the project. Besides, the project did not become very popular and widespread, so it did not attract other potential team members either. We felt burnt out; we ran out of ideas for further development of the project without needed resources and skills of our ex-members, so we decided to close the project .
Criticism from all 6 members started shortly after the beginning of the project. We felt frustrated as we did not see how to raise the project to the level of the main RANEPA’s official media. Unsurprisingly, we realized that we wanted to complete the project a bit earlier than we did. Our motivator and completer-finisher Alyona pursued her goals and kept fighting for the project, so she decided to support the life of the project. It is impossible to perform duties against the will, as it is also impossible to take responsibility for everything for a long period of time, so the project had to end .
There was no appraisal system or clearly defined criteria for teamwork and individual contributions, and now we realize that it was an omission. We evaluated the work of each other by chatting and imposing our own opinions directly, and giving feedback. Thus, small conflicts appeared, and we compromised .
Despite the emerging conflicts we still managed to achieve our goal .
Sometimes we performed our duties against the will, but we wanted to remain friends and we felt responsible to help our friends and to pull together to achieve their goals and satisfy their ambitions in return for their effort to do the same for us .
We gained valuable real-world experience as we started the project from scratch, and we feel we are able to give some valuable advice based on our practical experience and knowledge of principles and roles of management for those who have been thinking about starting a project with
1. Strict delegation of responsibilities .
2. Every team member needs to specify their own benefits which they will achieve when they accomplish something during the project, so they will be motivated to complete it .
3. Establishing time frames, planning; dividing the main goal into many small ones with strict deadlines (for example, you decide that if you do not get the exact amount of subscriptions by the exact date, then you will either end the project or change the method of people’s involvement) .
4. Clarifying the policy of the project with collective (such as developing internal rules, brand book) .
Now the project “I’m with my RANEPA” is finished due to loss of interest in continuing developing the project. Nowadays we use the project to analyse our work and the mistakes to prevent them in future projects .
1. #myranepa on Instagram // Rise. URL: https://www.instagram.com/ explore/tags/myranepa
2. 5 Effective Metrics for Measuring Team Member Performance // Rise .
3. Myranepa account on Instagram // Rise. URL: https://www.instagram .
Abstract. Within the construction sector there is still a clear border between different project members. There is no clear management structure for the project as a whole and parties are joining the project team all along the process. Because of this information is losing its value and parties are not willing to take responsibility. This results in each project having very high failure costs. To improve cooperation teams should be assembled early in the process and should work on the basis of long term agreements. By using BIMM as a central work method a management structure can be created to implement in each project regardless of who are involved .
Keywords: BIMM, work process, contracting forms, information transfer .
Currently the construction sector is one with very high failure costs .
One of the reasons for this is the bad cooperation between parties. Looking at the manufacturing sector there is a team where designer and builder are part of the same company. This results in a team that works together towards on end result with the same interests. In the construction sector there is a clear boundary between the different companies which results in parties that only work towards there on share within the project .
On behalf of the Royal BAM group, a Dutch contractor with approximately 19,500 employees, this research was carried out with the main goal of improving the cooperation between them and other parties. The Royal BAM group is the biggest construction company in the Netherlands with an revenue of €6.976 million. It has offices in The Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom. The Royal BAM group works on construction, real estate and infrastructure projects. Most of the time they work in teams consisting of an architect, several advisers and sub-contractors .
In a lot of cases the Royal BAM group is directly contacted by the client and is responsible for assembling the team. They will also lead the team having project directors who lead the projects from start to end and who are the main representatives towards the client. Depending on the size of the project the Royal BAM group will have one or more project supervisors. There main tasks is the communication and controlling of the project members. During the design and planning phase the Royal BAM group will also have several planners and draftsman. They will set up the project as a 3D model and make sure it has the correct information. During the execution phase there will be one or more overseers from the Royal BAM group that oversee the work of there own construction workers and the sub-contractors on the building site .
The creation of a project team mostly follows the same steps regardless of project size. The client contacts an architectural firm or a contractor for a possible assignment. Depending on which party the client contacted first this party will have the choice of picking an architect or contractor. It is possible that the client hires a third party that will manage and supervise the project on behalf of the client. From here on the contractor will search and contact most parties (sub-contractors) that are needed for the project. According to when information is needed parties are contacted to join the project team. Most sub-contractors have an similar management structure as described for the Royal BAM group. In a lot of projects the sub-contractors are chosen on the basis of the lowest price. Most of the time this is due to a strict budget. But more often additional criteria is given sometimes even weighing heavier than the price tag. This could be for example experience with refence projects, sustainability, technology etcetera .
If the current working process is displayed from a literary point of view the process can be divided in the following phases: design, planning, execution and management. Each phase consists of actions that result in information and documents needed to proceed in the process. To complete all these actions different parties are involved in the process. The party that is usually contacted first by a client for a possible project is the architect. This is also the party mostly responsible for the design phase of the process. The party that usually follows next is the contractor, responsible for most of the planning and execution phase. Also the party that contacts other parties that are necessary for the project. The relationship between these two parties, the architect and contractor, is one with a lot of problems. The information that is transferred during each action and phase can be seen as value. Because the process is fragmented by this poor relationship and lack of cooperation the value of the information is decreasing each time it is transferred. To counter this problem BIMM was invented. BIMM (building information model management) is a work method where all necessary information is stored in one place. This is usually a 3D model of the project. All involved parties will have access to this model so they can store all useful information in it and obtain all information necessary for their own tasks. The concept of BIMM is already known to most people in the construction sector and also used by most bigger contractors, architects and other construction companies in Europe and northern America. The current working process with BIMM mostly solves the problem of information losing its value. But the underlying problems of cooperation between different parties still occurs (Beelen, 2012) .
For monitoring the progress of the research there was made use of the DMAIC-model. DMAIC stands for define, measure, analyse, improve and control. This model was chosen because this research looks at ways to improve the current working process. Important in this is that the input for the process is provided by companies in the construction sector. The model is often used in Six Sigma (6) improvement projects. The focus in these projects is on the quality standard of Six Sigma. This means that the starting point for these projects is DfSS (Design for Six Sigma). The DMAIC-model is used to divide this research in the above mentioned phases. In the define phase the scope of the research is determined. And in this phase the needs of the interested parties are defined. This is known as the Voice of the Customer .
In the measure phase the CTQ’s (Critical to Quality) are determent. In the third phase, analyse, the collected information is analysed and the problems in the process are specified. Also, in this phase an attempt is made to recognize cause-effect relationships. The most important part is the improve phase. When the root causes are determent plans are made to improve the process. During brainstorm sessions with employees of the participating company there is thought about possible solutions. These eventually lead to a plan that can be used as a pilot. The main goal of the last phase, control, is to prevent relapse to the old working process. Because of the timeframe for this research the end product that is delivered is an advice for a new process. And therefore, the control phase has not been included In this study (Theisens, 2016) .
They main problem in the current projects lead by the Royal BAM group is money and time loss due to bad communication and cooperation .
Project members are collecting information that is already known by other members. Eventually not only the contractor but all involved parties are suffering from these problems. They mostly occur during the design and planning phase. The planning phase is a critical phase in the process. The further along the project comes in this phase the harder it will be to make changes and adjustments. The goal of the Royal BAM group is to have a dynamic project team in which each party has the same interests in the project and end result. It is also important for them that all involved parties feel free to share all information with each other and don’t see one another as competitors. The reason for the bad cooperation between the projects members is the lack of responsibility. Project members are very eager to shed the work and placing the responsibility with someone else. The underlying reason for this comes probably from the fact that not all involved parties see themselves as full-fledged project member. This is because they usually only join the project during the planning phase and there contact is mostly limited to only the contractor. To improve the current cooperation between the project members the current contracting form needs to change. The contractor will need to take less of a managing and leading role in the process. The contractor will need to assemble the project team as early in the process as possible. This way the sub-contractors will have a better overview of the project and all involved parties. And because they are not joining the project somewhere during the process, they have enough time to prepare. Using BIMM all information will be open for all project members. So even when a party joins the project later in the process, they will have a better understanding of the tasks at hand .
The intention of BIMM is to have one central place for all information necessary for the project. But most companies using BIMM still work according to traditional work methods and the same management systems .
The two main solutions to improve the cooperation between parties and use BIMM to its fullest potential is to either change the organisation structure or the management system used for the projects. Organisations in the construction sector are usually focussed on one or a few aspects of the construction projects. Looking at the manufacturing sector, as mentioned before, most project members are part of the same organisation and thus also all working in the same management structure. This creates one organisation with all necessary knowledge needed for the entire project. This means that the management structure of the organisation can be implemented for each project. It would take a big change in the current construction sector to carry through this shift in organisations .
The second solution, one that does not require a change in organisation structures, is creating one management system that can be implemented for each project regardless of individually management systems. This means that before the project is actually started the project team is created. To assemble the project team early in the process it will be important for the contractor to, in cooperation with the architect, decide which parties will be necessary to complete the project. These parties will need to chosen not on basis of cost but on experience with working with BIMM and previous collaborations. The contracts that are signed between the parties should not be project or task based but should extend a certain amount of time. This way parties can build an dynamic relationship instead of a distant one. Working with the same team on several projects also means that the process can be optimized (something that is hard in the current form of working). This can in turn mean that project members can think of one managing structure for the entire team instead of individually per company. It will be important for a good working dynamic that the managing roles will not all be filled by members of the same company. This will prevent one party from taking the overhand in the project. This is especially important for the relationship between the contractor and architect (Ukessays, 2017) .
They key to accomplishing this is BIMM. BIMM is already used to change the communication between different parties in the process but it has a much bigger potential. Since BIMM is already used by most larger construction companies it will not be hard convincing more parties to use it .
The current working method using BIMM has to extend from just information management to a full management structure. Preferably one that can be implemented for a large range of projects. The main advice that was brought out to the Royal BAM group was to change the way of approaching potential project members and to take less of an overhand in the managing of the project. Instead of approaching companies as sub-contractors for a specific project they should be approached for a long term agreement as equal partners. This way there will be less competition in dividing work because the work agreement continues longer than the project. To continue creating a more equal and open working process the Royal BAM group must not be the only party in the project that has an management role. This can be done by creating a management team of members of different companies or have a third party oversee the project management. This way the Royal BAM group will be seen more as an equal partner in the project .
1. Theisens H. (2016). Innovation Management. In lean six sigma green belt (p. 332). Amstelveen: Lean Six Sigma Academy .
2. Beelen C. (2012). Communication in the building-process when using BIM. Technical University of Delft, Delft .
3. Ukessays (2017, December, 11th). Essay in construction contracts. URL:
Abstract. As the title implies the article describes the modern business model – media startup. It is spoken in detail about a developing process of media startups and people who are interested in it. On the basis of data of interviews suitable management models, the value of a leader role, control methods, hierarchy and style of communication were analyzed. The subject is relevant for modern society because of changing the technological flow .
Media startups contribute to technological and informative development .
Keywords: media startup, information technology, management model, leader, communication .
“The young specialist doesn't want to work for the rich man. The young specialist wants to become him” – this is the philosophy which the modern generation follow. With development of technologies realization of one’s own idea doesn't seem impossible any more. Instagram, Facebook, Twitter have become potential platforms for distribution of advertising and searching for investors. Nowadays, information is more available and boundless, and it takes less time to find it. According to such conditions the new form of business development was created. It is called a media startup .
The startup means “to start”. But to start what? Considering different
meanings of the concept “startup”, key features1 can be marked out:
• This is a new business project with the unique idea;
• The project is created with a profit purpose;
• The project develops quickly;
• The project is in condition of high uncertainty .
Ries E. (2011). The Lean Startup, Crown Publishing Group (accessed 20.03.2018) .
There are two categories of startup founders – those, who aim to maximize profit, and those, for whom the realization of the idea is a main objective. Nevertheless, both profit and the idea are important for each startup. A project cannot be called a startup, provided there is no unique idea, it is impossible to find an investor without an accurate calculation of a business plan, including all costs and an expected profit, and without an investor it is difficult to develop quickly. Since social networks boomed, IT sector attracted the attention of startupers most. It can be explained due to lower risks comparing to traditional projects. There are also such advantages as no need for huge capital investments and limited responsibilities at the first stage of a project’s lifecycle. The need is to create a unique product in the information sphere .
Such a project in the IT sector is called a media startup. Why media, but not IT? Media is a wide field which includes not only specific methods of information transfer, but also media space where the most of different objects can be media products and can be a part of media .
Taking all important components of the media startup concept into consideration, an exact definition can be revealed. A media startup is a new fast-growing business project, based on the unique idea aiming to expand the informational space and develop methods of transferring information, with the main purposes of realizing key ideas and making profit according to desire of the founder, but how to determine whether a project is a media startup? The best way is to look through examples .
To start with, let us take a closer look at a fine representor of media products. Facetune is an app based on altering images. This app is a media product due to its function of transforming incoming information and images in particular .
Moving to another example, we try to identify whether an online store is a media product. This type of business uses a huge variety of technologies and communications in order to interact with customers. Although goods sold in an online store cannot be described as a media product, the web-site or an app is definitely a media product as they deliver information via notifications and interactive ads as well as provide customers with a wide range of actions on their pages .
Any regular product may become a media one by adding digital technologies, making it interactive and multimedia .
By now, the concept of media startup was described, the main purpose of startup was determined as well as the most common sector for them, lastly, a definition of a media product was formulated. Nevertheless, the key purpose of the research is to describe management and organization of functions in a media startup .
Usually media startup’s founder is a person who is a representative of generation Y or Z. Representatives of these generations have distinctions, but they also have a uniting feature, in particular, using digital technologies from early age. In the article “Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants”1 the author Marс Prensky names such person as digital native and marks differences of thinking between the person who learns to use digital technologies at mature age and digital native. The point is that digital native understands digital technologies, knows how they are created and assumes their future development. For him using digital technologies is comparable to ability to go or speak, they do not need to make efforts. While the senior generation perceives emergence of digital technologies as a miracle, they should study from the start, they have no interaction reflex with these technologies. In this regularity is the answer to a question about founders of media startups. They are digital natives – young people and students, who interact with digital technologies since their childhood. This moment distinguishes founders of media startups from other founders. In media sphere young specialists are the most popular employees because technologies are in their blood .
When а new media startup appears it always has an inspirer – the person who owns the idea. However, is he the main organizer, the leader of work of media startup? The founder of venture fund “500 Startups”, Dave Makklyur, has his own concept of the organization of media startups .
Makklyurer's opinion is based on a long experience of interaction with
different startups. He claims that in a good startup there will be three roles:
The hacker – the author of a product, the Hipster – the producer of business who is responsible for resources, sales and communications, Hassler who is
Prensky M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. URL:
https://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital %20Immigrants%20-%20Part1.pdf (accessed 25.03.2018) .
responsible for sales and investment attraction, inspires people to use a product. Each of three representatives of startup is a Leader. According to statistic, startups which are created by several founders are considered as more successful and reliable1. Although, the fact that in this concept the leader role is divided into three, it does not stop being less important. On the contrary, the Leaders who will perform such functions are simply necessary .
Apart from Dave Makklyur's concept there are also several main management models for startups. Generally, media startups usually approach only two of them as the others are aimed at production of goods. Kanban and SCRUM – these models are universal for maintaining such projects because they easily adapt to flexible structure of media startup .
The SCRUM2 model is ideal for media startups. The main benefit of SCRUM is a fast reaction to changes. All work is directed to achievement of the most convenient, useful and corresponding to customer’s requirements. In this model there is a regular communication with potential users of the product, because of that it is necessary to make regular changes and to adapt to the situation. The majority of media startups regular update (enhancement of the software, additions of new functions, etc.) Such model allows to enhance media product quickly .
The next model – Kanban3 is also suitable for media startups .
Especially if the startup has no precise plan. With the aid of the Kanban it is possible to manage several priority tasks. This model allows to reveal necessary priorities and to concentrate attention on them. However, there are also minuses. In this model there are no established deadlines that can reduce productivity of work .
Management model of media startup is only a part of research. To understand, how exactly communication exists in modern media startups, it is necessary to consider such facts as hierarchy, control methods, a corporate Timokhina E., Aleksandrova L. (2014). Foreign investments into a startup: advantages and disadvantages. URL: https://www.cfin.ru/investor/venture/foreign.shtml?ck_url=1 (accessed 25.03.2018) .
Sutherland J. (2014). Scrum: The Art of Doing Twice the Work in Half the Time (accessed 25.03.2018) .
Petrenko V. A., Demyanenko N. G., Kryukova A. A. (2017). Methodology of management of startup projects. Vol. 1. № 65. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/ article/v/metodologii-upravleniya-startap-proektami (accessed 25.03.2018) .
culture, the style of communication in team and a leader role in a startup. In order to observe this information, three representatives of modern media startups industry were interviewed. This research method was chosen with the emphasis on receiving the information directly from the specialists involved in media startups. As a result, I revealed an attitude of specialists to
the sphere of media startups. The following questions were asked:
1. How many people take part in developing and promoting your media project?
2. Do employees of your media project telecommute or work in the office? Do you have an office or venue where staff work regularly? How many people telecommute?
3. What are the vital personal characteristics to become a member of your team? What professional qualities are you looking for in the employees?
4. Please, specify the main values of your corporate culture?
5. Describe your organizational structure in a few words, for example whether it is line, network, hierarchical, adhocratic etc .
6. Do you have a Leader in the project who controls all process of development and promotion?
7. What communication channels between employees are used in your project? Is the informal communication channel used?
8. Does a certain model of management dominate in your project?
Which one? Why did you choose this management model?
9. Is the Leader of great importance in your media project?
10. Which position in the project is held by the creator of the main idea or the concept of startup?
Each question is turned on specific department of work in media startup. All questions are accurate, clear and directed to reveal necessary information for a research. Thanks to interviews, relevant and exact information about the organization of work in media startups was revealed .
My respondents were:
• Andrey Kuznetsov, CEO of media startup “Dialog”. Dialog is the unique messenger for corporate communications equipped with all necessary functions .
• Olga Pertseva, PR-director of media startup “Vikium”. Vikium is the app with the function of exercise machine for intelligence developing based on techniques of the Russian and foreign neuropsychologists .
• Ivan Drobyshev, founder of the communication agency “Grechka Media”. Ivan closely works with media startups, performs and acts in this article as the specialist of media startups .
Thanks to an interview the following regularities concerning the organization, communications and leader roles in modern media startups
1. In the majority of media startups employees work in offices, with approved working hours. There is the fact that many issues need to be discussed with other employees, but presence at office during working hours is not strictly controlled, it is possible to bring work home, to come and leave sooner or later. A small number of employees are freelancers. The number of people in a team differs from 3 to 34 .
2. In a team there are both creative and rational employees which helps to keep balance. Good sense, creativity, capability to conduct communication with other people, readiness to develop themselves as professionals and desire to realize personal potential are appreciated .
3. The hierarchy exists, but without a bureaucratic device. All coordination and decisions take place quickly. Generally, there are three levels of positions: the first – directors of departments, the second – heads and managers, the third – developers, programmers and designers .
4. In each media startup there is a Leader who is an ideological inspirer and a driving force of the project. He or she sets the strategy and main objectives for development of a product. Then managers control the realization of the process where the purpose is set by the Leader who is usually the CEO .
5. In the Dialog project employees adhere to informal style of communication both at offices and in personal communication. The corporate clothes style is informal. In the Vikium project the informal style of communication exists at office and in the certain channel of the corporate Slack messenger. Other communications have official style and happen in the corporate Slack messenger and corporate mail .
6. The majority of startups choose management model of SCRUM or Kanban. They choose them because these models are convenient for IT projects and allow to structure work of development department and to integrate product decisions .
7. Control of work is made due to holding Daily meetings in the form of chats or at office which allow to reveal and to resolve problems of both employees and all team. Usually punishments do not exist. In the project leaders try to motivate employees financially or morally .
8. The leader is always important in a startup. The main objective of the Leader in media startup is the representation and motivation .
As a result of the interview and the conducted research it is possible to form the following conclusions about the framework of media startups .
Media startups deal with changing information flow, therefore, startups should use flexible management models such as SCRUM and Kanban in order to achieve highly effective results .
• Founders of media startups have a wide field for action because media is everything what has deal with digital technologies and multimedia .
Such projects often are created by young people who interact with such technologies since the childhood – generation Y and Z .
• According to the research a leader’s role in media startup has a huge value for a project’s success. The leader creates a basis of further development, creates a unique idea and provides an efficient performance. He or she creates a necessary team directing and motivating people .
• In media startups a strict control does not exist. Founders use positive motivation and daily meetings to improve work of each employee .
Also, style of communication in media startups is mainly informal .
• Media startups are an extremely perspective sector of business as information technology development accelerates every day. In Russia every year more and more investors invest in media startups, understanding the importance and perspectives of this sphere. There is a set of grants provided by the government and the large companies to support young specialists .
Today is a favorable time for development of media startups in Russia. Such projects are vital for the country to accelerate technical development .
• Media startups are unique. Their basis is the idea. They seek to find new technological solutions, improving life of all mankind. Businesses should replicate several qualities of media startups, namely a fast response to changes and gain a success .
1. Petrenko V.A., Demyanenko N.G., Kryukova A.A. (2017). Methodology of management of startup projects. Vol. 1. No 65. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/ article/v/metodologii-upravleniya-startap-proektami
2. Graham P. (2014). Hackers & Painters: Big Ideas from the Computer Age, California, O'Reilly Media .
3. Kaushik A. (2009). Web Analytics 2.0: The Art of Online Accountability and Science of Customer Centricity .
4. Ries E. (2011). The Lean Startup, Crown Publishing Group .
5. Sutherland J. (2014). Scrum: The Art of Doing Twice the Work in Half the Time .
6. Timokhina E., Aleksandrova L. (2014). Foreign investments into a startup: advantages and disadvantages. URL: https://www.cfin.ru/investor/ venture/foreign.shtml?ck_url=1
7. Prensky M. (2001). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants. URL:
APPROACHES OF AN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY
LEADER TO LEAN MANUFACTURING
Abstract. Nowadays many companies all over the world face the problem of ineffective manufacturing. In order to eliminate faults, reduce the amount of work and time needed to do it and to improve the efficiency of production, some of them adopt lean production strategies. We would like to present the analysis of these strategies on the example of one of the most successful and innovative companies – Tesla. Some attention will also be paid to its leader – Elon Musk .
Keywords: lean manufacturing, Tesla, Elon Musk .
The issue of leadership unites many people of different nationalities, age, and gender. The goal is to clarify the role of a leader in any kind of a company. The greatest leader is believed not necessarily to be the one who does the greatest things, he is the one that gets the people to do the greatest things. Nowadays, there is a huge variety of spheres, which we can analyze in terms of leadership. Each leader follows a goal of taking his business through to success. Lean manufacturing is a trendy tool of many companies’ leaders used in order to reach successful production. Wikipedia describes the term “lean manufacturing” (or “lean production”) as a systematic method for waste minimization within a manufacturing system without sacrificing productivity. Obviously, lean manufacturing is more than that. Lean production does not only consider the value the end consumer gets (what the end user of the product will be willing to pay) but also the elimination of waste in line of production. The main aim of lean manufacturing is to achieve the desired value with less wok and waste. This may include the waste of time or materials. Besides eliminating waste, in lean manufacturing the quality of each item produced is examined soon after its production. This way, in case of any defect it can be fixed as soon as possible in order to avoid waste of more time tracing the error after the production of the whole system is completed. The lean production strategy has the same characteristics with the Total Quality Management (TQM) strategy. Both strategies work to ensure that those in production line have the highest knowledge on how the system should work. Though lean manufacturing has been adopted by many companies, it was initially used by Toyota (Toyota production System) .
Waste elimination and continuous improvement are the basis of lean manufacturing. Toyota has put 5 key principles at its core .
1. Specify Value What do your customers value? Value goes hand-in-hand with what customers are willing to pay for a product. When thinking lean, identify what
drives value to your specific customers. Questions to assess value include:
What problems does my product offering solve? What specific product features are my customers looking to pay for?
Always be sure to determine value from the perspective of a customer (not yours!) and of a product family. Lean Manufacturing Tools state that a product or service is only valued for just 5% of time. The rest of the time is spent in wasteful pursuits; waiting, reworking, transporting, moving and host other wasteful things that the customer does not consider to be something that they should pay for .
2. Identify the Value Stream Once the value (end goal) has been determined, the next step is mapping the “value stream,” or all the steps and processes involved in taking a specific product from raw materials and delivering the final product to the customer. Value-stream mapping is a simple but eye-opening experience that identifies all the actions that take a product or service through any process .
That process can be in design, production, procurement, HR, administration, delivery, or customer service. The idea is to draw, on one page, a “map” of the flow of material/product through the process. The goal is to identify every step that does not create value and then find ways to eliminate those wasteful steps. Value-stream mapping is sometimes referred to as process reengineering. Ultimately this exercise also results in a better understanding of the entire business operation .
3. Establish Flow Once value-creating steps have been identified, they should occur in sequence. Flow ensures smooth progression from the production’s start to the finished product delivered to the customer. This lean manufacturing principle ensures the product goes smoothly (with no interruptions, delays, or bottlenecks) to your customers. The goal of creating a value stream flow is having continuous, synchronized production .
4. Pull Value Lean manufacturing principles are core to eliminating excess waste .
Establishing pull is no different. Once flow is introduced, customers will begin to pull value from the next upstream activity. Pull creates a just-in-time or on-demand model. Ideally, production does not begin until customer orders are received. Pull eliminates work-in-progress inventory and waste from incorrect production forecasts .
5. Strive for Perfection The final lean manufacturing principle is seeking perfection. Lean thinkers look for opportunities of improvement in each part of the value stream. Identifying and removing root causes of issues from your production processes to target perfection. This principle is a group effort and requires everyone to drive it – from the production floor to the C-suite  .
Nowadays, lean manufacturing is widely used by many companies all over the world. We would like to analyze leadership and lean manufacturing strategies of a trendy large car production company, Tesla. We have decided to take exactly this manufacturer for a number of reasons. Tesla is a new player in the car industry world and this company has contributed a lot to the idea of lean manufacturing. What is more, Tesla constantly develops its approach to lean manufacturing strategy introducing it to every single stage of its production. We are going to analyze Tesla’s lean manufacturing approaches mainly focusing on its ability to save resources and time by making the company to be an independent holistic organism. We would also like to highlight you about the main points of this company, its management structure, leadership style and ways to achieve its desired goals .
Talking about Tesla we cannot not but mention its genius founder. We all know Elon Musk as one of the world’s most ambitious and successful leader. He runs some of the most profitable and innovative companies in the world. Musk is CEO of the groundbreaking rocket manufacturer SpaceX, an American neurotechnology company Neuralink and Tesla – an American company that specializes in electric vehicles, energy storage and solar panel manufacturing. He is also Chairman of SolarCity Corporation that specializes in solar energy services and aims to accelerate the mass adoption of clean energy. All of these companies are one-of-a-kind ones. And actually, that is Elon Musk himself as a leader who makes them be like that. We can just look at the recent launch of SpaceX’s most powerful rocket in use – Falcon Heavy – with Musk’s personal cherry Tesla Roadster on board as a payload which destination is the orbit of Mars. “A Red Car for a Red Planet,” as Elon wrote in his Instagram account .
Musk’s companies are some of the most successful and best-known in the world and his passion and enthusiastic attitude towards all the projects are the key to this success. We would like to take a closer look at Tesla as an adopter of lean manufacturing ideas as this corporation with its unordinary approaches in every phase of production is worth studying .
Every successful company has an efficient and properly-working
management structure. Tesla’s management structure consists of 10 decisionmaking areas which are :
1. Design of Goods and Services (focuses on how the organization’s products influence costs, quality objectives and resources) .
2. Quality Management (focuses on satisfying customers’ quality expectations) .
3. Process and Capacity Design (focuses on business processes, along with related investments, standards, and resources) .
4. Location Strategy (focuses on logistics and proximity to markets, resources and suppliers) .
5. Layout Design and Strategy (focuses on achieving an optimal flow of resources and information) .
6. Job Design and Human Resources (focuses on the adequacy of effective human resources) .
7. Supply Chain Management (focuses on the adequate supply and an effective and efficient supply chain) .
8. Inventory Management (focuses on inventory decisions, costs and support for production) .
9. Scheduling (focuses on short-term and intermediate schedules for resource utilization) .
a. Maintenance (focuses on the adequacy of resources and production capacity) .
As we can see, the company has a wide and ramified management system with the separation of powers every team of which focuses on different aspects of producing a great product .
Tesla is a start-up company as well as a business phenomenon that is important for the Lean Community to understand. With its direct sales model (without third-party vendors) and planned lights-out factories (factories that run lights-out are fully automated and require no human presence on-site), it purports to be the next new thing in industrial thinking after Ford (mass production with modern management) and Toyota (lean production with lean management). Tesla’s approach to the customer is broadly consistent with lean thinking. By selling vehicles directly to customers and keeping in continuous touch with every customer through the Internet, Tesla proposed to create more value with less resources, the essence of lean manufacturing. An additional breakthrough was to continuously update each vehicle’s software to allow new features and to correct problems reported by vehicles in use. In addition, Tesla offers not just a physical product but low-carbon, autonomous, hyper-connected, shared mobility for the greater benefit of humankind. Moreover, Elon Musk will use the profits to finance a personal trip to Mars  .
Tesla’s mission is to accelerate the advent of sustainable transport by bringing compelling mass market electric cars to market as soon as possible . To achieve its planned production rate of 500,000 cars per year by 2018, Tesla alone will require today’s entire worldwide supply of lithium-ion batteries. The Tesla Gigafactory was born out of necessity and will supply enough batteries to support Tesla’s projected vehicle demand. The Gigafactory is Tesla’s energy division, which, once operational, will produce more lithium-ion batteries than all other factories of this kind in the world combined, at significantly lower cost and greater efficiency. Not only will these batteries power all of their electric vehicles, but they will also revolutionize the energy industry with storage solutions that allow energy production to be truly level-loaded . In this incredible energy factory, we can see Tesla’s lean approach to making cars: if all the energy is produced in huge amounts in a single factory owned by the company it helps save time, money and efforts needed to cooperate with other suppliers .
By simplifying car design to make them easier to manufacture, installing more robots and packing cars more densely on the assembly line, Musk is convinced Tesla can build as many as one million vehicles a year in a single factory – four times the output of a typical auto plant and greater than even the world's busiest factory, Volkswagen's flagship plant in Wolfsburg, Germany. And that is probably one of the main parts of Tesla’s lean approach – time-saving. Tesla produces more vehicles in shorter amount of time than any other manufacturer. Musk believes that other car producers do not realize just how much potential there is for improvement. In his Twitter account Elon shared his thoughts on sales perspectives of Tesla’s first mass-market car Model 3. The sales volumes planned by Musk were 150 units in August 2017, when the first car was launched, and 1500 cars in September which outgrew into 20 000 ones per month in December. In one of the interviews Musk said, “These things get increasingly difficult, but they're all doable. But I can see a path where we get to, say, 600,000 Model 3 production and 100,000 S and X, so maybe 700,000, which should be like almost 50% more than General Motors or Toyota got out of the plant. I mean that seems achievable.” Production of the first affordable mass-market electric car grows exponentially following the company leader’s ambitions .
“I'm hopeful that people think that if we can send a Roadster to the asteroid belt, we could probably solve Model 3 production,” said Elon Musk  .
One more thing worth mentioning is Tesla’s plans on having an underground, freight-shipping system which Musk calls the hyperloop  .
He goes on to explain that if Tesla factories were linked together by a system of tunnels, production of vehicles would be greatly improved. This sophisticated automated parts-conveyance system at Tesla's Fremont, Calif is a showcase for lean manufacturing techniques in its heyday. Musk calles the conveyor system “probably the most sophisticated in the world,” adding that it “appears to be on track.” The system, built a level below the assembly line, carries parts from a warehouse to the point of assembly and is likely to be aimed at eliminating the mounds of half-filled cardboard boxes crowding the aisles alongside the assembly line. What’s more interesting is that this subterranean conveyance system will be dug by The Boring Company, Musk's latest company .
Summarizing mentioned Tesla’s lean ways, we can say that it is undoubtedly the most innovative corporation and the future of the automobile industry. Tesla does not only produce the most modern, technological and comfortable cars, but it pays a lot of attention to making its vehicles environmentally friendly and reducing the ecological footprint. That is lean manufacturing that saves the most valuable resource for all of us – our planet .
We believe that all modern manufacturers should take a closer look at Tesla as this is an ambitious and thriving company which sets the direction for the future of the automobile industry .
6. https://www.forbes.com/forbes/welcome/?toURL=https://www.forbes .
Abstract. The issue of women’s empowerment and gender equality is a global issue and this issue is in dire need of attention all over the world. For this reason, the aim of the article is to present an overview of female team leaders, to consider their unique qualities and prove that women can be leaders on equal footing with men or even more effective .
In a marketplace defined by complexity, disruption and change, today’s most successful enterprises are those that bring diverse perspectives and experiences to each new challenge. Along with being the right thing to do, diversity and inclusion offer a strategic advantage – especially at the leadership level .
That is why it is critically important for businesses to look at the challenges women often face, and clear the path for talented and dynamic leaders to rise to the top .
This understanding highlighted the need to commission this study on women and leadership. During the study the qualities and experiences that contribute to women’s leadership and advancement in the workplace were examined. In addition to outlining challenges and opportunities shared with us, the study also offers concrete steps that can be taken to move more women into leadership positions .
The aim of this study is to inform and encourage leaders to take clear and decisive steps to develop the leadership potential of their female employees – and that we will all be stronger for it .
Keywords: gender inequality, women power, leadership, career development, change .
The topic of female leadership has been a great interest of researchers in the fields of psychology, management and sociology especially in recent years, as women have begun to assume more leadership positions .
McKinsey’s study “Women Matter” reveals the role of female leadership, by establishing a correlation between how well a company performs and the proportion of women it has in its management team. The company has found that one element of the answer lies in the way they exercise leadership .
Indeed, some types of the leadership behavior, observed more frequently among women than among men, have a positive impact on a company’s organizational performance. In this way women complement and enhance the range of leadership behaviors that are critical to corporate performance .
Therefore, the role of female leader is worth being analyzed. It is extremely important to prove that female leadership encourage teamwork and collaboration and emphasize the ability to empower, support, and engage employees .
McKinsey & Company, with over 18,000 employees is the globe’s largest strategy & operations consulting firm, that helps leading corporations and organizations to make distinctive, lasting and substantial improvements in their performance. Moreover, the company also has a number of initiatives in place to improve the outcome of women seeking their way to the top of business. The firm regularly publishes papers and researches into diversity issues – such as a recently featured gender parity study – and highlights for years the importance of women in top position .
McKinsey passionately believes in developing outstanding female leaders, and that is why McKinsey & Company has launched a scholarship program for talented women. McKinsey invites female students and experienced professionals from Europe, the Middle East and Africa wishing to apply for the scholarship. Female talents that win the scholarship will, in addition to the financial prize, receive coaching from McKinsey consultants and will be granted with the access to select events held by the world's leading strategy consulting firm. As a firm, the company invests a lot of resources in this event, and it believes this is one of their best initiatives in Europe .
To conduct the event the company set a project team of 17 people leaded by Anna Sanfilippo. All the team members have different responsibilities. The project team was based on a voluntary basis and it consists of people from different departments who are willing to contribute to the female leadership. The team leader is responsible for the basic day-to-day work of the team and the overall performance of the project. Additionally, an important part of her role is to make sure all the people in the team are fulfilling their professional goals. This role has allowed to be a part of the development of journeys of her teammates. Among other things, some team members are working on a promotion of the event in the social media and they have to figure out new ways to reach potential candidates both students and working professionals. Others are responsible for technological equipment, financial issues and advertising. The team leader is also accountable for optimizing decision-making process and supervisory. All the team members share a passion for women’s recruiting and gender equality .
Therefore, the main goal of the company case is to consider specific features of a women leader and analyze what distinguish women leader from men candidates and to show that prejudices against women leaders are not popular anymore .
The increase in the number of female leaders has been accompanied by changes in theories and practices of leadership. Whereas in the past, leaders based their authority mainly on their access to political, economic or military power, nevertheless, in postindustrial societies leaders might share power far more and establish many collaborative relationships. Therefore, contemporary views on a significant leadership encourage teamwork and collaboration and emphasize the ability to empower, support, and engage workers. In other words, leadership has been predominantly a male prerogative in corporate, political, military, and other sectors of society. Although, women have gained an increased access to supervisory and middle management positions, they remain quite rare as elite leaders and top executives. To explain this phenomenon public and scientific discussions have centered the idea of a ‘glass ceiling’ – a barrier of prejudice and discrimination that excludes women from the higher level of leadership positions .
Prejudice against women as leaders is partly responsible for the lack of women in leadership positions. Women have traditionally been stereotyped as more socially sensitive and interpersonally competent than men. The traditional stereotype of women included attributes such as being less competent and less effective in tasks that are required for work outside of home nurturing .
Stereotypes linked with men, on the other hand, typically included such traits as dominant, aggressive, independent, objective, and competitive .
In order to back up the theoretical frame of the female leadership research, it is necessary to conduct qualitative research, which will help to get insights into female leadership. This type of research helps an investigator to understand and explain the meaning of female leadership and reveal relevant qualities of women leaders. In the project in-depth interview was conducted with the team leader to find out the insights of the project team leader, what drives her, what qualities she possesses and what helped her to take this position. In the course of the interview the questions were asked from the general to the frequent (funnel method) to determine the inner motives of the women leader and beliefs about leadership. McKinsey also decided to run the focus group with potential applicants for its new project, in order to identify the business qualities of the women leader and to erase stereotypes about women's leadership .
According to the research findings, it was revealed that the team leader is an extremely passionate person and is driven by the interest to contribute to female leadership and help young women to build a successful career as leaders. On the ground of the research, the leader should be educated, focused and be ready make important decisions. A good leader needs to not only be an expert, but to see the bigger picture and have unconditional belief in his abilities .
The focus group has shown that women leaders are more assertive and persuasive, have a stronger need to get things done and are more willing to take risks than male leaders. Women leaders were also found to be more empathetic and flexible, as well as stronger in interpersonal skills than their male counterparts. Women leaders are able to bring others around to their point of view as they genuinely understand and care about where others are coming from, therefore the people they are leading feel more understood, supported and valued .
In other words, the qualities that make a good leader do not vary between men and women. After all, it is the person, not the gender, that determines a leader. Although, women are just catching up to men in terms of leadership roles, their unique experiences and supportive natures make them more than capable of leading the future .
The McKinsey study findings are summarized into four specific
statements about women's leadership qualities:
1. Women leaders are more persuasive than their male counterparts .
2. Women leaders demonstrate an inclusive, team-building leadership style of problem solving and decision making .
3. Female leaders tend to be extremely focused on completing a task assigned .
4. Women tend to prefer leading and creating flat organizational structures that allow for a more collegial atmosphere .
5. Female leaders typically promote cooperation and collaboration amongst team members .
6. Women are better at networking than men .
According to the research there are certain clear benefits of a women leader, what a male leader needs to learn. Through deliberate efforts comes naturally to woman leaders like emotional intelligence, coaching and mentoring instincts, collaboration and participation. Since women leaders can collaborate effectively, they face relatively lesser challenges in managing teams separated by function and location. With women’s high emotional intelligence, they also understand the motivational factors of subordination better and can also manage appropriately people with diverse cultures and backgrounds .
Since the last third of the XX century women were more actively involved in the social, economic and political life. However, women are less than men presented on the top levels of management and authority. Womenleaders face interrole conflict between the leadership and gender roles .
Women can overcome this conflict, if they reach real success and choose the sphere of activity in which they can apply relatively feminine leadership style. According to the case study, there are clear benefits associated with the presence of women at the top levels of management. There are more and more women who govern socially important projects and show their expertise and ability to lead others .
1. Kanyoro, Musimbi. “Challenges to Women's Leadership.” Speech in honor of YWCA of Salt Lake centennial celebration .
2. Rosener, J. B. America’s competitive secret: Utilizing women as management strategy. New York: Oxford University Press .
Abstract. In the last few years big attention has been given to leadership as phenomenon, because it is an unavoidable factor of all successful business systems. New generation of leaders needs to face many challenges; they have to create functional business systems considering each individual. Only that way they can develop employees’ full potentials and improve skills, create sense of belonging to the business system, and feel important for a company. In order to manage that successfully, first and foremost it is necessary to have the vision. The leader creates the vision, which will be jointly brought and accepted by each individual within the team, and then with full commitment it will be accessed to its realization. Big challenge for modern managers is to learn skills necessary to become efficient team leaders. Most business systems have realized that creating efficient team increases profitability, where leader’s role is extremely important .
Keywords: leaders, leadership, business system, team efficiency, profitability .
1. The role of a leader in the team and its significance Often, we think and ask how some managers achieve successful results in their business activities and others do not? How is it possible that skilled managers do not achieve the expected results in the new circumstances?
Experts believe that the answer is not in the intellectual capacity or knowledge of managers, but in the characteristics of the leader .
In order to become a leader, it was necessary to meet the following
conditions and to know the following facts:
• To become a leader, you should have your followers. Leaders carefully follow their people .
• A leader is not successful if people like him or looks at him with admiration. The characteristic of successful leaders is the fact that his followers do the right things (efficiency). Leadership is results, not popularity .
• Every business move of the leaders is being carefully monitored, as they are an example to the employees .
• Leadership is the responsibility, not just the position, title, privilege or money .
Being an effective leader is a challenging and uncertain business venture for many managers. The emphasis should be on mastering skills such as the patience to transfer information, mutual trust, ability to neglect the role of the authorities, ability to intervene at the right moment. The role of team leader is to focus attention on two priorities: managing external restrictions that affect the team and facilitate the team process1. These priorities imply four specific roles of the leaders, which we can see in Figure 12 .
Steckler N. & Fondas N. Building Team Leader Effectiveness: A Diagnostic Toll .
Organizational Dynamics, 1995 .
Robbins S. & Coulter M. (2005). Management. Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River. New Yersey .
Figure 1 – Team leader role
Source: Robbins S. & Coulter M. (2005). Management
Firstly, team leaders are a link to the outside world. The essence is to gather information from the environment and exchange information with the team members .
Secondly, team leaders are mediators. This means that when it comes to some problems, the team asks leader for help. In this case, the leader helps the team by asking direct and essential questions, based on which he discusses the problems and provides the necessary resources to solve the problems .
Thirdly, team leaders are conflict managers. When the conflict arises, leaders are helping to determine the cause of the conflict, what are the solutions to resolve the conflict, and reduce the conflict within the team to the lowest possible extent .
Fourthly, team leaders are teachers. In order for team members to maintain their high-level performance, the leaders are those who teach them and do everything they can to help them .
2. Team characteristics in the business system A man is a social being; he lives and works in a group, often in a team .
There are various definitions of the team phenomenon, but we can say that it is a group of people who has been appointed or chosen to solve a certain and usually complex problem, consider an issue and suggest a way for its most optimal solution, or to solve the problem on the basis of their own estimates .
The team has to be organized and must be maintained during its existence. Higher hierarchical level of the goal is, people in the team are more creative and persistent. Also, they will encourage more intensely each other to achieve the goal faster and more efficiently. When they accomplish one goal, it not the end, but there are new goals appearing. All of them have a specific purpose, because the boundaries of human achievement are constantly changing .
Regardless of the fact that success is a subjective phenomenon, we can conclude that there are several characteristics for highly successful and
• a clear and high goals; • fast decision making process;
• trust and support of the • high standards and shared environment;building a team; responsibility .
It is particularly important for the leaders who are individuals in the team, what are their competencies and skills. In the era of change, it is necessary for the leaders to successfully manage the team in order to achieve a good market position of the business system. A CEO survey is conducted every year, so in 2017 it included 1400 leaders from 80 countries around the world who expressed their opinion about the employees’ skills (Figure 2)1 .
Figure 2 – The hardest skills to find are those that can’t be performed by machines https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/ceo-survey/2017/pwc-ceo-20th-survey-report-2017.pdf Q: How difficult, if at all, is it for your organization to recruit people with these skills or characteristics?
Q: In addition to technical business expertise, how important are the following skills to your organization?
3. Creation of an effective team Business systems tend to base their activities on team work. The problems that arise in such attempts compel them to think why some teams are successful and others are not. It is necessary that business systems recognize the essence of team efficiency .
The efficiency of the team can be explained through the realization of
the following performances1:
1. Innovation / adaptation – the key is that the team adequately responds to the changes in the environment .
2. Efficiency of the team – refers to the successful realization of the defined goals using the resources available in the best way possible .
3. Quality – reflects the team’s ability to deliver excellent results using available resources while successfully satisfying the needs of consumers .
4. Employees’ satisfaction – implies the team’s ability to initiate voluntary commitment of employees and to encourage their enthusiasm by meeting the needs of team members .
Creating a team is a very complex task that lies before the leader, so we will point out the skills needed to build an effective team. At the beginning of the 1990s, the team from the Creative Center of San Francisco created the TELM model – Team Effectiveness Leadership Model. The TELM model should help leaders to identify the needs of the team, and then point out the paths that a leader should follow in order to build and run highly effective teams. The TELM model has three basic functions that are critical to
effective team leadership2:
Dunphy Dexter & Bryent Ben: Teams: Panaceas or Prerscriptions for Improved Performance. Human Relations, 1996 .
Ginnett R.C. Team Effectiveness Leadership Model: Identifying Leverage Points for Change; Hughes R.L., Ginnett R.C. and Curphy G.J. Leadership-Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. 3rd edition. Irwin-McGraw-Hill, Boston, 1999 .
• Team development .
Inputs represent everything that is available to the teams to perform the defined goals. The next area that a leader should take into account is the quality of the team process. It is the leader who monitors how specific tasks are performed and it is up to him to prevent the problems at the end of the process. Considering the great importance of assessing the process in developing leadership skills, it is necessary to know at least four effectiveness measures, based on which it can be predicted the way the teams
will work. If the team works effectively, it has to1:
1. Work hard enough .
2. Has the knowledge and skills necessary to complete the task .
3. Use the appropriate strategy .
4. Has a constructive and positive group dynamics .
Outputs or results of the team are the reasons for its creation, but also the actions of the team leader .
As we have already said, one of the most important functions of team leaders is determining the direction. A leader must have a vision in which direction he will lead the team. He needs to design a certain type of team, the skills they need to do the job, and also select the individuals who would make the team .
Another important function of the team leader is to design a team. This is very complex and demanding action for the leader. It is necessary to determine the type of team, its size, the distribution of the roles, but also the necessary knowledge and skills of potential members .
Development of the team is the third function of the team leader. The task of the leader is to find a new way to advance a team that is already welldesigned .
In the end, we can conclude that the TELM model represents a good basis for the leaders to build effective teams .
Hackman R.J. Groups that Work (and Those that Don’t). Jossey – Bass, San Francisco, 1990 .
4. Leadership influence on the team effectiveness on the example of the faculty organization As well as on the example of the company, the activities of each faculty are organized in a way that all employees are divided into sectors, depending on the work they perform and the responsibilities they have. Each sector is made up of a team of people led by their leader, manager or supervisor. The head of one sector, or department, is responsible for the work and results of his team. In order for the results of any team to be successful, the leader should adequately set the tasks and responsibilities of each employee. Also, he has to motivate his employees through appropriate communication, and all for the purpose of effective functioning of his team. In order to explain more closely how the team works in practice, we will offer a concrete example of the organization of a private faculty in Belgrade .
The Faculty of Applied Management, Economics and Finance is organized according to the principle of functional organizational structure .
According to this structure, the functions are distinguished into: marketing, student service, legal service, finance and the Center for Career Guidance .
Each sector performs one function. Each sector is led by a manager who is responsible for the successful functioning of his team .
Since the goal of each faculty is to enroll as many students as possible in the current year, the Faculty formed the Marketing sector, which is comprised of young people who like to work with high school students trying to attract them to enroll in the faculty. Their tasks are delegated by the General Manager of the Faculty, who monitors whether the tasks are successfully implemented and what are the results of the work of each employee. In order to engage young people to enroll in studies, it is very important to define the way in which the faculty will be promoted. As technology development is constantly growing, the easiest way to communicate with prospective students is via the internet: a significant part of the promotion is achieved through social networks .
Nowadays, young people are much more advanced in the use of modern technologies, and as a target group, they are enabled to find all information about school fees, activities and events related to the Faculty through the website, Facebook and Instagram profile. The task of the marketing team is to promote Faculty in an adequate way and to provide all information relevant to the potential students. The members of the marketing team organize workshops and trainings on various topics, so the manager has to motivate his team to be creative in order to differentiate the offer of the Faculty from the offer of the competition. In order for employees to be effective in achieving goals, the manager must provide support to employees through an adequate training and understanding of the problems encountered .
Sectors that work together with the Marketing team are the Center for Career Guidance and the Student Service sector. The Center for Career Guidance performs the function of cooperating with companies, concluding business and technical cooperation agreements, in order to provide its students with internship while studying. This type of partnership also provides the Faculty with the opportunity to promote itself in the media and among companies, and to indirectly attract new students. Contracts of this kind are made in cooperation with the Student Service sector. The task of the Student Service sector is to take care of existing students in order to maintain their satisfaction and the reputation of the Faculty itself .
None of the above mentioned teams can function without financial and legal service that fund the project and legally empower it. For example, the task of a marketing team cannot be finalized without financial and legal support. As all sectors have the same goal – the growth and development of the Faculty – they all work together and they are mutually conditioned .
5. ConclusionIt is a great responsibility to be a leader. The leader is the bearer of the consequences that can be positive or negative. A leader must have a clear goal and vision of how to manage his team. Also, the leader must know what skills an individual must have in order to be part of his team. In order to achieve successful results, it is necessary to create an efficient team, to have a team spirit and unity as this leads to an increase in productivity that is a successful business position of the business system in the market .
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Abstract. In this study the role of the leader in the organization has been analyzed. Leadership has been reviewed as an important component of effective management. The skills that a leader must have for effective organization management and operating have been defined. The case of Red Keds company have been investigated as a process of forming an organization .
Keywords: leader; the effectiveness of the Organization; leadership qualities; an effective leader .
What is leadership? Everyone has his own definition of this concept .
For years, people considered leadership as the process of influencing one person on a group of people when one directs and motivates others to achieve stated goal. Nowadays leadership is defined as the ability to lead people by revealing their specific abilities to achieve common good. After all, if the goal is only to achieve personal gain, success will be short-term. Leadership is a managerial relationship that arises in the process of activity between a leader and subordinates, based on a rational combination of methods of power and influence. The society often asks how people become leaders? Is it an inborn gift or some kind of art that has been mastered for years? There are a lot of theories about this. Now 7 basic theories about leadership will be considered .
1) The theory of the “great man”. The first theory of leadership is the theory of the “great man”, which over time evolved into a theory of leadership features .
The meaning of this theory is that history develops only through individuals. According to this theory, leaders can be in power or they may be scientists who invent and thereby change people’s lives .
It was also revealed that the main feature, according to this theory, is intelligence. At the same time, if the leader has special abilities that are inherited, then one must always remember about them .
So, the following theory has occurred .
2) The theory of “characteristic features”. This is a theory that suggests that the leadership skills of a person are innate, that great leaders are born but not become. The data of the theory describes great leaders as something mythical and heroic, whose mission in life is to become leaders .
This theory distinguishes four types of leader:
• “Technical”: solves short-term tasks. The main feature is intelligence;
• “Outstanding” – affects the group;
• “Sociometric”: beloved leader;
• “Selective”: it is revealed after performing various tasks. The most stress-resistant of the group .
3) The theory of “circumstances”. According to this theory, the leader has no specific leadership characteristics and innate ability to lead and everything depends on the specific situation and circumstances. Success depends on a number of factors and also different aspects of situations. The theory of circumstances also suggests that as a result of a crisis or an important event, a person can be at the height that reveals the exceptional leadership skills of an ordinary person, and thus he will become a leader .
4) Behavioral theory. This theory is based on the belief that leadership skills are acquired through training and observation. This theory pays more attention to the actions of leaders than their mentality .
In this theory there are 2 main characteristics:
• behavior oriented to create satisfaction with work of subordinates and their development;
• behavior oriented to the fulfillment of production tasks at all costs .
I would like to note that according to this theory, a leader can choose a certain leadership style and thereby become a leader .
5) The theory of “power and influence”. As a basis for this theory, a certain power and influence are exerted by the leader .
The main attention, by this theory, is given to the power networks and the influence that the leader creates with their help. Speaking clearly, behind every work or project there is a leader .
6) Transactional Theory “Management Theory”. Transactional theory is based on the relationship between the leader and the subordinates. It analyzes the mutual benefit and overall goals of the team through exchange .
At present, this is one of the trendiest theories about leadership .
7) Transformational theory. This theory is based on the adherence of followers to the ideas of the leader. The theory says that the leader can change the thoughts and behavior of his followers, but for this, the leader must go beyond the situation, and see it from a different angle .
Many people are eager to become leaders, but only few achieve this goal. The leader is the boss, the head of a certain organization, which influences other members of the group and enjoys authority among them .
Any person actually can become a leader, as they usually say: no one is born a leader, you should become one. It is eagerly necessary to make efforts and for years passionately to develop and train this ability, while acquiring the personal skills required for effective leadership .
What is the portrait of an ideal leader? What character traits should he possess? Responsibility is the first quality of a true leader. Not every person can take responsibility for the whole organization. The second quality of the ideal leader is self-discipline. After all, if someone is not able to control himself and his emotions, this person cannot be set as a model to others. And of course, it is difficult to imagine an ideal leader with no activity and initiative. Actually, just such people want and will follow. In addition, a real leader should not only be intellectually developed, but also should have a high level of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is the ability of a person to recognize own emotions, understand other people, their motivation, desires, and the ability to establish contacts with them. Emotional intelligence affects the way a person manages his own behavior, makes decisions and achieves goals. With a low level of emotional intelligence, it is impossible to become an ideal leader .
Who is the leader after all? How to understand if a person is a leader?
First of all, it is a person capable of enthralling more and more followers .
People are able to feel the depth and strength of a person's character, therefore, instinctively, they want to follow him .
In addition, the real leader always has powerful connections in the society .
Therefore, in order to become a real leader in the organization, you must immediately establish relations with the proper people. Also, the leader must have the necessary knowledge. Knowledge does not make some person a leader, but without knowledge a person cannot become a leader. It is necessary to comprehend concrete facts, perceive numerous sets of interacting factors and have a perspective vision of the future in order to gain the desired position in the organization. Leadership requires much more than collecting and analyzing data. It also requires the ability to deal with various intangible factors. After all, the person who leads the group, simply must know where to go. The vision of the prospect of their work is one of the most important organizational skills of the leader. In addition to what had been said, the most important thing for followers and adherents is what they call general capacity and efficiency. Ultimately, this is the very reason why people will consider him their leader, will listen to what he says and will act in the way he makes them. As soon as they stop believing that a person is really capable of accomplishing much, they will immediately stop listening to him .
What are the functions of the leader in the group? Before analyzing and defining these functions, I would like to note that the chief or superior (head) manager is not always the leader. So, they have different functions. C. Cooley said that the main function of the leader is to be a symbol. That symbol has to act like an example for imitation following by the leader. R. Beyls and F. Slater pointed the instrumental function including analytical, structural, coordinative and controlling functions. Also, one of the main ones is the emotional function of the leader .
The meaning of this function is to support, inspire and create friendly atmosphere in the team .
If all this is taken into account, then we can say that the leader keeps everything, as the leader can solve any problem and help in any matter .
He takes the leading role in the group. Control, structuring, inspiration – it's all done by the leader .
Every organization always needs leaders. The role of the leader is very clearly reflected in extreme situations. After all, when the situation is going to be unpredictable, the role of the leader becomes decisive .
Accuracy, prudence and proficiency depends not only on the success of organization he leads, but also the very fact of existence of the organization and the team .
The role of the leader and his formation can be considered using the example of students’ case-championship .
Case-championship is a kind of business problem solution, finding a way out in a difficult situation. It means the division of participants into teams .
At present, there are more and more such championships for students, as it seems to be the best way to apply theoretical knowledge in practice .
Although these championships presuppose solving problems by common efforts, a leader and his followers will always appear in the team .
How does this happen? That member of the team, who shows great activity, offers more solutions and seeks to take responsibility for decisions, and thus definitely becomes a leader .
It is this person to be followed by the rest of the team. They will definitely listen to his opinion and do what he offers .
As a case, the creative agency Red Keds was chosen. Today, due to the increased demand for advertising, more and more advertising agencies are appearing on the market. But not every agency succeeds. The company Red Keds is the sample and confirmation that success can be achieved due to the literacy of the leader and the proper formation of teams. The agency has already worked for several years with such successful companies as Mail.ru, Sberbank, L'OREAL and others. The creative agency started its work in
2005. The company develops advertising, design, any interactive communications. The main idea of the company is creative service to the humanistic ideals of humanity .
The company employs a CEO. Two of the co-owners of the company assist him. The first client of the company was the American advertising agency Leo Bernett in conjunction with which, Red Keds designed the web-site .
Since 2006, the company has ceased to work in partnership with other advertising agencies and is starting to promote its brand independently, operating directly with customers. The agency successfully cooperates with international mega-companies and well-known Russian firms .
Team building is a natural process in the development of any team and project. According to the theory of Bruce Takman, the process of teams’
formation is divided into 4 stages:
1. Team building – when team members meet, study opportunities and requirements, agree with common goals and begin to achieve them. At this stage, the head managers should be guiding other team members to the common interests of the team .
2. Conflict stage – when participants come to a new level and begin to argue, brainstorm different ideas. At this stage, the team leaders should help participants to resolve disputes and disagreements .
3. Normalizing stage – at this level the team comes to the conclusion that a common goal is chosen and a general plan is established for the team .
Some will have to abandon their own ideas and agree with other participants to act in the team .
4. Executive stage – at this level, teams can function as a single unit, as they find methods to do work smoothly and efficiently without inappropriate confrontations and without external control .
When forming a team, it is important that team goals unite people, and do not lead to employee competition. In case of the Red Keds agency, this theory is clearly applied, so the team has been divided into leaders or otherwise “groupheads”, each of them manages a separate department .
For instance, one grouphead manages the department of SMMpromotion, the other manages the department of strategy. Each department is a team, united by one project and one goal. Also, the company has a creative director who organizes and coordinates the activities of the advertising agency and the executive director responsible for planning, developing and implementing strategic plans for the company .
Thus, it can be argued that to achieve the success of the company, it is important not only to have a successful leader, but also the competent formation of teams. If the team successfully passes all the stages of formation, the overall goal of the company will be successfully achieved. The agency Red Keds is a vivid example of the competent team formation .
1. Blanchard Ken. Leadership: To the heights of success. NY: Peter, 2011. P. 3 .
2. Maxwell John. Educate yourself in the leader. 1993. P. 10 .
3. Principles of the formation of the project team. URL: https://bizcaselab.ru/blog/formirovanie-komandy 2017
4. The stages of the formation of teams by Bruce Takmen. URL:
5. Eight basic theories of leadership. URL: http://aboutyourself.ru/ psyteorii/vosem-teorij-liderstva.html
Аннотация. В работе была проанализирована роль лидера в организации. Рассмотрено лидерство как важнейший компонент эффективного руководства. Выделены качества, которыми должен обладать лидер для эффективного управления организацией. На примере компании Red Keds был рассмотрен процесс формирования организации .
Ключевые слова: лидер, эффективность деятельности организации. лидерские качества, эффективный руководитель .
Abstract. During the risks period, the advertising budgets in the hotel’s domain are considerable reducing. If, in the beginning, the hotels offer important sums to promote the brand’s image, with the aim of going public, during the risks period they focus on tactical and advertising campaigns .
Realizing the place and the role of the hotels’ s Business like a part of the tourist activity, this article wants to tap the responsible management problem of the financial-economical risks which affects the demand’s size for the tourist services, generally, and for the hotel’s ones, specially .
Keywords: hotel business, conditions of instability, risks, financial, economic .
The tourism is confronting with major challenges which represent, in the same time, chances that mustn’t be missed. On one hand, the Hotel Business must adapt to the society evolutions, which will influence the tourism’s sector demand, and, on the other hand, it must face the constraints imposed by the actual sector’s structure, of his specific context and his social and economic condition. The financial and economic Risks, that began in 2008 affects all the economies, had significant effects on tourist service’s demand, generally, and on the hotel’s one, specially. Even if they continued to travel, the tourists adapted their behaviors to the circumstances, specially choosing some hotels with a lower comfort grade, reducing the period of the holiday or the expenses during the holiday. The hotel management in conditions of instability can be considered as an exam for the manager to lead a successful business or to keep at a normal level his position in business, when the business’s environment is not favorable .
During the economic difficulties, people keep their money for life’s necessities: food, house, family’s necessities. However, this doesn’t mean that tourism is slowing. The tendencies that is observed in the last crises, even if we talk about the global economic crises or the crises from the tourism, for example the one resulted by the events of 11 September, is that people continue to travel, but they travel different in comparison with the periods of economic abundance .
The Hotel Management in Conditions of Instability The hotel business that will know how to adapt next month’s will survive because from every economic crisis it will always result winners and losers. The management in Conditions of Instability is defined like an organization’s systematic try to control or prevent the risks that appear, so that the interested parts (the clients and the organization) to have more than sufficient results. The global economic risks have a powerful effect over the hotel’s industry. The hotel’s managers will need to adapt the business plans for letting the biggest possible efficiency, and for convincing the worried and skeptical costumers to travel and, implicitly, to consume hotel’s services. The financial risks strike very much in the hotel managers who bet on big profits without offering packages of competitive services. When the global risks effects become more visible, the tourist begin to manage very carefully the allocated budget for satisfying this type of needs. Those who will offer quality at a reasonable price and will try to come with attractive offers for clients will have to win, and, in the end, this thing will be beneficial for the quality of the tourism in that destination .
Current State of The Hotel Industry and Efforts to Mitigate the Risks According to the international report of market research company Euro monitor International, World Travel Market Global Trends 2012, global trends in tourism varies depending on geographic areas, or economic and political changes. Given the new psychology of the buyer and the cut of travel budget, some international hotel chains have made some changes in marketing strategy (Table 1) .
Improving Personal Relationships with Consumers Improving personal relationships with consumers could be done in
- Provide a level of customer expectations of service quality across various forms such as: transparency using the services, trained personnel available, consulting services, etc.;
- Contacts with clients – such as frequent communication with users via email or telephone, effective communication with clients, meeting with customers, effective feedback of information;
- Development of business relationship with the customer base, such that seminars for clients and banc marketing support network, organizing study visits;
- Development of social relationships through special invitations, birthday gifts, anniversary greeting cards etc .
Table 2 which explains the Benefits generated by the permanent development of the relationships with consumers .
Table 2 – Benefits generated by the permanent development of the relationships with consumers Benefits For The Costumers Benefits For The Hotels Managers Bigger added value Sales increase The value is for the customer the Sales analysis shows that, over the years, result of what he gives and what it loyal customers tend to buy more and receives back from the hotel keeper more services offered by hoteliers who (cost versus quality, satisfaction, are in a durable relationship specific benefits) .
Benefits of trust Costs decrease These benefits accrue, in addition ofThere are many costs associated with trust company, reduced feelings of attracting new customers (advertising and anxiety and high comfort in knowing other promotional costs, operating costs what to expect from the hotel and achieving customer account, and so manager on). Instead, existing customers over time learn to use the service, which will lead to lower customer service costs Social benefits Free advertising As time passed, between the client Satisfied customers, loyal probably will and hotel keeper develops a familia- promote the hotel which they also called rity and stable social relationships
Source: Iordache C. 2013 .