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«ФЕДЕРАЦИИ ГОУ ВПО «КАЗАНСКИЙ (ПРИВОЛЖСКИЙ) ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙУНИВЕРСИТЕТ» ЕЛАБУЖСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ Кафедра основ межкультурных коммуникаций О.П. Пучинина УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ ПО ТЕМЕ “MEDICAL ...»

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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ

ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ГОУ ВПО «КАЗАНСКИЙ (ПРИВОЛЖСКИЙ)

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙУНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

ЕЛАБУЖСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ

Кафедра основ межкультурных коммуникаций

О.П. Пучинина

УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ ПО ТЕМЕ

“MEDICAL CARE AND HEALTHY WAY OF LIFE”

Пособие для преподавателей и студентов Елабуга 2014 Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета ЕИ КФУ Протокол № 39 от 29 мая 2014. УДК 821.111

РЕЦЕНЗЕНТЫ:

Борисова Е.С., ст. преподаватель кафедры общегуманитарных дисциплин ЧОУ ВПО Академия Социального Образования, Елабужский Филиал Яхина А.М., к.ф.н., ст. преподаватель кафедры английской филологии ЕИ КФУ Учебно-методическое пособие по теме “Medical Care and Healthy Way of Life” Для студентов 2 курса факультета иностранных языков Данное учебное-методическое пособие нацелено на тщательное изучение лексических тем «Медицина», «Спорт». Задания различного характера нацелены на расширение лексического запаса студентов, закрепление грамматических явлений и структур, развития навыков написания рендеринга .

СОСТАВИТЕЛЬ:

Пучинина О.П. ассистент кафедры ОМК ЕИ КФУ Принято на заседании кафедры основ межкультурных коммуникаций Протокол № 9 от 11.10.2013г .

© Казанский федеральный университет PART 1. MEDICINE .

Text “WE STUDY ANATOMY” In the practical Anatomy class we study the human body .

The principal parts of the human body are the head, the trunk and the limbs (extremities) .

We speak of the upper extremities (arms) and of the lower extremities (legs) .

The head consists of two parts: the skull, which contains the brain, and the face, which consists of the forehead, the eyes, the nose, the mouth with the lips, the cheeks, the ears, and the chin .

The ear includes three principal parts: the external ear, the middle ear, and the internal ear .

The mouth has two lips: an upper lip and a lower lip. In the mouth there are gums with teeth, a tongue and a palate .

The head is connected with the trunk by the neck. The upper part of the trunk is the chest and the lower part is the abdomen. The principal organs in the chest are the lungs, the heart, and the gullet (esophagus). We breathe with the lungs. The heart contracts and makes about 60beats per minute .

The principal organs in the abdominal cavity are the stomach, the liver, the spleen, the intestines, the kidneys, the gall-bladder and the bladder .

The framework of bones called the skeleton supports the soft parts and protects the organs from injury. The bones are covered with muscles .

The upper extremity is connected with the chest by the shoulder. Each arm consists of the upper arm, the forearm, the elbow, the wrist, and the hand. We have four fingers and a thumb on each hand .

The lower extremity (the leg) consists of the hip (the thigh), the knee, the calf, the ankle and the foot .

The body is covered with the skin .

Exercise 1. Learn the words and word-combinations from the text:

human body, trunk, limb, extremity, upper, lower, to consist of, skull, to contain, brain, forehead, mouth, lip, cheek, chin, external, internal, gum, tooth, tongue, palate, to connect, neck, chest, abdomen, ling, heart, gullet, to breathe, beat, abdominal cavity, stomach, liver, spleen, intestine, kidney, gall-bladder, bladder, bone, skeleton, to support, soft, to protect, injury, muscle, shoulder, forearm, elbow, wrist, thumb, hip, thigh, knee, calf, ankle, skin





Exercise 2. Which of the parts of the body below can you:

1. bend, 2. cross, 3. raise, 4. shrug, 5. nod, 6. clench, 7. stretch arms, back, eyebrows, feet, shoulders, teeth, fist, hands, head, legs Example: You can bend your arms and your legs .

Exercise 3. Which movement would you make in these situations?

1. when you wake up

2. when you're tired

3. when you're doing exercise

4. when you're angry

5. when someone's trying to shoot you

6. when you agree with someone

7. when you don't care

8. after you sit down

9. when you're gardening

10. when you don't believe something Example: When I wake up, I open my eyes and stretch my arms .

Exercise 4. Label the numbered parts of the body, using the following word. The numbers in black boxes are inside the body .

ankle, armpit, bone, brain, calf, cheek, chest, chin, earlobe, eyebrow, forehead, groin, heart, heel, hip, intestines, jaw, knee, kidney, knuckle, lip, liver, lung, muscle, neck, rib, shin, shoulder, spine, stomach, temple, thigh, throat, thumb, toe, vein, waist, wrist Text “YOU AND YOUT HEALTH” What do you know about disease?

Just what is disease? Disease is a change from the condition of good health. In disease, the normal structure or function of the body is harmed or weakened. Disease is often called sickness or illness .

A disease may last a brief time or a long time. It may be mild or severe. Some diseases such as the common cold may go away after a few days without any treatment. Other diseases require medical treatment to cure them. Still other diseases may require a lifetime of medical supervision to manage them .

Favorable standards of living help promote health. Also the body itself has defenses against disease. But now and then the defenses give away and illness occurs. Disease germs may break through the defenses. Parts of the body may begin to function poorly. Tissues in the body may grow in uncontrolled ways. Something may grow wrong with certain chemical reactions in the body .

Symptoms of Illness How do people know they are ill? Often they have symptoms such as pain, nausea, sore throat, lack of appetite, fatigue, or fever. However, a disease may be present without a person knowing it. Sometimes a disease is discovered during a routine health examination .

Illnesses, that can be passed along by an infected person to a well person either directly or indirectly are called infectious or communicable diseases .

In early 1900s infectious diseases were still a serious public health problem. Today as a result of improved hygiene and living conditions, new drugs, new kinds of medical treatment, and the widespread use of vaccines, the picture has changed. Many diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, scarlet fever, small pox, and diphtheria have been almost wiped out. However, some of these diseases – and others – pose problems in certain areas of the world .

The cold is the most common communicable disease. So far, scientists have identified more than 100 different viruses capable of causing cold symptoms. For this reason, no vaccine exists to immunize against colds .

Some diseases are not caused by disease-producing microorganisms. These diseases cannot be passed from person to person. No immunity can be produced from these diseases .

They are called noncommunicable. Among them are most diseases of the heart, allergy and a lot of others .

Exercise 1. Comprehension questions .

1. How do diseases vary according to the difficulty in getting them?

2. What helps promote health?

3. When does illness occur?

4. How is illness discovered?

5. What are infectious diseases?

6. Is there any vaccine against the cold?

7. What are noncommunicable diseases?

8. Why no community can be produced for these diseases?

Exercise 2. Find in the text equivalents to the following words and phrases .

Нормальная функция, структура нарушена, продолжаться короткое время, лёгкая болезнь, тяжёлая болезнь, пройти (о болезни), медикаментозное лечение, вылечить, условия жизни, защита от болезни, защита ослабевает, плохо функционировать, нарушиться, тошнота, усталость, отсутствие аппетита, обычный медицинский осмотр, инфекционное заболевание, передаваться от больного здоровому, проблема общественного здоровья, истребить (о болезнях), представлять проблему, самая распространённая болезнь, создать иммунитет .

Text “HEALTH AND THE BODY”

Pre-reading exercise. Find out how to pronounce the following words and word-combinations:

vitamin pills, teetotaler, squash, sprained ankle, obsession Keeping fit and staying healthy have, not surprisingly, become a growing industry. Quite apart from the amount of money spent each year on doctors’ prescriptions and medical treatment, huge sums are now spent on health foods and drugs of various kinds, from vitamin pills to mineral water, not to mention health clubs and books and videos about keeping fit. We are more concerned than ever, it seems, about the water we drink and the air we breathe, and we are smoking less, though not yet drinking less alcohol. This does not appear to mean that coughs and sneezes have been banished, or that we can all expect to live to a hundred. To give a personal example, one of my friends, who is a keeping-fit fanatic, a non-smoker (and teetotaler), and who is very particular about what he eats, is at present lying in bed with a wrist in cast and a badly sprained ankle. Part of his healthy lifestyle is to play squash every day after work, and that accounts for the ankle. He also cycles everywhere, and if you have ever tried to cycle through rush-hour traffic with a sprained ankle, you will understand how he acquired the broken wrist .

For health, it seems, is not just a matter of a good diet and plenty of exercise. Too much exercise can be harmful, as many joggers have discovered. Eating the right food can easily become an obsession, as can overworking, which you might have to do to be able to afford your membership in the squash club, your mountain bike, your health food, and a few holidays in peaceful and healthy places .

Comprehension exercises. 1. Answer the questions:

What is “to keep fit”?

1 .

What does “to become a growing industry” mean?

2 .

Why has keeping fit become a “growing industry”?

3 .

4. What do people do to keep fit and stay healthy?

5. Do all the efforts people make to keep fit help them stay healthy?

Is the author’s attitude to the problems raised in the text serious or ironic?

6 .

2. Do a project on your keep-fit programme and get ready to discuss it with your fellow-students .

Text “THE FIVE-MINUTE MIRACLE” Get a friend to lay their hands on you. It’s just as good as a pick-me-up as a glass of champagne .

Are the stresses of the day getting to you? Is tension tying you in knots? Is it? Then maybe what you need is a quick pick-me-up massage. Just five magic minutes’ worth can ease the tense and aching muscles in your neck and shoulders, soothing away headaches, and leave you relaxed and ready to take on the world .

Masseur Robert has developed a streamlined stress-busting massage that is much in demand among workers in the frazzled world of the City of London. But, anyone, he claims, can learn the technique, it’s so simple .

“You don’t need to be an expert – massage is the oldest self-healing system in the world,” he says. “You instinctively rub any aches and pains away, don’t you? Which means that colleagues at work and family and friends at home can master it and then take turns to de-stress one another.” It’s also perfectly possible to give yourself a massage, he says. A gentle pummelling of the small of the back, for instance, helps break up tension in that overstressed area. Gentle kneading with the fingertips to loosen the scalp eases headaches, while facial massage can keep lines at bay. You can even massage your own hands and feet, gently pulling tired, crampled fingers and toes back into shape .

In fact, says Robert – who did part of his massage training in China, where groups of elderly people gather in the parks at dawn to exercise together – staying mobile helps keep you young all over. It’s not old age that makes people stiff and slow. It’s our inflexible, sedentary way of life and lack of movement that brings on the years too soon .

Exercise 1. Make sure you know the meaning of these expressions. Make up sentences with

them:

pick-me-up; to soothe away; to take on the world; streamlined busting massage; frazzled world;

to take turns; to de-stress sb; pummel; the small of the back; to keep lines at bay; to bring on the years; to tie sb in knots; to break up tension .

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences from the text:

Five magic minutes’ worth can ease the tense and aching muscles … soothing away … a) You instinctively rub … b) A gentle pummelling of the small of the back helps … c) Gentle kneading with … to loosen the scalp eases … d) Facial massage can … at bay .

e) Staying mobile helps … over .

f) It’s our inflexible, sedentary way of life … that … too soon .

g)

Exercise 3. Paraphrase the following using the text:

1. Are your muscles tense?

I’m under constant influence of stress .

2 .

3. The massage will enable you to accept the routine world that is around you .

4. The massage is very popular among the employees of the City of London .

5. Anyone can learn to make a massage .

6. You may massage yourself .

If you keep exercising, it’ll make you feel always young .

7 .

8. Our way of life, which involves much sitting and little movement, makes you grow old .

9. Facial massage can reduce the lines on the face .

Exercise 4. Answer the following questions:

1. Who has developed a streamlined massage?

2. Why is it so much in demand?

3. How can a person heal himself?

4. How can you organize yourself to de-stress one another?

5. How can one massage oneself?

6. What keeps you young all over?

Exercise 5. Choose a synonym out of the row of words:

to pummel – entrench, intone, gulp, beat;

to knead – make dough, grunt, impress, indite;

to rub – distort, move on the surface, box, brush;

to heal – massage, bulge, cure, treat to relax – de-stress, end, empale, pump to cramp – tighten, pull, sit, thicken, versify sedentary – bent, sitting, economical Exercise 6. Retell the text using exercise 1 as a plan .

Exercise 7. Make up a dialogue based on the text discussing the advantage of the five-minute massage .

Text “UNHEALTHY HABITS”

Pre-reading questions:

1.What is a healthy lifestyle, in your opinion?

2. Have you or any of your peers chosen a healthy lifestyle? Why?

3. In what countries are people more concerned about healthy living? Why?

Read the article to find out the facts about substance abuse among high school seniors .

How well are teens taking care of themselves? Here is a report card on some of their choices OK, there are those dreaded pimples and that mess of raging hormones. But most American teens aren’t battling the scourges of adulthood – cancer, heart disease, arthritis. What young people are facing is their own minefield of health risks: an overwhelming array of behavioral and lifestyle choices and pressures from what to eat to whether or not to smoke or use illegal drugs. What they decide now could affect their health for a lifetime. Here’s a look at how

they’re doing:

Eating: Snack foods and sodas rule. On a scale of zero to 100 in the government’s Healthy Eating Index (80 and up being “good”), teens scored in the low 60s, which means “needs improvement”. Only about one in 10 adolescents get the recommended two to four daily servings of fruit. They do slightly better with veggies, with about one fourth scarfing down the recommended three to five. But that doesn’t mean they’re filling up on carrots and spinach – French fries, potato chips and pizza sauce all count .

Even more worrisome are a disturbing duo: eating disorders and rising obesity. More than half of all teen girls say they are or should be on a diet – incessantly battling the 40 pounds they naturally gain as they grow between the ages of 8 and 14. About 3 percent take it to the extreme, spiraling into bulimia or anorexia. There are no precise numbers, but researchers say eating disorders to be on the rise and are affecting children as young as 8. The health effects include osteoporosis, organ failure – even death. While far more common in girls, boys are also vulnerable. And they have their own obsession: the muscular look. Jackie Berning of the American Dietetic Association says creatine, an amir 3 acid supplement used by athletes to build muscle power, is now “the hot new thing” among teen boys. Most assume it’s harmless, but its safety hasn’t been tested long term .

Experts are increasingly worried about obesity, too. Today a record one in five teens is overweight (as defined by weight-to-height ratio), putting them at increased risk for heart disease, the nation’s No.1 killer. The immediate effects are already evident: weight-related type II diabetes – once called “adult-onset” – is now being diagnosed more frequently in adolescents .

Sedentary lifestyles are a big part of the problem. Daily enrollment in high-school P. E. classes dropped from 42 percent in 1991 to 25 percent in 1995. And when teens aren’t working after school or slogging through homework, many are watching TV or surfing the chat rooms .

Burning energy? Not .

Sleeping: Given the hurried-up, tech-driven lives they lead, adolescents aren’t exactly well rested. They should get at least nine hours of sleep every night, but only about 15 percent do. And a full quarter get less than six, says Dr. Mary Carskadon of Brown University. They’re “hugely sleep deprived”, she says .

High-school students, whose biological clocks keep them up later at night, have it the worst. Nearly 40 percent go to sleep after 11 o’clock on school nights, but have to be alert at their desks as early as 7.15. “It’s equivalent to sending adults to a business meeting at 4 a.m.”, says Dr. Mark Mahowald, director of the Minneapolis Regional Sleep Disorders Center. Some schools are changing their clocks to address the problem. At Broughton High in Raleigh, N. C. the opening bell was moved from 7.30 to 8.15 last August. A little more sleep – and maybe even time for breakfast. “They seem more awake and ready to learn,” says assistant principal Mike Ludwich .

Drinking, drugs and smoking: There is some preliminary good news here. Drinking, some drug use and cigarette smoking either held fairly steady or declined slightly last year after climbing in the early-to-mid-1990s according to the University of Michigan’s Institute for Social Research. Many teens are getting the message and deciding it’s cool to stay clean. But still, there are more than 3,000 new young cigarette smokers every day in this country. One third of high school seniors have used marijuana and about the same number now qualify as binge drinkers, consuming five or more drinks in a row over the course of two weeks. About one in 20 high schoolers has used the club-drug ecstasy, and heroin use has doubled since 1991. “You can’t go to a party where someone isn’t smoking weed or getting a drink,” says 17-year-old Marcus Robinson, a peer counselor and junior at Westlake High in Ohio. The side effects are huge: both smoking and drinking make kids much more likely to have sex, placing them at higher risk for STDs .

Mental health: Eating disorders, sleep problems and substance abuse can all be critical

clues to mental turmoil. Anxiety disorders are the most pervasive psychiatric problems in teens:

13 percent of children between 9 and 17 suffer social phobia. The big concern is suicide, which is highly associated with depression. Every year, one in 13 high-school students attempts suicide

– girls try to kill themselves more often than boys, but boys succeed far more frequently. “An amazing number of kids are either thinking about suicide or making suicide attempts or even dying,” says Dr. David Shaffer, a child psychiatrist at Columbia University. Shaffer is hopeful that a decline in teen suicides over the last few years will continue downward, but the rate is still staggering – three times higher among males in the 1990s than it was in the early 1960s .

In the end, teens should and will make their own choices. But they’re more likely to make the best ones if the adults in their lives do the right thing – communicate, pay attention and set a good example themselves .

Claudia Kalb, Newsweek, May 8, 2000 Exercise 1. Look through the definitions of informal or slang words from the text. Match the italicized words in the text with the correct definitions. Why do you think these words are used in a newspaper article?

1. to work hard at something without stopping, especially if the work is boring and difficult

2. fashionable

3. a short period when you do too much of something, especially drinking alcohol

4. to look quickly through information on the computer Internet for anything that interests you

5. to eat something very quickly and noisily Exercise 2. Read the article for detail and answer comprehension questions .

1. What eating habits do American adolescents have?

2. Why do some teen girls suffer from bulimia and anorexia? What are the boys obsessed with?

3. Why do many teens become obese?

4. What kind of sleep problems do they have?

5. Why do many teens decide “to stay clean”?

6. What are the side effects of substance abuse? X. Are most American teens mentally healthy?

7. Who should help teenagers make the right choice?

Exercise 3. Explain the following words and phrases from the text .

1. to battle the scourges of adulthood

2. a minefield of health risks

3. snack foods and sodas rule

4. veggies

5. incessantly battling the 40 pounds

6. creatine is “the hot new thing” 7. “adult-onset” disease

8. tech-driven lives

9. to get the message

10. the rate is staggering SPEAKING

Discussion questions:

Read the extract below and say whether you agree that exercising can turn into addiction. Prove your point .

Exercise addiction might sound like a contradiction in terms to the average person who struggles even to make it to a once-weekly step aerobics class. But while the majority of Britons still fail to raise their bottoms off the sofa often enough to satisfy the medical profession, a growing number of men and women simply can’t stop working out. Experts are now warning that overdoing things at the gym might be as harmful as overt laziness and can ultimately prove destructive to body and mind .

Read the following advice about stress. Do you think it is useful to the people in Russia?

Which do you think is worth taking?

Which is the easiest to follow? Which is next to impossible? What lllakl1. You think so?

DEALING WITH STRESS

Stress is a normal and necessary part of life; it is often a great motivator to get things done. However, excessive stress can produce symptoms such as insomnia, headaches, nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, irritability, aggression, and so on. It left unchecked, these symptoms can lead to illness and physical and emotional dysfunction .

Learn to recognize the things that cause you the most trouble. While you may not be able to avoid them, it will be reassuring to know they are the source of the stress and will help you feel more in control .

Accept the fact that stress-related discomfort is normal .

Try different methods (there is not one that works for everyone) to relieve your stress until you find something that works. However, avoid using drugs (including alcohol and tobacco) to relieve stress .

Avoid worrying about things over which you have no control. Try to keep your immediate stressful situation in perspective with your long-term goals and with the things that are most important to you .

Exercise is a very effective way of coping with stress. Exercise will help to ca1m you, and if you are fit, your body will be better able to cope with stress .

If your stress is due to personality conflicts with other people – especially if there’re is a family conflict – seek counseling for guidance and support .

Read the information provided by the UN population Fund and say whether the project described is feasible. Give your arguments .

UN population Fund Finances the Project on the Promotion of Healthy lifestyles among Russian Adolescents .

The Project on “Promotion of Healthy Lifestyles for Russian Adolescents”, now being, implemented jointly by the Russian Ministry of General and Professional Education and UNESCO with financial assistance from the UN Population Fund, is intended to contribute to the prevention of the negative processes currently finding, wide acceptance among Russian youth (drug addiction, substance abuse, alcoholism, smoking and use of tobacco products, the growth of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS, as well as the high level of teen pregnancies, abortions. Etc.), and having an extremely negative impact on the health of children and adolescents, including their reproductive health .

The project’s main goal is to instill in the generation of Russians now coming of age 3 responsible attitude to their own health, and the health of those around them, as a basic human value, and to make this attitude a standard in their lives .

One of the project’s purposes is the integration of issues of healthy lifestyle into schools’ curriculum. In addition, UNESCO together with the Ministry of Education plans to publish a series of books and brochures on healthy lifestyle for various categories of readers, such as students, school health care workers, parents, etc. The development of a working model of extracurricular activity for promotion of healthy lifestyle for Russian adolescents is also planned as part of the project. The Ministry also plans to conduct a wide-scale information and advocacy campaign .

Reading 1: gapped text You are going to read an article about a man who discovered that he had a dangerous allergy .

Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the paragraphs A-H the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is one extra paragraph, which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0) .

Text “THE DAY MY LIFE CHANGED” It was a bright and sunny Saturday afternoon, when events conspired against me to rearrange the rest of my life, in a manner that I could never have foreseen. My intention on that particular Saturday had in fact been to rearrange my life – but I had planned to do it in a very different way. [0 – H] I hoped that this would bring me riches and a new lifestyle .

While I was standing in the queue to buy my chance for a new life, I decided on the spur of the moment to buy a jar of peanut butter as well, so that I could treat myself to some tasty sandwiches later. [1 – ] That evening, while I was eagerly anticipating the results of the Lottery draw, I made myself the promised peanut butter sandwich and sat down in front of the television to relax. But very soon I 14ealized that all was not well – that very strange things were happening to me. [2 – ] Within minutes the strange feeling had spread to the rest of my face, and my throat felt constricted. Although I tried drinking cold water that didn’t help. My hands were itching, and when I touched my face I couldn’t feel it. I looked in the mirror, and could see that my face was red and that a rash was spreading over my body .

[3 – ] I had eaten nothing else for hours, and there could be no other explanation for my symptoms. I assumed that the jar I had bought was ‘off’, but when I checked the sell-by date, it was fixed for nine months ahead. So that wasn’t the problem. I decided to go to hospital at once, and find out what was going on. I set off for the hospital casualty department .

[4 – ] There I was told that the diagnosis was made. It seemed that I was one of a growing number of people with an allergy to peanuts. But how serious was it? Was it only a mild allergy? It was impossible to tell, and specialists told me that I had to assume that it was a serious form. They said that for the rest of my life I would have to carry a special syringe with me so that I could inject myself with adrenaline if I came into contact with peanuts by accident .

[5 – ] It’s surprising how popular an ingredient nuts actually are in many different types of food, and how careful people like me have to be with whatever they put in their mouths .

Sadly, many people who are free of the problem don’t take an allergy to peanuts seriously. [6 – ] I feel embarrassed when I have to ask waiters if the food I am choosing from the menu is nut free, or remind a friend who has invited me to dinner that I am unable to eat nuts. But I have no desire to experience the symptoms of nut allergy again – so I shall have to accept the rearrangement of my everyday life as a permanent feature .

A. After waiting there for what seemed like hours, undergoing a complete range of tests, I was called in to the consulting room .

B. Although I had no real idea what was actually wrong with me, the link with the peanut butter sandwich was obvious .

C. The first thing I became aware of was a tingling in my gums, and then my lips .

D. It was this information that changed my life, and now I look at everything I eat with great care .

E. It was acting on this impulse that later proved to be my downfall .

F. Even some of my friends see it as a bit of a joke, in spite of the problems it causes me in many different situations, some serious, some less so .

G. I tried to find information about it on the Internet, but found that most people are diagnosed early in life rather than as adults .

H. This involved walking to my local corner shop that morning and buying a ticket for the Lottery .

Reading 2: gapped text Exercise 1. You are going to read a magazine article about a 19-year-old girl called Daniela .

Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one, which fits each gap (1-6). There is one extra sentence, which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0) .

I CAN’T GO OUT Two years ago, when I was 17, I started feeling dizzy all the time and getting red spots all over my body. [0 – H] Finally I saw a specialist, who explained that I was severely allergic to many of the chemicals found in everyday things like clothes, food and make-up. The only treatment was to cut these chemicals out of my life completely .

To do this, the specialist said I had to live in isolation in a special room until I got better. [1 – ] My parents converted a small room for me at the top of our house, and I moved in straightaway .

The room is very plain – I can't even have paint on the walls because the chemicals in it are too dangerous for me. [2 – ] I sleep on two blankets made of special material, which hasn't been treated with chemicals – I can't use a mattress or a proper bed .

I have to be careful about what I eat too. My diet now consists of cereal, cabbage and beetroot, all cooked for an hour to make sure they don't contain any harmful substances. The only thing I can drink is spring water. If I eat or drink anything else, I get terrible stomach cramps. I really miss things like pizza and pasta and chocolate .

There's not really a lot I can do to pass the time. I can't have a TV or a computer, or a radio. [3 – ] I'm not supposed to use the telephone for the same reason, but that's one rule I do break. I wrap the phone in a thick towel so I'm not directly in contact with it, then I call my old school friends once a day for a chat. That way I can keep in touch with the outside world, the latest news, music and fashions. [4 – ] But I do miss having someone I can hug and be close to .

I can have visitors, but it's a very complicated process. Anyone who visits me has to make sure that for three days before they come, they don't use any soap, shampoo, or perfume. When they get to my house, they have to put on special clothes made out of material that hasn't been treated with chemicals. [5 – ] I've been living like this for two years now. Sometimes it makes me feel depressed, but I just try to think about the future and living a normal life one day. Fortunately, I finished my school examinations before I got ill. [6 – ] I'd also like a husband and children. But first I have to get better – and I'm determined I'm going to!

A I talk to my ex-boyfriend too, and we're still really good friends even though our relationship had to change when I moved into isolation .

B This means that if I get better I can have a career one day, maybe as a teacher .

C The floor is covered with special tiles made of stone, which is one of the few materials my body can tolerate .

D I'm allergic to the plastic in electronic equipment like this, and even to the ink in books .

E I was horrified by the news, but I realised I loved life too much to give up .

F As well as this, I've always been interested in fashion; before I got ill, I even did some modelling .

G And even after all these precautions they can't stay for more than an hour because I start to get allergic to them if they're near me for too long .

H My doctor didn't know what was causing them. so I went to see another, then another .

Exercise 2. What would you miss most if you were in Daniela's situation?

Exercise 3. Imagine that a cure has been found for Daniela and she is able to leave her room .

Make a plan for her first day out in the normal world. Think about:

where you would take her the sort of food you would have what you would do together .

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

Exercise 1. Express the following in one word or in a word-combination .

1. closed vehicle for carrying people who are ill, wounded in war or hurt in accident ____________________________________________________

2. a person who is ill ____________________________________________

3. suffering of body _____________________________________________

4. to lose one’s consciousness _____________________________________

5. to speak haltingly with a tendency to repeat rapidly the same words _____

6. to burn with hot water _________________________________________

7. when one does it, we wish him/her health (God bless you!) ____________

8. a separate room in a hospital ____________________________________

9. a shop, where you buy medicine _________________________________

10. a special construction for carrying sick people ______________________

11. tiny red spots on the skin _______________________________________

12. a person, who can’t hear _______________________________________

a person, who can’t see ________________________________________

13 .

a person, who can’t speak ______________________________________

14 .

15. medical paste made from oil or fat used on the skin to heal injuries ______

16. to advise or order the use of _____________________________________

17. a doctor who performs medical operations _________________________

18. to take off all clothes to the waist _________________________________

19. a piece of paper, which specifies the medicine for curing your illness _____

20. a place, where the patients come for the check-up ____________________

21. a pre-arranged time for smb to come ______________________________

22. a paid number of days given to you by your office when you are ill ______

23. a sick person, who is treated by a local physician ____________________

24. a sort of medicine, which can cure you of colds ______________________

25. a pain in your head, which you have felt for a long time _______________

26. to make a sick person healthy again ______________________________

Exercise 2. Arrange the following in pairs of synonyms .

to call a doctor; to come to oneself; contagious disease; to lose consciousness; to have a tooth removed; catching disease; illness; to have a tooth pulled out; to send for a doctor; to faint; to recover consciousness; disease Exercise 3. Complete the sentences .

1. If I feel feverish, I usually _______________________________________

2. If a person has a weak heart, he should _____________________________

3. If you have a sore throat, you consult ______________________________

4. If my grandmother has a heart attack, ______________________________

5. If you burn your finger, you _____________________________________

6. If you smoke, it ______________________________________________

7. If you want to recover quickly, you must ___________________________

8. If the treatment doesn’t agree with you, the doctor ____________________

9. If you start sneezing and coughing, you must take ____________________

10. If you want to lose your weight, you have to ________________________

11. If you hurt your leg, you should consult ___________________________

12. If you’ve caught a bad cold, you _________________________________

13. If your tongue is coated, the doctor _______________________________

14. If the doctor prescribes a bitter mixture for your cough, you ____________

15. If your head is bandaged, you ___________________________________

16. If your blood pressure is low, you ________________________________

–  –  –

Exercise 5. Answer the questions .

1. Do you often go to the dentist? Have you ever had your tooth pulled out? How often do you do to the dentist to have your tooth filled?

2. What symptoms do you usually complain of when you catch a cold?

3. Have you ever got a splinter in your finger? When was it last?

4. When does the doctor sound the patient’s lungs?

5. What diseases do you consider serious?

6. What contagious diseases do you know?

7. When do you usually send for the doctor?

8. Have you ever called for an ambulance?

9. Have you ever seen people faint?

10. Why do usually people break legs, hands and arms in winter?

11. Are all diseases curable? What incurable diseases do you know?

12. What children’s diseases do you know?

13. Do you always follow the doctor’s instructions?

14. Has any of your relatives or friends broken his/her legs, hands and arms? How long were they on sick-leave?

15. Can you give first aid? Have you ever given it to your friends or relatives? When did it take place last?

16. What do you usually do when you cut your finger?

17. Do you always stay in bed if you are running a high temperature?

18. Have you got a hot-water bottle at home? If so, what do you use it for?

19. Why do usually people have their blood-tests taken before eating?

20. When do people use cups?

21. Do you prefer to use medicine from the chemist’s or home remedies? Why?

22. Which of the diseases you know are rare nowadays?

–  –  –

Exercise 7. What are the questions to which the following sentences are the answers?

1. Unfortunately, my granny has several false teeth .

2. I suffered from bronchitis in my childhood .

3. I have to wear spectacles, as my eyesight is poor .

4. I was operated on for appendicitis .

5. My mother has pneumonia, that’s why she is in hospital .

6. The doctor prescribed me a mixture for my headache .

7. I feel giddy, that’s why I decided to stay in bed .

8. My arm is in a sling, as I hurt it badly last week .

9. Unfortunately, my father sprained his ankle, so he can’t walk now .

10. My granny has liver trouble, so she has to keep a diet .

11. When I am nervous, I lose my appetite .

12. She fainted, when she learnt the truth .

13. I am afraid of contagious diseases .

14. My dad has the flu with complications, that’s why he spent a month in hospital .

15. I consulted my doctor last week, as my back ached .

16. Many people in our country died of typhoid at the beginning of the 20th century .

17. I can hardly breathe, my nose is clogged up .

18. My Dad is long-sighted, so he has to use spectacles when he reads .

19. This doctor cured my little sister o mumps .

20. The doctor was unable to diagnose my uncle’s case in time, that’s why he has complications now .

21. I stripped to the waist, as the doctor was going to sound my lungs .

Exercise 8. Make up questions to the words in bold type .

1. There is a couch in every consulting room .

2. My sister always complains of a bad headache .

3. The scientist paid attention to the important findings of his latest experiment .

4. Besides his consulting hours a doctor goes out to the calls in the afternoon .

I shall follow the doctor’s treatment, which he has prescribed to me .

5 .

6. Yesterday he had an appointment with his district doctor for 11 a.m .

7. Scarlet fever may cause a high temperature .

8. The doctor must palpate your abdomen during the medical examination .

–  –  –

Exercise 10. Choose the correct alternative in each set. Only one is correct .

1. The doctor gave me a receipt / prescription / recipe for some painkillers .

2. There were a lot of people waiting in the doctor's surgery / ward / pharmacy .

3. It's quite a deep cut, but if you keep it clean it should heal/recover / cure quickly .

4. You feel quite hot – I think I need to take your fever / heat / temperature .

5. If you go on holiday abroad, you may need to have some injections / needles / incisions before you go .

6. When you catch a cold, you often have a very rough / sore / injured throat .

7. I did a lot of exercise and afterwards I had a hurt / pain / sore in my leg .

8. If you exercise without warming up first, you can damage / wound / hurt yourself .

9. If you keep fit, then you can get over / by / out illness more quickly .

10. Fortunately, I didn't break any bones when I fell, but I was badly banged / damaged / bruised .

Exercise 11. Fill in the right words .

1. The other day I witnessed a terrible accident. A bus collided with a motor car. The drivers were badly …. Many passengers were also seriously …. They were transported to the nearest … in an … which the policeman had called for. They were … first aid .

2. “Why do you speak so softly?” “I am ….” 3. “Why do you …, John?” “I … my ankle yesterday, while playing tennis.” 4. “I’ve just … my hand.” “You must put some ointment on it. Then it won’t ….”

5. Ann’s children have … … with scarlet fever. They were taken to the … at once as scarlet fever is a very … disease. It is such a pity they were not … against it. They say there is an … of scarlet fever in town now .

Exercise 12. Translate the English phrases into Russian and Russian phrases into English .

1. Я очень плохо себя чувствую. Where can I find a doctor?

2. У меня опух локоть. What doctor can you recommend me?

3. Вызовите, пожалуйста, врача. Where is the nearest polyclinic? Я хочу проконсультироваться с врачом .

4. Please give me the doctor’s phone number. Когда принимает доктор?

5. Что с вами? I have a high temperature. У вас болит горло? No, I feel sick and I have a rash. У вас все признаки ветрянки .

6. Положите градусник под язык и измерьте температуру. I have no temperature, I’ve just slight poisoning. У вас расстройство желудка, рвота?

7. Разденьтесь до пояса, пожалуйста. Я хочу прослушать ваши лёгкие. You have nothing serious, just a cold. You must stay in bed and take the medicine .

8. Мне нужно лекарство по этому рецепту and please, give me something for a toothache. Пожалуйста, принимайте эти капли .

9. Вам нужно посидеть на диете. Come and see me in 5 days. Также принимайте это лекарство по 1 столовой ложке 3 раза в день .

10. На что жалуетесь? I’ve lost a filling. Откройте рот. Oh, you have a swollen gum .

11. Мне придётся удалить этот зуб, он шатается. Wash your mouth and spit it out .

12. Этот зуб нужно подлечить. I’ll give you something to sooth the pain. А сюда мы поставим коронку .

Exercise 13. Complete the dialogue by translating Russian sentences into English .

Patient: Good morning, doctor .

Doctor: Доброе утро, садитесь пожалуйста. На что Вы жалуетесь?

Patient: Oh, doctor, I am feeling seedy. I fear it must be something serious with me .

Doctor: Не нервничайте. Успокойтесь. Расскажите мне, что с Вами .

Patient: I often have such extraordinary fits of giddiness that I hardly know what I am doing. My friends bought me some pills for them but nothing helps .

Doctor: Никогда не лечите себя сами. Разрешите измерить Ваше давление. (in five minutes) У Вас нормальное давление .

Patient: Doctor, I don’t know what the matter is with me but sometimes I can’t feel any pulse at all. Feel my pulse, please .

Doctor: Я как раз собираюсь это сделать. Пульс у Вас тоже в норме. Какие у Вас ещё жалобы?

Patient: In my opinion my liver is out of order .

Doctor: Давайте посмотрим, что с Вашей печенью … Я ничего не нахожу. Печень совершенно не увеличена. Почему Вы решили, что у Вас с печенью не всё в порядке? Вы чувствуете иногда боли?

Patient: No, I don’t feel any, but I have just read a patent liver-pill circular with all the symptoms described. I have them all .

Doctor: Простите, но мне кажется, что Вы забиваете себе голову тем, в чём Вы не разбираетесь .

Patient: Why, doctor, but I still have the main symptom of the liver disorder. I have a general disinclination to work of any kind. Perhaps, you’ll advise me a complete rest, won’t you?

Doctor: Как раз наоборот. Вы должны заниматься физическим трудом, спортом, побольше быть а свежем воздухе и не искать у себя болезней .

Exercise 14. Complete the dialogue by translating Russian sentences into English .

Mother: Доктор, что с моим ребёнком? Он тает просто на глазах .

Doctor: Don’t worry, we’ll do our best to bring your child back to health. But the girl should be taken to the hospital without any delay. It’s a pity you didn’t come earlier .

Mother: Мы обращались к врачам, но все они ставили разные диагнозы и назначали различное лечение .

Doctor: Still, what diagnoses had been made?

Mother: Некоторые находили, что это что-то со стороны желудка, другие утверждали, что у неё бронхит. А один врач отнёс всё это за счёт плохого питания. Доктор, а что скажете Вы?

Doctor: No doubt, the trouble lies in the lungs. But to make a final diagnosis the child should be X-rayed .

(After the X-ray examination) Mother: Доктор, что показал рентген? У неё что-то опасное?

Doctor: Unfortunately, the X-rays showed her right lung in a state of abscess .

Mother: Но Вы можете что-то сделать с её лёгким, назначить какое-то эффективное лечение?

Doctor: Sorry to say, the child should be operated on. She can’t stay with such a lung .

Mother: Как, нужно удалить лёгкое? Перенесёт ли моя девочка такую сложную операцию?

Ведь (why) ей только 10 лет .

Doctor: Compose yourself, steel yourself. I’ll do everything in my power to save your child .

(In a while) Mother: Хорошо, доктор, я согласна на операцию. Только спасите мою дочь. Она мой единственный ребёнок .

Exercise 15. Correct the following wrong statements .

Model: People use cotton when they are short-sighted. – No, they don’t. they use spectacles when they are short-sighted .

1. Only very old people have chicken pox .

2. Far-sighted people can’t see anything in the distance .

3. Lame people can run fast .

4. Blind people can run very quickly .

5. People usually take valerian drops, when they have a fever .

6. Smoking does people a world of good .

7. If your eyesight is poor, you usually go to the dentist .

8. If you have a splitting headache, you usually spread some ointment on your hands .

9. You have your chest X-rayed, if you break your leg .

10. If you are nervous, you usually take a glass of orange juice .

11. Heart trouble is usually catching .

12. You put some iodine on your hand, if you scald it .

13. You have your arm in a sling, if you cut a finger .

14. It usually takes you a month to recover, if you catch a cold .

15. You always feel feverish, when you have problems with your stomach .

16. If a doctor finds any rash on your arms, he puts them in a cast .

17. You are to gargle your throat, if your nose is clogged up .

18. After serious operations people never go health-resorts .

19. Smoking never tells on your health .

20. Appendicitis is an infectious disease .

Exercise 16. Substitute antonyms for the words in bold type and make all the other necessary changes .

1. When the nurse took his temperature, it was low .

The patient didn’t recover after the prescribed treatment .

2 .

3. They pay little attention to their health .

4. The doctor made a wrong diagnosis .

5. The patient took the thermometer out of his armpit .

6. She feels rotten .

Exercise 17. Find equivalents for the words and expressions in bold type .

1. Take this medicine. It will bring the temperature down .

2. After the proper treatment I became healthy .

3. My younger brother is ill with measles. He must lie in bed for several days .

The nurse measured the patient’s temperature .

4 .

5. It’s your turn to go out to visit a patient at home .

6. My friend wants very much to attend post-graduate courses .

7. Doctor Petrov usually receives his patients in Consulting-Room 10 .

8. He arranged to be seen by the doctor at 12 a.m .

9. The X-ray examination revealed no lung disease .

10. I’m afraid I have a bad cold because I feel very bad .

11. The doctor will tell you what disease you are suffering from .

12. Scarlet fever may often bring about a high temperature .

13. The hours during which Dr. Smirnov sees his patients are from 9 a.m. till 12 a.m .

Exercise 18. Read the text. Translate the words and phrases in brackets .

There is nothing more unpleasant than (заболеть) when you are away from home. If that happens, do you (пойти на приём к врачу) or send for him at once? He will come and (прослушать пульс, измерить температуру, прослушать лёгкие, осмотреть) you thoroughly .

He will (прописать диету) for you and tell you what to eat, and what not to eat, and he will probably advise you to give up drinking coffee, or tea, or both, and to smoke less .

If you want some (лекарство), he will give you (рецепт) that you can get made up in (аптека). Going to the chemist’s is rather an adventure in a foreign town. Chemist shops, these days, are wonderful places. Besides medicines and all kinds of (таблетки и мази) you can get all sorts of other things there as well, such as soaps, brushes, combs, bottles of every shape and size containing scent, (полоскание, микстура от кашля) and what not. You can buy toothpastes, toothbrushes and a hundred and one other things by man, woman or child .

Exercise 19. Find an adjective in list (b) to match a noun in list (a) .

For example: a catching disease .

(a) person, temperature, throat, chill, cold, headache, heart, pulse, disease, illness, cheek, health, eyesight, equipment, blood-pressure .

(b) catching, quick, chronic, sick, sore, normal, weak, bad, high, slight, swollen, medical, perfect, poor .

–  –  –

Exercise 21. Choose the right word .

The words usually confused:

illness – sickness – disease illness – health problem that you are suffering from, which makes you feel ill sickness – a state of being ill (contrasted with health) disease – a particular kind of sickness or disorder; it has a name and symptoms pain – ache pain – suffering of mind or body, localized kind of bodily suffering. It is sharp and sudden .

ache - a continuous, not sharp or sudden pain, usually used in compounds like toothache cure – heal – treat cure – to bring back to health, especially by means of medical treatment heal – to make completely better, restore to health after wounds of any kind (e.g. cuts are healed) treat – to take care of with medicines, etc. It refers to the process of curing (e.g. a person must be treated to be cured) .

a) ill – sick (Mind: “ill” is never used before a noun)

1. The nurse mixed the medicine with a teaspoon and gave it to the … man, who sat up in bed to take it. 2. When people are … and have a temperature of 39 degrees we say they are in a high fever. 3. When I go on board a ship or a boat, I feel …. 4. He was suddenly taken … .

b) illness (sickness) – disease

1. What did the man die of? Did he suffer from any chronic … or complication after a serious …? 2. The … was catching, and the doctor said he would put me on the sick-list. 3. Scarlet fever is a catching …. 4. His … prevented him from going to school together with his friends. 5. The doctor diagnosed the … as tuberculosis .

c) treat – cure

1. After that scarlet fever complications developed, and they had to be … for a month before the patient was completely …. 2. The open-air life in the mountains … him of headaches. 3. The doctor said that if I followed his instructions he should soon be … of the disease .

d) cure – heal

1. Fresh air, sunshine, good food may … a patient of consumption by … lungs. 2. After a fortnight of slight fever, the wound … and he recovered. 3. The doctor applied a medicine, which soon … the deep cut in my arm. 4. The pills are used to … heart diseases. 5. This ointment is used for … cuts and bruises .

e) ache – pain – hurt

1. As Joe was coming home, a sudden … in his heart made him stop and lean against the wall of the house. 2. Wet weather often makes old people feel a … in their bones. 3. He fell down the stairs and … his leg.. this heavy suitcase makes my arm …. 5. Did you … yourself?

Exercise 22. Fill in the right preposition where necessary .

I fell ill … flu .

1 .

Nobody has yet found a cure … the common colds .

2 .

He was treated … flu while he had quinsy .

3 .

What do you take … coughing?

4 .

He has a running nose/cold … the head .

5 .

6. Make … this medicine yourself .

7. He has been treated … long, but he is not cured .

8. I can hardly walk … my rheumatism .

9. You are pale … pain .

10. If you aren’t treated …, you won’t get better .

11. If you don’t have that tooth attended …, you’ll lose it .

12. He stayed … from his studies and his mother attended … him at home .

13. You must consult … a doctor .

14. You must have the prescription made … .

15. You must be treated … your anemia .

16. You must take these pills … your blood pressure .

17. You must be put … sick leave .

18. Many people who got … the habit of eating junk food have health problems .

19. More than 36 million people are living with HIV or AIDS. Ninety percent are living in developing countries, where they are dying … lack of the necessary medicine .

–  –  –

Exercise 25. Complete the following dialogue bу translating тоther' s words into English. Retell

the contents of the dialogue in your оwn words:

Treatment of Bronchial Asthma in Children (At the consulting room) М о t h е r – Четыре года тому назад моя дочь заболела бронхиальной астмой. Почти каждый год ей приходится некоторое время проводить в больнице .

D о с t о r – Perhaps her asthma was the result of аn infectious disease, wasn 't it?

М о t h е r – Вероятно, да. Когда девочка была маленькой, она перенесла корь и воспаление легких и с тех пор страдает астмой. Доктор, есть ли какое-нибудь новое радикальное (effective) лечение астмы?

D о с t о r – Nowadays wе obtain good results in the treatment of asthma applying curative gymnastics .

М о t h е r – В последнее время, моя дочь стала жаловаться также на боли в области сердца, она плохо спит ночью .

D о с t о r – No doubt, the repeated attacks of bronchiаl asthma interfere with the normаl activities of other organs, especially with the heart .

M о t h е r – Доктор, могу ли я надеяться на выздоровление дочери?

D о с t о r – Certainly, but the treatment frequently takes much time and patience .

М о t h е r – Моя дочь очень любила кататься на коньках, плавать. Неужели она никогда не сможет больше заниматься спортом?

D о с t о r – On the contrary, after the course of treatment we recommend our patients to go in for sports, to bе in the ореn as much as possible. All this is very good for consolidating the effects of the treatment .

М о t h е r – Я очень рада слышать это. Надеюсь, что Вы вылечите мою дочь. Извините, что отняла у Вас так много времени. Большое спасибо за Ваш совет, доктор .

D о с t о r – Don't mention it. I hope to sее your daughter as sound as а bеll soon .

М о t h е r – Всего хорошего .

D о с t о r – Good-bye .

Exercise 26. Render the story in English. Think over the ending of the story .

Когда Тони проснулся, то почувствовал, что не может встать. У него страшно раскалывалась голова, болело горло, был жар и боль в суставах. Тони понял, что серьёзно болен. Хорошо, что в доме он не один, и есть кому послать за врачом. Он слабо позвал мать. Вошла маленькая худая седоволосая женщина. Увидев сына, она воскликнула: «Что с тобой?» «Не знаю, не могу встать», - прошептал Тони. Она сразу послала за врачом .

Когда врач прибыл, он осмотрел Тони. Врач выслушал лёгкие Тони, измерил давление и температуру, посмотрел язык и горло. Он сказал, что Тони срочно необходимо госпитализировать, так как это дифтерия, опасное инфекционное заболевание. Мать Тони спросила у врача, сколько Тони придётся пробыть в больнице, так как она боялась, что частная фирма, где работает Тони, может уволить его, если он будет болеть слишком долго. Врач ответил, что он не может сказать точно, так как это зависит от многих факторов. Главное, по его мнению, чтобы Тони остался жив. Женщина расплакалась .

Тони был её единственной опорой в жизни, сама она была больным человеком, страдала от ревматизма и сердечных приступов. Её муж умер год назад от рака. Всё что у неё было

– это Тони … Exercise 27. Translate the following dialogues into English .

1. У врача Миссис Крэг: Добрый день, доктор .

Доктор: Добрый день, миссис Крэг. На что жалуетесь?

М К: Мне кажется, у меня что-то с сердцем. Прошлой ночью я не могла спать, у меня были боли в сердце и очень болела голова .

Д: Раздевайтесь до пояса. Я послушаю ваше сердце, измерю давление, пульс. Вы часто не спите?

М К: Да, я страдаю бессонницей .

Д: У вас высокое давление, поэтому у вас болит голова. С сердцем у вас есть проблемы .

Вам нужно показать кардиологу. А также необходимо сделать анализ крови и рентген грудной клетки. Я вам выписываю рецепт на успокоительное средство. А также нужно попить витамины .

М К: Доктор, а с сердцем, вы думаете, у меня серьёзно?

Д: Думаю, не очень. Но картина станет ясной, только после того, как вы сдадите анализы и сделаете дополнительные исследования, которые вам назначит доктор .

2. У зубного врача Доктор: Что Вас беспокоит?

Петров: У меня очень болит зуб .

Доктор: Разрешите я осмотрю его. (после осмотра) У Вас здесь полость. Нужно зуб лечить. Когда больше всего болит зуб?

Петров: После горячего и особенно после холодного .

Доктор: Придётся Вам прийти ко мне ещё завтра .

Петров: Жаль, что я не обратил внимание на этот зуб раньше .

Доктор: Разрешите, я посмотрю и остальные зубы. (после осмотра) Все остальные, кроме этого зуба, - здоровые. Завтра обязательно приходите .

Петров: Благодарю Вас .

3. Мать увидела в окно, как её четырёхлетний сын бьёт лопаткой другого мальчика:

- Что ты делаешь? Ты его так искалечишь, что ему придётся идти к доктору .

- Ему всё равно надо идти к доктору - у него насморк!

4. - Вы были прекрасным больным, - сказал врач. - Откровенно сказать, если бы не ваш здоровый организм, вам бы не выкарабкаться из этой болезни .

- Я надеюсь, - ответил больной, - что вы не забудете об этом, когда будете составлять счёт за моё лечение .

Exercise 28. Translate the following sentences into English using the active vocabulary .

A .

1. Когда вы заболели?

2. В какие часы принимает врач?

3. На что вы жалуетесь?

4. Где болит?

5. Это зуб следует удалить .

6. Вам мне не больно глотать?

7. Врач прописал мне микстуру .

8. Ты больна?

9. Ты выглядишь совсем плохо .

10. У меня сильно болит голова .

11. У вас грипп .

12. Вам следует полежать в постели .

13. У неё температура 38,8 .

14. Она болела корью?

15. Осложнений после болезни не было?

16. Я хорошо себя чувствую .

17. Грипп заразен .

18. Как здоровье вашего брата? Спасибо, прекрасно .

19. У него болит горло .

20. Какой диагноз?

21. Это лекарство мне совсем не помогло .

22. Как принимать лекарство?

23. Дайте мне что-нибудь от боли в желудке .

24. На что вы жалуетесь? Где болит?

В .

1. Мне не здоровится .

2. У меня болит ухо .

3. У меня болит горло .

4. Мне больно глотать .

5. У меня всё болит .

6. Мне больно ходить .

7. Она целую зиму страдала от простуд .

8. Ему удалили аппендицит .

9. Зайди в аптеку и закажи лекарство .

10. Я почти привыкла к ноющей боли в зубе, но сейчас эта острая боль невыносима .

11. Мне надо сделать анализ крови, рентген, измерить давление .

12. Я хочу запломбировать зуб .

13. Ему нужно сделать обезболивающий укол .

14. Мне дурно, меня тошнит, раскалывается голова .

15. Вдруг Тому пришло в голову, что хорошо было бы заболеть, тогда он останется дома и не пойдёт в школу .

16. Том обнаружил, что у него шатается зуб .

17. На этот раз ему показалось, что у него начинаются рези в животе .

18. У него не было ни малейшего представления о том, каковы признаки этой болезни .

19. Ему было так больно, что он даже забыл о своём зубе .

С .

1. Я боюсь, у вас высокая температура. Дайте мне вашу руку, я прощупаю пульс .

2. Доктор прописал вам что-нибудь вчера? Да, какое-то лекарство, которое я должен принимать 3 раза в день .

3. Когда врач принимает больных? – С 9 утра до 2 часов дня .

4. Можно мне записаться к врачу на 11 часов?

5. Если ваш однокурсник болен гриппом, он должен лежать в постели несколько дней .

6. Будьте осторожны, иначе у вас может быть осложнение после операции .

7. Есть вызов на улицу Свободы, 3. Он поступил несколько минут назад .

8. Врач велел вам сделать рентгеновское обследование и все необходимые анализы .

9. Я чувствую себя отвратительно, у меня страшно болит голова и горло .

10. Вчера мы вызвали врача, потому что наш сильно температурит. Я боюсь, что он болен ветряной оспой .

11. Как правило, каждое утро я делаю гимнастику и обтираюсь холодной водой .

12. Что случилось с вашим голосом? У вас болит горло?

13. Боюсь, что у меня простуда. Мне нужно измерить температуру .

14. Принимайте это лекарство. Оно должно понизить температуру .

15. Он чихает и кашляет. Он очень сильно простужен .

16. Что могло вызвать такое серьёзное осложнение? – Думаю, что больной не следовал прописанному лечению .

17. В начале медицинского осмотра врач просит больного раздеться до пояса, прощупывает пульс, прослушивает сердце и лёгкие. Затем врач посылает больного на различные анализы, чтобы проверить функции желудка, печени и почек .

18. Все те, кто поступают в высшее учебное заведение, должны представить медицинскую справку .

19. Наши учёные ведут большую научно-исследовательскую работу по борьбе с различными болезнями .

Exercise 29. Render the following texts in English .

Операция происходила точно так же, как и в прошлом году, только больной лежал на правом боку и разрез делали слева .

Разница была еще и в том, что Леша, по разговорам врачей, довольно ясно представлял ход дела и оттого ему показалось, будто операция длилась дольше первой. Когда ему становилось страшновато, Леша прислушивался к движениям и голосу Ивана Ивановича и успокаивался. Он дождался-таки этого человека, измучился, устал невыразимо и теперь покорно отдавшись в его руки, говорил себе: «Ну вот, я ошибся однажды, но потом выполнил то, что мог. «Он тоже сделает все, что может» .

И был один момент во время операции, не замеченный только самим Лешей … Это произошло, когда Иван Иванович добрался до ствола нерва и уже вырезал кусочек с двумя симпатическими поясничными узлами и показывал его ассистенту, держа кончиками длинного пинцета. Напряженное лицо Никиты, следившего, как бывало до поездки, за состоянием больного, привлекло его внимание .

- Пульс? – отрывисто спросил Иван Иванович .

- Сейчас скажу, – ответил Никита и пожал плечом, словно от неловкости .

- Быстренько дайте камфоры!

- Да, – произнес Никита, беря шприц, подготовленный возле него на столике .

- Леша, Леша!

- Потом прошибло, – ответил больной не сразу и глухо .

- Быстрее! – торопил Иван Иванович, не повышая голоса и не меняя тона. – У него хороший был пульс?

- Да, – так же произнес Никита, впрыскивая камфару в руку больного .

- Как сейчас себя чувствуешь? – спросил Иван Иванович Лешу и к Никите:

- Сделайте кофеин, потом укол адреналина .

- Ничего, – проговорил Леша медлительно, – только левая нога не дает покоя .

Операция окончилась благополучно, и Лешу, бледного, слабого, но успокоенного, увезли в палату .

- Что, Никита?... – промолвил Иван Иванович, снимая перчатки .

- Давление сразу упало до нуля, и пульс не прощупывался. Весь похолодел. Общий пот, но сознания не терял .

- Я боялся этого, потому что он слишком истощен болями и бессонницей, – сказал Иван Иванович. – С такими больными, у которых повышенная возбудимость, надо быть крайне осторожным .

Антонина Коnтяева, «Иван Иванович» .

ОПЕРАЦИЯ «ЧИСТЫЕ РУКИ»

Вирус можно получить где угодно: и в транспорте, и в магазине, и даже взяв телефонную трубку после больного человека. Ведь стоит кому-то чихнуть или кашлянуть, и миллионы бактерий рассеиваются на четыре-пять метров .

Особенно хорошо вирусы сохраняются в непроветриваемых помещениях. Поэтому ни в коем случае не заклеивайте на зиму форточку. Бойтесь сквозняков, а не чистого морозного воздуха. Хотя бы раз в день старайтесь делать влажную уборку. И почаще мойте руки. Во время мытья погибают восемьдесят пять процентов микроорганизмов .

ОДЕВАЙТЕСЬ ТЕПЛО И МОДНО

Наверное, самое надежное средство уберечься от простуды – отсидеться дома, отложив все дружеские встречи до теплых времен. Но ведь это нереально! Поэтому позаботьтесь о другом способе самозащиты – умении одеваться .

Забудьте пословицу: держи ноги в тепле, а голову – в холоде. Ученые доказали, что именно неравномерное охлаждение организма благоприятно для развития вирусных инфекций. Очень легко простудиться, разгуливая без головного убора, но в теплых сапогах, или когда на голове меховая шапка, а ноги промерзли .

Одевайтесь не только тепло, но и со вкусом. Как утверждают американские специалисты, модно одетые дамы простуживаются значительно реже. Красивые вещи поднимают жизненный тонус, и иммунная система лучше борется с инфекцией .

ЗА ЛЕКАРСТВАМИ – НА КУХНЮ

Обратите внимание и на то, что вы едите. Правильное питание повышает защитные способности организма. Наши прабабушки при первых симптомах простуды варили куриный бульон. Американские исследователи доказали: если выпить чашку бульона, носовые проходы быстрее освободятся от слизистых выделений. А вот жирная пища, мясо и молочные продукты способствуют отеку слизистой носа и гайморовых пазух. Поэтому, если вы простудились, временно перестройте свой рацион .

Сопротивление организма инфекции стимулируют и пара долек чеснока или луковица, а также овощи и фрукты, богатые витаминами А (морковь, капуста, шпинат) и С (клюква, смородина, черноплодная рябина, киви, фейхоа, авокадо и цитрусовые) .

Чудодейственную силу последних испытала на себе моя соседка Марина. Расстроившись, что на ответственную деловую встречу придется идти охрипшей, она незаметно для себя съела... два килограмма апельсинов. И к утру была бодрой и здоровой .

Конечно, употреблять витамины надо в разумных пределах, иначе к слезящимся глазам добавиться аллергическая сыпь. Чтобы сократить время болезни и смягчить ее проявление, нам достаточно в сутки всего 500 мг витамина С. Вместо фруктов можно использовать аскорбиновую кислоту, растворив ее в половине стакана томатного, абрикосового или персикового сока .

ПОЖАЛУЙТЕ К САМОВАРУ

При насморке мы постоянно дышим ртом, а пересохшая слизистая – прекрасная среда для размножения бактерий. Поэтому, чтобы победить простуду, пейте побольше жидкости – до шести-восьми стаканов в день: минеральную воду, натуральные соки и, конечно, чай (лучше всего – с малиной). Помогают и травяные чаи. Например, чай с корнем солодки успокаивает кашель и боли в горле. Не забывайте и о меде: двадцати четырех микроэлементов, необходимых нашему организму, в его составе – двадцать два .

САМОМАССАЖ В кончиках наших пальцев тоже заключена волшебная сила. Достаточно несколько раз в день помассировать биологически активные зоны нашего тела, и вирусы отступят .

Найдите "простудные" точки: над переносицей между бровями, у окончания бровей, бугорок между сведенными большим и указательным пальцами. Сделайте по десять вращательных движений по и против часовой стрелки. Или же разотрите основание пальцев ног. Эти простые упражнения можно делать и сидя перед телевизором, и после ванны, совмещая приятное с полезным .

Снимем стресс ПЯТЬ МИНУТ, ПЯТЬ МИНУТ.. .

Ощущение тревоги – результат стрессовой реакции, которая обостряет наши инстинкты при появлении опасности. Адреналин поднимает кровяное давление и учащает сердцебиение. Пищеварение останавливается, а сахар в крови поднимается, чтобы зарядить энергией мышцы. На короткое время тревога – положительный фактор, сигнал, что требуются решительные действия. Но если действия невозможны или сигнал оказался ложным, нарастает вредное для организма напряжение – стресс .

Один из лучших способов разрядить стресс – это физические упражнения. Они используют накопившуюся энергию, расслабляют мышцы и дают нам время подумать .

Другой способ расслабиться – медитационные утверждения. Повторения одного и того же простого утверждения может помочь сменить пессимистический настрой на оптимистический .

Упражнения и утверждения можно совместить, чтобы взять под контроль ощущения тревоги. Этот подход поможет разрядить напряжение там, где оно обычно скапливается, в плечах и позвоночнике. Кроме этого, вы сумеете сфокусироваться на дыхании и научитесь избавляться от вызывающих тревогу мыслей .

Позиция 1

• Живот. Втяните мышцы. • Плечи. Держите их параллельно коленям. • Колени. Держите их параллельно пальцам ног. • Руки. Положите на бедра для опоры спины. • Расставьте ноги на ширину бедер, носками вперед. Согните колени, наклонитесь вперед и сделайте движение бедрами, как будто собираетесь сесть на стул. Держите спину, позвоночник и шею прямо и сделайте глубокий вдох носом .

Позиция 2

• Подбородок. Опустите на грудь. • Плечи. Не сутультесь. • Бедра. Подожмите таз. • Согните колени еще немного и опустите плечи. Подожмите мышцы живота и слегка пригните спину. Не забывайте глубоко дышать носом!

Позиция 3

• Позвоночник. Представьте себе, что он становится длиннее. • Ступни .

Распределите вес равномерно между подушечками ступней и пятками. • Выпрямите спину и втяните живот. Поднимите плечи вверх, к ушам, затем опустите кругообразными движением к полу .

Позиция 4

• Плечи. Отведите назад и вниз; не напрягайте. • Шея. Выпрямите ее; подбородок опустите вниз, расслабьте лицо. • Ступни на ширине бедер, колени слегка согнуты, подожмите таз и втяните живот. Держите грудную клетку поднятой, плечи расслабленными. Повторите позиции 1-4 8-10 раз .

Позиция 5 Встаньте прямо и с закрытыми глазами стойте неподвижно, фокусируясь на том, что вы чувствуете. Сосредоточьтесь на своем дыхании. Вдыхая, думайте про себя: "Я спокойна, уверена и способна". Выдыхая, представьте себе, что вместе с воздухом выдыхаете напряжение и страх. Повторяйте, пока не почувствуете себя расслабленной и спокойной .

Еще несколько способов не беспокоиться Хроническое беспокойство – дурная привычка, от которой можно избавиться: встаньте лицом к лицу с проблемой и постарайтесь придумать несколько вариантов решения ее;

представьте себе положительный исход; подумайте о том, как хроническое беспокойство влияет на ваше здоровье и отношения с окружающими; отведите определенное время дня на беспокойство. Это позволит вам позаниматься своими страхами и сомнениями, но не позволит им целиком завладеть вашей жизнью .

Изобретение

КАК РАЗЛЮБИТЬ ШОКОЛАД

Самое трудное для тех, кто хочет похудеть, - это перестать есть шоколад. Потому что к нему привыкают чуть ли не как к наркотику .

К счастью, недавно появилось эффективное средство, позволяющее избавиться от этого пристрастия: повязка на кисть руки. Повязка распространяет запах шоколада, и человеку не хочется его есть .

Изобрела этот метод американка Лиз Боул. Она сама любила шоколад, по ее признанию, до умопомрачения. Каждый день ей требовалось съесть три плитки или выпить две-три чашки горячего шоколада. "Однажды я зашла в бистро, - рассказывает Лиз, - где стоял густой запах шоколада и была небольшая очередь. Уже через пять минут я почувствовала, что насытилась и больше шоколада не хочу" .

По утверждению специалистов, желание съесть тот или иной продукт возникает в основном после того, как человек ощутит знакомый вкусный запах. Оказывается, одним запахом можно и насытиться. Для того, чтобы навсегда избавиться от пристрастия к шоколаду, говорит Лиз, нужно носить повязку, не снимая, в течение трех месяцев .

"Новое русское слово"

–  –  –

1. Ela is always sticking her … into other people's business – no one has any secrets from her!

2. His new car must have cost him an arm and a.... It's a beautiful red sports car .

3. Could you give me a … with this suitcase? It's a bit too heavy for me to carry .

4. Tony is so lazy – he won't lift a... to help me with the housework .

… for violent films. I spend the whole time with my hands over my eyes .

5. I don't have the

6. She always knows the right thing to say – in fact, she never puts a … wrong .

7. Sara used to have lots of boyfriends but now she only has … for Adam .

8. If you need a … to cry on, I'll be there .

Exercise 32. Complete the following sentences using the following words .

weak, nimble, strong, flat, chubby, broken, swollen, sore

1. He had a fever and a very … throat so he went straight to bed .

2. The doctor said her wrist was probably not … but that he would bandage it anyway .

3. The baby had lovely … cheeks and curly black hair .

4. Most young people want to have … stomachs so that they can wear the latest fashions .

5. People who ski usually have very … thighs .

6. Climbing lots of stairs is not good if you have... knees .

7. Your ankle looks a bit …. Do you think you might have sprained it?

8. You need … fingers to fix small machines .

Exercise 33. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given. You must use between two and five words, including the word given. There is an example at the beginning (0) .

0. The meal in the restaurant may have been extremely expensive but it was really delicious. leg The meal in the restaurant may have cost an arm and a leg but it was really delicious .

1. Would you mind helping me move this sofa? hand Would you mind … this sofa?

2. I'm involved in a lot of projects at the moment. finger I’ve … a lot of pies at the moment .

3. When I needed someone to talk to about my problems, Bill was always there. shoulder When I needed …, Bill was always there .

4. Since I met Mark, I haven't looked at other boys. eyes Since I met him, I … Mark .

5. He was playing so well it seemed as if he couldn't make a mistake. foot He was playing so well it seemed he couldn't … wrong .

CREATIVE TASKS

Exercise 1. Write about an interesting home or folk remedy. Share it with your fellow-students .

Exercise 2. Make up your own dialogues using the situations below .

1. You come back to the Institute after being ill .

2. A visit to a sick friend .

3. You have caught a bad cold. You complain to the doctor .

4. Your little sister is ill. Discuss it with your friend .

You’ve undergone an operation and you are telling your friend about the surgeon who 5 .

performed it .

6. Your little niece (nephew) has got a splinter in her/his foot .

7. You’ve scalded your hand .

8. You discuss an accident you’ve witnessed .

9. Your aunt has broken her leg .

10. Your close friend is staying in bed with pneumonia .

11. You complain to the doctor of the illness you have .

12. You are examined by the doctor who gives you the necessary recommendations .

13. You came to a chemist’s to get some medicine made up for you .

Exercise 3. Make up situations using the following phrases .

1. I have a bad sore throat .

2. Everybody says that I look very healthy .

I don’t know what I can cure my running nose with .

3 .

4. You are running a high temperature .

5. You ought to consult a doctor about your heart .

6. You must have penicillin injections .

7. Put him on a stretcher and carry him to the nearest first-aid station .

8. I am afraid it is pneumonia .

9. You must go through all the necessary examinations: have your chest X-rayed and bloodtest taken .

10. Your neighbour has strained his arm (elbow). It will be about a month before he can use his right arm again .

Exercise 4. Dramatize the situations .

1. Mary was on duty in her hospital. She felt that something was wrong with her. By 8.30 she felt awful, her temperature was 40 °C. another nurse noticed it and asked what the matter was and called the doctor .

2. You are visited by your doctor. He doesn’t like your symptoms and tells you not to get up until your temperature goes down. He listens to your heart and takes your blood pressure .

Then he writes out some prescriptions and promises to return next day .

3. The moment the doctor leaves you make an attempt to get up, though you are aching all over. You say that you can’t bear lying in bed without anything to do. Your mother tries to bring you back to reason .

4. One autumn day Mr. Swing returned home from his office complaining of a splitting headache. He was sure he had a touch of flu and decided to take a couple of aspirins. But his wife wanted him to consult his doctor .

5. You’re 45, a housewife, have 3 children. You came to consult your doctor. You get a pain in your stomach after meals. Fried and oily foods seem to be to the worst .

6. You are a student of 19. You have constant headaches. Your headache is worse in the evening. You came to consult the doctor .

7. Jack and Chuck are talking about their health and about things, their doctors have told them to do. Jack has just had a complete physical examination (his annual checkup), and he says the doctor is not happy about his blood pressure. Chuck says his doctor had advised him to lose ten pounds, he says this (losing weight) is the hardest thing. Chuck has diabetes, and Jack asks him about the restrictions the doctor has placed on his diet .

8. When was the last time you were ill or had an accident? What happened? How did you feel? How long did it take you to recover?

Exercise 5. Write an essay on the following points .

1. My keep-fit programme helps me to avoid diseases .

2. Good health is above wealth .

3. Diseases are the interests of pleasure .

4. Health is not valued till sickness comes .

5. Heredity is the main factor of our condition .

6. My last visit to the doctor .

7. Our condition does not depend on us .

8. Medical care in Russia .

9. A sound mind in a sound body .

10. Live not to eat, but eat to live .

11. Think of a person you know who is very fit and healthy for their age. How do they manage to stay that way?

12. You have seen the following advertisement in a young people’s magazine. Write your article in 120-180 words .

The young people of today are likely to live longer and healthier than any other generation .

Why do you think that is?

Write us an article answering this question. The best article will be published next month .

Exercise 6. Write a summary of the article .

THE HAPPINESS GAP

We should be much happier and more contended than we have ever been, far fewer of us in this country are hungry or down-trodden than we were half a century ago. But we are more miserable. Why? Psychologist Oliver James believes many of us are having a chemical reaction to the difference between the dreams we’re sold and daily reality .

Serotonin: comfort chemical First identified in the 1940s, serotonin is one of the thousands of chemicals found at the place in the brain where physics and chemistry meet, the synapse. The synapse is a gap between the neurons down which electrical impulses pass .

When the current reaches the end of a neuron, it causes a chemical reaction in the synapse. Chemical messengers, including serotonin, are dispatched and pass the information on to the next neuron, and so on .

Many people unconsciously medicate their low levels using modern drugs of solace .

Alcohol raises levels in the short term, lowering them subsequently. MDMA, the key ingredient in Ecstasy, leads to a temporary flooding of serotonin in the short term, but at least in animals, it kills the serotonin receptors, causing permanent damage .

Smokers are twice as likely to be depressed, and therefore to be low serotonin, than nonsmokers .

Are we less happy than we were? It seems so. In the last 50 years in this country, our mental health has measurably worsened. In the history of humanity, we’re definitely winners. But we feel like we’re losers. We are much more likely now to be discontented, angry and self-attacking than we were in 1950, in a world of unheated winters, rationed food and very limited pleasures .

We are materially richer than most people could have imagined being then, but emotionally poorer, even though – we may be able to express our emotions more openly in public .

A 25-year-old today is between three and 10 times more likely to suffer depression. Violence recorded by the police in England and Wales has mushroomed from 6,000 crimes a year in 1950 to 239,000 in 1996. Compulsive behaviours, including eating disorders and addictions, are at epidemic levels. At least 20 per cent of us will suffer from a serious mental illness during our life; a further 20-40 per cent will show many of the symptoms .

While all these statistics can be disputed, few will dispute that the basic changes are real and substantial. Why should we have become so emotionally impoverished, when we are economically so much wealthier?

There is a chemical answer. Depression, aggression and compulsion have all been shown to correlate with low levels of the brain chemical serotonin – this is the chemical that is raised by taking modern antidepressants like Prozac. It is likely that at least half of us at any one time have low serotonin levels .

Most people imagine that if a chemical affects human behaviour, its levels have been caused by other chemicals or by genes. But levels of serotonin in animal and human brains reflect what is happening around them, socially and emotionally. If you are feeling lousy or in urgent need of a drink or a fix or a fling or a fight, you probably have low serotonin levels caused by the way we live now. And the system by which we live – advanced capitalism – as currently organised, creates low serotonin societies .

Studies of animals show that serotonin is highly sensitive to changes in status in those species where hierarchy is a key organising principle – such as humans. The importance of social status to serotonin levels has been definitively demonstrated in studies of vervet monkeys .

Dominant male vervets have higher levels of serotonin than subordinate ones. But which comes first, the high status or the high serotonin levels?

In a series of experiments, changes were made to the status of vervets, so that previously subordinate ones became dominant, and vice versa. Sure enough, serotonin levels tracked these status changes. When dominant vervet were removed from their group, after a couple of weeks a battle for dominance ensued among the previously subordinate. The winner had a higher level of serotonin once he had established his new status: becoming dominant caused the increase .

Successful human students have been shown to have higher serotonin levels. The fact that those who are subordinate or have low status, such as women and people of low income, are more prone to low serotonin problems (depression and compulsion in women, aggression in men) strongly suggests a link between low serotonin and status .

But why have such problems increased? Why should (here be more low serotonin people when more of the population has become wealthier and middle class, and women’s opportunities, status and real wealth have increased? The explanation is twofold: advanced capitalism fails to meet our evolved need for status; and it is destructive of the stable attachments to which we are instinctively drawn – it drives a wedge between mother and father, parent and small child and elderly parents and their families. It makes us feel like losers .

A primary cause of these changes is the rise of individualism and the increase in our aspirations. Previously oppressed people have come not only to believe they can enjoy unimaginable status and wealth, but to regard them as an entitlement, even though society is unable to deliver them .

When expectations outstrip real outcomes, we feel either aggressively resentful or depressed .

If reality falls short of our high hopes, we blame the system or ourselves, but either way, rates of depression and violence rise and we feel like losers – with low status and low serotonin. Until reality can catch up with the aspiration of equality, relative deprivation continues .

In developed nations, women particularly suffer. These societies have raised female expectations sky high, but have been unable to deliver, creating huge disappointment .

Depression, eating disorders and plea-for-help suicide attempts are three times more common in women than men .

Diana, Princess of Wales, suffered from all these problems, as well as a loveless marriage and acrimonious divorce. Like millions of her peers, she fought to be taken seriously, to be seen as neither mad nor just a pretty face; 80 per cent of those signing the remembrance books for her at St James' Palace are women .

The headlines read "The Nation Mourns" but 43 per cent of adults did not even watch the funeral on television. Perhaps the majority of the nation did not share the sadness. Of those that did, women identified with her, and also people (like gays and ethnic minorities) excluded in our increasingly divided society. It is possible that the grief that we have seen was a conduit for the suffering and anger of the many millions of low serotonin, subordinated people. They had the enormous collective consolation of being able to gather around a single issue and feel solidarity .

Extremely damaging and subordinating patterns of social comparison have developed since 1950 in all aspects of our lives. There is a daily avalanche of media images of slender women with perfect faces and skin. No wonder female depression and eating disorders have increased if women are forced dozens of times a day to compare themselves to such ideals .

In the 1970s, psychologist Douglas Kenrick barged in on male students whilst they were watching the TV programme Charlie's Angels (the Bay-watch of the time) and asked them to rate the attractiveness of a picture of an average female student. He did the same with students watching the news .

He found that the Charlie's Angel watchers gave the average female a lower score than the

news watchers. In further experiments, he showed slides to three groups of male students:

Playboy centrefolds, average women and

Abstract

art. Sure enough, the Playboy group rated an average-looking woman lower than the others .

This transferred to real life. After watching the slides, the Playboy centrefold group rated their actual girlfriends lowest in terms of attractiveness and how much they loved them. Kenrick showed students slides of models and of ordinary people. For both sexes, exposure to models from their own sex resulted in a lowering of mood, whereas seeing opposite-sexed stunners either raised their spirits or had no effect. Beautiful models happen to suit advanced capitalism, but the way they are used damages our mental health. The media has played an important role in making men and women dissatisfied with their bodies and with their real partners .

Whose interests are being served by these, and associated changes? Crudely, the answer is that advanced capitalism makes money out of the disappointment and depression, the dissatisfaction and rage engendered by overheated aspirations and unreal comparisons. It encourages us to fill the consequent psychic void with material goods and drugs of solace (alcohol, illegal drugs, food, nicotine). It profits from fostering spurious individualism by encouraging us to define ourselves through our purchases, with ever more precisely marketed products intended to create a concern to have this rather than that, even though there is often no significant practical or aesthetic difference .

Advanced capitalism requires continual economic growth, and this is only possible if needs are constantly diversifying to create new markets. There is a demand forever more needs, so that ever more specific new products can be devised to meet them. Money can be made from restoring the chemical imbalance in our brains, which results from these ambitions and false identities, by selling pills and therapeutic services .

I am not suggesting a conspiracy by bankers and materialistic retailers to make us miserable .

Writing of advanced capitalism as if it has volition anthropomorphises an entity, which has no will of its own – it cannot actually "do" anything. But advanced capitalism has evolved, in such a way as to do very nicely at creating and curing misery, with our inner lives footing the bill .

Advanced capitalism is currently out of fashion as an explanation. But it explains much more of what has gone wrong since 1950 than any emphasis on the breakdown of morality and communities. Consider the fact that most of us fight a battle against being overweight. This is a wholly new problem in the history of the world, caused by the phenomenal success of technology in creating diverse, abundant foods .

Unfortunately, like all animals, humans were designed to assume that food is scarce, not that there would be unlimited supplies of highly calorific food at all times. Advanced capitalism exploits our instinctive animal tendency to overeat fats and sugars, when what most of us need is plenty of roughage and a lot less calories. Having overeaten, we come to hate our share and to resent our ponderous bodies, and so we can be sold diet products. Or we may starve ourselves .

Together with the relentless images of thin, beautiful models, now of both sexes, the result is an unceasing sense of failure, of a losing battle against overweight. That we have beaten one of the most enduring challenges to human life – starvation – has become a threat to our mental health .

This is just one example of the way the combination of advanced capitalism and our basic instincts can leave us feeling like losers. To acknowledge that these problems afflict women more than men is not a backlash against feminism. What we are seeing is the classic pattern when the previously oppressed begin to see a chance of improvement: expectations outstrip reality in the early stages, creating the disappointment and depression of relative deprivation .

For the low serotonin individual, there are pills, therapy and alternative approaches to raise levels. But to change the low serotonin society causing these problems, something far more radical is required: we must develop an advanced capitalism that works for, rather than against, our mental health .

Oliver James is a clinical psychologist .

His new book Britain on the Couch is published by Century .

Exercise 7. Fill in the gaps with sentences given below .

HISTORY OF CHOCOLATE

Healthy calories To understand why an exhibition on the history of chocolate is being held in the unlikely venue of the Chelsea Physic Garden in London, you need to bear in mind the 17th-century approach to medicine. It was almost the reverse of current practice. Today vast sums are poured into formulating treatments for old and new diseases. Three hundred years ago, as European explorers came back from distant lands bearing fragrant and exotic substances, the aim of medical entrepreneurs was to identify ailments, for which these strange imports could plausibly be touted as a cure .

When the brown chocolate bean was introduced into Britain from Mexico and the American colonies, it was at first made into a drink, with supposed – if ill-defined – medical qualities. The self-indulgent chocolate bar came later; the after-dinner mint later still .

[1] Sloane was a towering figure in Georgian London, a driving force behind the establishment of the British Museum as well as a landowner, whose name lives on in some of the capital’s most fashionable streets and squares. Less appreciated is his contribution to the development of a national addiction: the average Briton chomps through 8kg (nearly 18lb) of chocolate a year, consumption exceeded only by the Swiss .

In 1687 young Sloane sailed to Jamaica to become physician to the colonial governor, and noticed that the local women administered chocolate to their sick children. [2] Like other mysteriously alluring substances, chocolate has from time to time been regarded as an aphrodisiac. Montezuma, the early 16th-century Aztec ruler, was reputed to consume up to 50 cups a day before repairing to his harem. His conqueror, Hernando Cortes, asserted in 1528 that a single cup enabled a warrior to all day without food .

Casanova was said to find chocolate more effective for his purposes than champagne; and cheaper to boot. [3] In Britain, though, it is often taken as a soothing bedtime drink, an aid to slumber rather than seduction – suggesting that its effects may be as much imagined as real. A prolific 17th-century letter-writer, Madame de Sevigne, complained that it once provoked a 16hour attack of colic and constipation, but she learned to love it in the end .

Today, when almost every pleasure is identified as addictive, a name has been coined for those unfortunates who cannot get enough of the stuff: chocoholics. [4] Not everybody's metabolism is so benign. Because of its fat and sugar content, chocolate is usually an enemy of slender elegance. Hence the guilt invariably associated with the dark, melting temptress - and hence the ambivalent title of the exhibition that runs at the Chelsea Physic Garden until September 7th: "Vice or Virtue?" A Brillat-Savarin, a 19th-century gourmet, also recommended it as a stimulant .

B Returning to London two years later, he experimented with his milk recipe and, having perfected it, sold it to a Soho grocer, whose successors sold it on to Cadbury's .

C One victim of the condition may have been Katherine Hepburn, who boasted of eating a pound of chocolates a day but kept her sylph-like figure to her death .

D A second link with the Chelsea garden is that Sir Hans Sloane, its chief early benefactor, was a pioneer chocolate fancier, credited with dreaming up the idea of mixing the powdered bean with milk .

HEALTH ISSUES

Text “LOTS OF EXERCISE AND LOTS OF MEALS” The fitness plan Weight-train intensely for no more than 46 minutes, three times per week – Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Perform 20 minutes of aerobic exercise, first thing in the morning on an empty stomach, three times per week – Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. Take Sunday off – it's a free day .

Alternate training the major muscles of the upper and lower body. For example, the first week, train the upper body Monday, the lower body Wednesday and the upper body Friday. The second week, train the lower body Monday, the upper body Wednesday and the lower body Friday .

Perform two exercises for each major muscle group of the upper body (including chest, shoulder, back, triceps and biceps) and of the lower body (quadriceps, hamstrings and calves) .

Train the abdominal muscles after the lower body. Basic weight training exercises include barbell and bench presses, dumbbell for biceps, squats and lunges. Select one exercise for each muscle group and conduct five sets, starting with a set of 12 repetitions, then increasing the weight and doing 10 reps, adding more weight and doing eight reps, and adding more weight for six reps. Then reduce the weight, do 12 more reps and immediately go to another set of 12 reps of a different exercise for that muscle group .

On all lifts, use a cadence of two seconds to lower the weight and one second to lift it, and hold the weight in the top and bottom positions for a count of one. For each muscle group, rest one minute between the first four sets. Then complete the final two sets with no rest. Wait two minutes before moving onto the next muscle group. Push yourself to reach higher every week. Always plan your training. Plan what time you are going to exercise, which particular exercises you'll be doing, how much weight you'll be lifting and how long it will take you to complete the session. Keep accurate records .

The eating plan In the Body-for-Life program, participants eat six small meals a day. Choose from a list of "authorized foods" six days a week. For every meal, select a portion of a protein (such as turkey breast, chicken breast, fish, lean meat, egg white and low-fat cottage cheese) and a carbohydrate (baked potato, brown rice, pasta, bread, oatmeal, corn, some fruits and other foods). Add a serving of vegetables (broccoli, carrots, green beans and others) to at least two meals a day. Limit portion sizes to approximately the size of the palm of the hand or a clenched fist. Drink at least 10 cups of water a day. Have a free day once a week when you can eat whatever you want – pizza, cheeseburgers, chocolate .

Mr. Ph. says he created a list of authorized foods because he believes there is a danger in giving people too many choices. There is a lot of choice in what they eat for their authorized foods, but there is not an infinite number. The daily diet totals about 1,500 calories for women and 2,300 calories for men .

What the critics say Dr. Ph.'s exercise program is getting raves from some fitness experts, but they caution that it may be too challenging for beginners and older people. A strength-training researcher says Dr. Ph.'s exercise program is sound. "It's very rigorous. You would have to be in pretty good shape to start with to do it without injury. The program is a demanding routine that may be a little too much for the average beginner or senior. But for many people familiar with strength training, "it is a well-designed program," he says, and the photographs demonstrating the weight training exercises in the book are "superb," as are the tips on techniques .

Director of the Center for Physical Fitness at Boston University and co-author of Strong Women Stay Young does not support Dr. Ph.'s eating program. "Nothing can replace good, whole food," he says. The executive director of the Center for Human Nutrition, a nonprofit research institute in Omaha, says some people may find the diet boring. "The biggest problem with most weight-loss diets is they become monotonous, and people go off the diet and regain the weight."

1. COMMENTS Weight-train – зд. комплекс физических упражнений с поднятием тяжести .

Upper and lower body – верхняя и нижняя части тела .

Bench presses ~ зд. скамейка для тренировки брюшного пресса .

Rep = repetition .

To be in pretty good shape – быть в хорошей форме .

Exercise 1. Render the article and put 7-10 questions based on its content .

Exercise 2. Look up the following words and word combinations in the Vocabulary; find

the sentences where they are used:

muscle, hamstring, calf (calves), barbell, dumbbell, squats, cadence, protein, carbohydrate, to get raves, caution, superb .

Exercise 3. Fill in the blanks with articles if needed .

… first week, train... upper body Monday, … lower body Wednesday and... upper body Friday .

... program is... demanding routine that may be... little too much for... average beginner or senior .

Exercise 4. Fill in the blanks with prepositions if needed .

Weight-train intensely... no more than 46 minutes, three times... week .

Select one exercise... each muscle group and conduct five sets, starting... a set... 12 repetitions .

... all lifts, use a cadence... two seconds to lower the weight and one second to lift it, and hold the weight... the top and bottom positions... a count... one .

The executive director... the Center... Human Nutrition, a nonprofit research institute.. .

Omaha, says some people may find the diet boring .

Exercise 5. Explain the italicized grammar constructions in the following sentences .

Alternate training the major muscles of the upper and lower body .

You would have to be in pretty good shape to start with to do it without injury .

Exercise 6. Translate into Russian .

Perform two exercises for each major muscle group of the upper body (including chest, shoulder, back, triceps and biceps) and of the lower body (quadriceps, hamstrings and calves) .

Train the abdominal muscles after the lower body .

For each muscle group rest one minute between the first four sets. Then complete the final two sets with no rest .

Keep accurate records .

Exercise 7. Comment on the sentences .

Push yourself to reach higher every week .

Limit portion sizes to approximately the size of the palm of the hand or a clenched fist .

There is a danger in giving people too many choices .

The biggest problem with most weight-loss diets is they become monotonous, and people go off the diet and regain the weight .

Exercise 8. Read and translate orally the following texts. Pick up all the sentences with Italicized words and look them up in the Vocabulary. Translate these sentences into Russian in writing .

Painkillers felt differently in women and men Giving the same post-operative pain reliever to women and men might not be good medicine, new studies show .

Tantalizing research reported at a National Institutes of Health meeting suggests women and men respond differently to some painkillers, and scientists can only speculate why. Sex hormones may be to blame, they say. Or maybe female and male brains have different operating systems when it comes to pain relief .

A group of doctors at the University of San Francisco studied three drugs in patients who had impacted wisdom teeth pulled. The drugs, members of the same class of pain relievers, worked better in women. The men's pain actually worsened after receiving small doses of one drug. The three drugs are all kappa opioids, a type of narcotic. Men might do better with a class of drugs called delta opioids, suggest studies in mice conducted at the University of Illinois. The researchers have homed in on a gene that might be involved in men's sensitivity to opioid painkillers .

But don't expect his-and-her painkillers anytime soon. No delta opioids yet exist for humans, though animal studies are under way. And the female-friendly kappa opioids now on the market aren't pure kappa, which is probably why they cause side effects .

Researchers work on custom drugs to treat cancer Vaccine's early results are showing promise Early results with personalized cancer "vaccines" – made using a patient's own cancer cells – are showing promise .

Some vaccines are already being marketed in the Netherlands and Australia, and several U.S. clinical trials are under way. The custom-made medicine is far less toxic than traditional cancer therapies. Advocates of personalized cancer treatment say it doesn't make sense to treat everyone with the same drugs. We're very different from one another and diseases, particularly cancer are very different in individuals .

Cancer often remains hidden from the body's own defenses, allowing tumors to grow and spread. After a tumor is surgically removed, it is shipped to a manufacturing facility. There, one of several technologies is used to re-package the tumor's cells, which are rendered harmless. The vaccine is then introduced into the patient's body over several weeks, forcing the body's immune system to recognize the intruder .

This also gears up the immune system for a search-and-destroy mission targeting matching cancer cells elsewhere in the body that previously went undetected. There is also some early evidence that the body "remembers" the cancer cells and attacks them again if they return after treatment .

Although all of the drugs are still being investigated, some results from clinical trials are intriguing. Much of the vaccine research now is focused on late-stage cancer patients who have few options remaining in their treatment. In one early trial of a melanoma vaccine from Antigenics, 38 patients in Italy with melanoma that had spread to internal organs were given vaccines made from their own tumors. Three of the patients showed a complete response, meaning the tumors disappeared from their bodies. One patient showed a partial response in which the cancer regressed by more than 50 %. Vaccinated patients also had a 61 % lower risk of recurrence .

Still unknown is whether personalized cancer drugs can be made on a large scale at a reasonable price when there is, by definition, no mass production .

Exercise 9. Render the content of the article in English .

Важна гармония Помните, что идеальная фигура – в значительной степени вымысел. Эстетические воззрения крайне изменчивы, они меняются от десятилетия к десятилетию. Очень редко кандидаты в Геркулесы и Афродиты принимают во внимание свою природную конституцию и данные, которые, собственно, и определяют вес и пропорции фигуры .

Надо уважать индивидуальность и неповторимость своей внешности .

Именно на этом принципе и построена система тренировок, называемая шейпингом (от английского слова shape "форма") .

В ее основе лежат физические упражнения. Их вид и интенсивность зависят от поставленной цели и желаемого результата. При этом учитывается конституция, возраст, возможности организма, состояние здоровья тренирующегося. В программу тренировок включена силовая гимнастика, "качание" на тренажерах для укрепления мышц, упражнения для формирования стройной фигуры и устранения лишнего веса .

Гимнастика обычно дополняется шейп-хореографией, которая позволяет не только обрести хорошую форму, но и научиться красиво и грациозно двигаться. С помощью компьютерной диагностики инструкторы определяют отклонение от "шейп"-модели. В целях "приближения" к ней они подбирают режим тренировок и рациональную схему питания .

Exercise 10. Give the names of the body limbs and inner organs mentioned in the articles. What are the muscles to which reference is made and where are they located?

Exercise 11. What meals are mentioned in the article? What foodstuffs are needed to cook them') Exercise 12. Creative writing topic: My favorite food .

Exercise 13. What do you think about weight reducing diets? Do you think you are overweight? If you are what will you do to loose excess weight?

Exercise 14. Comment on the weight control technics mentioned in the article .

Exercise 15. What do the critics say about Dr. Ph.’s exercise and eating program?

Exercise 16. Translate into English .

1) Тренировки с поднятием тяжести предусматривают интенсивные упражнения в течение 45 минут три раза в неделю. 2) Упражнения нацелены на раздельную нагрузку для мышц верхней и нижней частей тела. Например, в понедельник выполняются упражнения для тренировки мышц рук и груди, в среду - мышц таза и ног, в пятницу – вновь мышц плечевого пояса и рук. 3) Для каждой группы мышц разработаны два вида упражнений. 4) Упражнения выполняются с гантелями, скамейкой для накачивания пресса и тяжелыми гирями для бицепсов. 5) При работе со штангой даются две секунды для поднятия веса, одна секунда для удержания его в поднятом положении и две секунды для опускания вниз. 6) Необходимо выждать две минуты, прежде чем переходить к тренировке следующей группы мышц. 7) Каждую неделю нагрузку следует увеличивать. 8) Диета предусматривает шестиразовое питание в день. Каждое принятие пищи включает белки (курица, рыба, постное мясо, творог) и углеводы (печеный картофель, рис, хлеб, овсяную кашу, фрукты). По крайней мере два раза в день в пищу необходимо добавлять овощи:

брокколи, морковь, зеленый горошек и др. 9) Размер порции не должен превышать размеров ладони. 10) В день необходимо выпивать не менее десяти стаканов жидкости .

11) Раз в неделю надо устраивать разгрузочный день, когда разрешается есть всё: пиццу, чизбургеры, шоколад .

a) Compare these two diets. Which would you prefer? Why?

THE SHAPELY SHORTS DIET

For some women, their bottom is the bane of their lives. Slim or not, they fight a constant battle against gravity as those once pert cheeks slide with frightening speed towards the backs of their knees. If your bottom gives you grief, opt for this diet – but for best results, combine it with exercise too .

The fruit that smooths out cellulite Even if you manage to lose a few pounds from your bottom, you may still be plagued by unsightly lumps and bumps. Cellulite affects the overweight and skinny alike, so there’s no sure way of escaping it. However, it’s been suggested that oranges contain a magic ingredient which could help shift those lumps and bumps forever. So have an orange or a glass of juice every morning. After all, there’s no harm in trying .

Shorts diet rules On this diet, choose the menu options with the white colour-coded dots .

o Exercise is the real key to slimming down your backside, but that does require lots of energy, so make sure you feed your body properly. Swap lunch and dinner menus around if it suits your day better .

o Make sure you drink plenty of water to help flush out any toxins from your body. Try and cut down your tea and coffee intake (go for herbal tea instead) and avoid fizzy drinks, which tend to make you feel bloated .

o Allow yourself up to half a pint of milk a day – but make sure it’s skimmed .

o Try to avoid snacking between meals. If you are feeling really hungry and simply must have something to eat, nibble on healthy raw vegetables, such as celery or carrots .

On the spot exercises We all know how hard it is to motivate ourselves to do floor exercises, but we promise you this one is exceptionally good and really will pay dividends. It will only take a few minutes – but, for best results, you should try and do it every day. And as the exercise gets easier, increase the number of lifts you perform with each leg .

Try a little exercise

1. Begin by kneeling down on the floor on all fours, with your hands directly beneath your shoulders and your knees hip-width apart .

2. Make sure you’re well-balanced on all fours before you start, then lift your left leg up ( in line with your hip) and flex your foot .

3. With the tiniest of movements, lift this leg up a couple of inches – you should start to feel it your bottom! Repeat 20 times on each leg .

THE VEGGIE VITALITY DIET

If your thighs aren’t smooth as they used to be, try our special vegetarian diet. it’s low on toxins (so fast and highly processed foods, fats, salt, caffeine and alcohol are definitely out), but it is high in fibre, vitamins and minerals to help keep you healthy and clear out the nasties that cause unsightly lumps and bumps that we call cellulite .

Veggie diet rules If you’ve opted for our cellulite-bashing veggie diet, choose the menu options that are marked with the black dots .

It’s important to ensure you get enough nutrients on this diet, especially protein. Make sure you pick a good variety of meals to ensure a healthy balanced diet .

Swapping your meals around is perfectly OK. Feel free to exchange lunches and dinners as you please, but do try to eat lots of different kinds of foods .

Try to make sure you drink plenty of water, which will help flush out any toxins from your body. Reduce your tea and coffee intake (try herbal tea instead) and avoid fizzy drinks, which tend to make you feel bloated .

Allow yourself up to half a pint of milk a day – but make sure it’s skimmed .

Try to avoid snacking between meals, but if you are really hungry and simply must have something to eat, nibble on healthy raw vegetables .

Try a little exercise For a smoother body, you should seriously consider taking up some form of exercise because, if you boost your metabolism, you’ll speed up the rate at which toxins are eliminated from your body. Any kind of aerobic exercise will do and don’t worry if you can’t do much to begin with – just build up slowly and you’ll find it gets easier in time. Ideally, you should exercise for at least half an hour, three times a week to get the best results .

The salad that shifted pounds Make sure you shift those pounds forever by eating a diet that includes lots and lots of healthy fresh salad, vegetables and fruit. Salads are perfect for the summer so get together a good selection of fresh produce, like lettuce, tomatoes, cucumbers, radishes, beetroot, pepper, celery, carrot, spring onions and sweetcorn. Then add boiled eggs, or cottage or low fat cheese, and just a dribble of low calorie salad dressing, if you absolutely must .

b) Make sure you know what these word-combinations mean:

to be bane of one’s life; bumps and lumps; menu options; skimmed milk; to nibble on sth; to motivate oneself to; to pay dividends; to flex one’s feet; to clear out nasties; to flush out the toxins; to reduce tea and coffee intakes .

c) Imagine you are a doctor. Consult on dieting .

Text “THE NATION’S HEALTH AND WELL-BEING” For most of the century the state in Britain has recognised it has a responsibility to ensure that nobody should be without the basic necessities of life as a result of poverty, unemployment, old age or sickness. After the Second World War the government created health and welfare services which have been the core of 'the welfare state'. The system has grown over the years, funded mainly by tax, but also through National Insurance contributions, compulsory payments made by all earners and their employers. These contributions guarantee a small pension on retirement (now fixed at the age of 65, except for women born before April 1950, who still qualify at the age of 60), a period of income support after becoming unemployed, and a pension if unable to work because of sickness .

By the end of the 1970s these services were becoming increasingly costly and bureaucratic .

During the 1980s the Conservatives decided upon major reforms, to use less money but to use it with more discrimination. Reforming the welfare system has proved more complex than expected, and it still suffers from serious problems, some arising from the very attempts at reform .

The National Health Service The National Health Service (NHS) was established in 1948 to provide high-quality free medical treatment in hospital and outside. Its fundamental principle was equitable access for all, regardless of wealth .

The system rests on a network of family doctors, or 'GPs' (general practitioners) as they are usually known, with attached nurses and other community-based staff. People may register with any GP they choose, as long as the GP is willing to register them. A GP with a full register might refuse extra patients. Beyond the group practice lies the whole arrangement of hospitals and community health services, for example health visitors who monitor the health of vulnerable categories of people, such as mothers and newborn babies, or the old and infirm .

GPs remain the backbone of the NHS, dealing with the vast majority of ailments, and referring those requiring more specialist diagnosis to a hospital, or notifying the health visitor of those who need to be monitored at home. (Many other industrialised countries lost their 'first line' of generalist 'family' doctors during the post-war years.) Except in an emergency, it is normally the GP who refers a patient to hospital for more specialist care, or for an operation. Most GPs have about 2,000 people on their register, some of whom will hardly ever visit the GP's surgery .

Others may be regular callers. A GP is often expected to offer pastoral guidance as well as medical skill. On a normal day a GP might see about 35 patients in surgery, and make up to 10 home visits to those who feel too ill to attend surgery. The strength of the system lies in a good working knowledge of the families and individuals in the catchment area, their housing, lifestyle and employment conditions. Good GPs build up an intimate knowledge of their 'parish', and take into account not merely the specific complaint of a patient but also the patient's general conditions of life. Almost all GPs now operate in small groups of perhaps three or more, employing nurses and other professionals such as physiotherapists or dieticians, so that they can share the administrative load and also offer a wider service .

The NHS is the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Health. Until 1995 England was divided administratively into 14 regional health authorities, usually based upon a university medical school, each authority was subdivided into between 10 and 15 districts, and each district was based on one large hospital but also included other hospitals. Since 1996 the regional health authorities have been reduced to eight. Similar authorities or boards exist in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland .

The entire system is free, with the exception of prescribed drugs, dental treatment, sight tests and spectacles, for which there are standard charges, except for old age pensioners, children under 16 and some other categories for whom some of these items are free. Anyone entering hospital for surgery will receive all their treatment while in hospital, including drugs, free of charge. Over 80 per cent of the costs of the NHS are funded out of the income tax system. The balance is paid for out of National Insurance contributions and from the prescription charges mentioned above .

On the whole the system has worked extremely well, providing care at lower per capita cost than almost any other industrialised country. Foreign health economists admire the NHS above all for its GP system. GPs control referrals to hospital, and therefore costs, and also provide a local register of the population whereby one may engage in all sorts of targeted health measurements, including vaccination and immunisation. They also admire the NHS for its treatment for all, regardless of the ability to pay; a tax-based funding relating the service to need rather than to income. Finally, they admire its relative efficiency - a characteristic that would surprise the patients in most British hospital waiting rooms. They have been critical of its lack of consumer choice, and believe that British doctors should delegate more tasks to nurses, and nurses more tasks to order lies .

The cost of providing a service that employs just under one million staff has always been enormous. By the late 1980s, the health and linked social services budget reached one-fifth of all public spending, two-thirds allocated to hospital and community services and one-third to family practitioner services: the GPs, dentists and pharmacists. There is little flexibility for reformers, since over 70 per cent of the budget goes on staff costs .

During the 1980s the government tried to improve efficiency and cut costs. Hospitals reduced the average patient stay by 20 per cent, and increased the number of 'in' and 'day' patients by a quarter. For the NHS such stringency was uncomfortable, for Britain already spent proportionately less on its health service than any other of the main 20 industrialised countries, with the exception of New Zealand, Greece, Portugal and Spain .

By the mid-1980s the annual financial demand on the NHS was growing by 2 per cent above inflation. One factor was the ageing population, possibly accounting for an annual 1 per cent increase in costs. There will be over half a million people aged over 90 by 2001. Every person over the age of 75 costs the NHS seven times more than one of working age. In addition, medical advances were adding about 0.5 per cent annually onto NHS costs. In the winter of 1987-8 the NHS moved into a state of crisis with the sudden closure of 4,000 beds all over the country .

So the Conservative government carried out the most fundamental reforms of the NHS since its foundation. In keeping with its free-market philosophy, it sought a 'demand-led' system which would get as close as possible to consumer choice, and would compel health practitioners to account for the cost of the treatments they prescribed. As long as doctors did not have to face the financial cost of their own work, it was argued, they would not make the hard choices necessary for maximum efficiency. Consequently two categories of 'purchaser' were created: the local health authorities and volunteer GP group practices. They purchased hospital services according to which hospitals seemed to offer the best value for money. It was believed that such a competitive regime would force hospitals to be ultra-efficient in order to attract custom .

Purchasers were free to choose contract providers outside their own health authority area .

Furthermore, hospitals were free to opt out of local health authority control to become 'NHS Trusts', autonomous and directly funded hospitals selling their services to CPs and health authorities .

The internal-market philosophy had two inexorable effects. First, it was inevitable that a competitive market would produce both winners and losers, and that the winners would tend to be the bestequipped or best-located hospitals that were not overwhelmed with high local levels of sickness. Also, not every CP practice was given purchasing powers, and by 1996 only about 50 per cent had become 'fundholders'. In order to qualify for fundholding status, a CP needed to have a register of 3,000 patients, except in certain rural areas. Fundholding proved controversial .

Some doctors welcomed the powers it offered, both for their patients and themselves. Others regretted the greatly increased administrative burden .

Meanwhile those CPs without fundholding powers were unable to exercise choice. They found themselves compelled to belong to a market system but with the health authority determining where their patients would get treatment. Where health authorities were under acute financial pressure it was inevitable that the cheapest hospital treatment was the most attractive. Thus a 'two-tier' system, one tier superior to the other, was unmistakably emerging, contradicting the original NHS ethic .

Another area for concern was the loss of public accountability. The government created a Health Executive to manage the new service. This quango was answerable only to the Secretary of State for Health. This loss of accountability was also true at a local level, where elected representatives of the community were no longer part of the local health authority. The other obvious defects were the burgeoning of a health bureaucracy to deal with the new internal market at all levels, the huge transaction costs of running a contract market, and the severely reduced ability of health authorities to plan strategy when their own powers were largely limited to that of purchasers .

Yet there were also gains. One of the main observable achievements of the new system was to halve the waiting times for hospital operations in its first five years. CP practices were also encouraged to widen the services that they were able to perform, including minor surgery, as a more effective primary health care service that could significantly reduce the number of referrals to hospital .

By 1996 the NHS was again in crisis, partly because of inadequate funding. The annual budget by 1996 was in the order of 42,000 million, but tight funding once again led to the closure of wards, and waiting lists again began to grow. One of the problems was that the new system reduced the flexibility of the health authorities to switch money between one need and another .

The creation of self-governing trusts, for example, locked up capital investment in relatively small pockets. But it was also true that the annual increase in the cost of the NHS had risen to almost 3 per cent before inflation, by 1996 .

A Private Finance Initiative to attract commercial enterprises to build and own new hospitals which could then be leased to the local health authority for periods of 25 or even 60 years, shows little sign of working. The scheme was intended to alleviate the government's short term difficulties. But health authorities feared being locked into long-term contracts from which they had no escape. Moreover, no private investor was likely to put the health of the community before its own commercial interest .

By 1996 the NHS faced a serious staffing crisis. This was the result of several factors: a miscalculation over medical school enrolment in the 1980s that led to a 15 per cent fall in trainee doctors between 1988 and 1994; a greater proportion of women health professionals and of these an unexpectedly high number wishing to work part- rather than full-time; low morale among CPs, leading to many older ones taking early retirement. Finally, there was the quite unforeseen impact of stricter immigration laws introduced in 1985. Twenty-five per cent of CPs and many junior hospital doctors are from abroad. The change of law in 1985 brought this source of expertise to a halt .

It conveys an idea of the difficulties Labour inherited in 1997 that two-thirds of the health authorities entered the new financial year (which always starts on 6 April), four weeks before Labour's victory, already in debt. Labour faced the immediate task of finding sufficient money to resolve the crisis it inherited. It also had to decide what to do with the internal market to which it was opposed. Rather than subject the N HS to yet more revolutionary changes, Labour decided to modify the system in the hope of retaining its virtues but eliminating its defects. It therefore proposed increasing and restructuring the purchasing power of general practice. It proposed to abandon fundholding by individual group practices, and to group up to approximately 50 CPs serving up to 100,000 people, and to give them about 90 per cent of the NHS budget. These groups would choose the best local balance between community nursing (which keeps people out of hospital), direct primary care including the subsidy for prescribed medicines, and referral to hospital (the least cost effective option). It was hoped this would achieve a real shift from institution-centred to person-centred care, and foster strategic planning at the local level. Each group would still make service agreements with local hospitals. The reduced number of health authorities would receive less than 10 per cent of the NHS budget, and use it for highly specialist treatments like heart transplants. Labour hopes that this will achieve yet more administrative savings while making the NHS more responsive to community needs .

Britain has one of the highest levels of coronary disease and strokes in the industrialised world, particularly among those under 65 years of age. Between 1990 and 1994 the NHS was able to achieve a reduction of 19 per cent in deaths from these causes. But there is a long way to go to bring it into line with other industrialised countries. The British rate of premature deaths from this cause is, for example, three times higher than that in France. It has also been a priority to reduce the mortality rate due to cancers. The NHS has been less successful in some other areas .

Take smoking, which accounts for 110,000 premature deaths and 50 million lost working days each year, and costs the NHS 610 million annually in treatment. The level of adult smoking currently is about 33 per cent. While smoking among the adult population is slowly falling, it is increasing among 11-15 year-olds, particularly among girls. The level in this age band in 1994 stood at 13 per cent of girls and 10 per cent of boys .

Like much of the industrialised world, obesity is a growing problem. Despite health warnings and advice on diet, obesity in Britain has doubled in the decade 1986-96, with 17 per cent of men and 13 per cent of women now clinically obese .

Excessive drinking is also a concern, with an increase in alcohol consumption among women, a symptom of the growing part played by women outside the home and the greater stress this implies. One million people have a serious drink problem, but the disturbing feature is that it has become a young addiction. Twenty is the peak age for alcoholic consumption, in contrast with half a century ago when few young men drank .

Britain also lives with a potential time bomb caused by 'mad cow disease', Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE). The future incidence of the human form of BSE, a strain of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (CJD) cannot be predicted, and 15 years may pass before the scale of human infection is fully known .

Social security and social services Although 'the welfare state' was created after the Second World War, its origins are a good deal older. In 1907 a reforming Liberal government provided free school meals in its schools. The following year it introduced an old age pension scheme, implicitly accepting responsibility to protect the old from destitution. In 1909 it opened 'labour exchanges' where the unemployed could look for jobs. Two years later it made all working people pay 'national insurance' to provide a fund for those unable to earn either through sickness or unemployment. Thus the crucial principle of the state's obligation to assist the weak in society was firmly established .

The cost of that principle, however, is potentially enormous. The number of people dependent upon social security rose sharply during the 1980s. This was mainly because of the rapid increase in the proportion of the population over the age of 65, who consumed 44 per cent of social security expenditure. But there was also an increase in the unemployed and in dependent single-parent families, partly the result of Conservative policy. Ironically, its idea of 'minimum government' created maximum dependency as the government ceased to protect jobs in what it saw as inefficient or obsolete industries. A ruthless free-market economy led many middle-aged people to take early retirement, either willingly or unwillingly. By the 1 990s barely half the males aged 60-64 years old were still in work compared with 90 per cent in the 1960s .

Furthermore, 25 per cent of males and 50 per cent of females aged 55-59 no longer worked. This reduced the number of contributors to social security and added to its consumers .

Repeated attempts were made during the 1980s and 1990s to reduce the government burden. The Social Security Act of 1986 sought to reduce costs and target assistance more effectively. It encouraged people to move away from the State Earnings-Related Pension Scheme (SERPS) into private pension schemes. Because of the progressive increase in the proportion of elderly people, the government feared the state would be unable to honour its commitments. The Social Security Act also tried to slim down its system of help to particular categories of people. It refused to recognise those under 25 as homeless, since it argued that people under this age were still the responsibility of their parents. This contradicted the government argument that people should be willing to leave home in order to find work. It also ignored the fact that a substantial number of young homeless were fleeing family conflict, or had been brought up in council care .

Sixteen year-old school-leavers became particularly vulnerable since they were not eligible for unemployment benefit until they became eighteen. A growing number ended up sleeping rough .

The reduction of income support or housing benefit undoubtedly put pressure on some to seek employment more actively, as the government intended. The legislation was supposed to end forever the idea that some people could be better off without a job than they would be by going to work. 'Family credit', which sought to 'top up' low pay, was meant to fulfil this intention, but failed to rescue many people from the 'poverty trap'. This is well described by one opponent of family credit: 'Family credit is bad news, I'm afraid.... Many families will be getting more benefit, but you will be trapping them in poverty because each time they earn an extra pound in net income they will lose 70p in family credit and, taking housing benefit into account, they will lose up to 97p in the pound.' On the other hand, from 1993 the Conservative government provided help for those who were not institutionalised but cared for by their families at home. The new policy placed responsibility on local authorities to assess the needs of dependent categories and to provide appropriate assistance a flexible way. This proved better for the invalid, better for the carer (many of whom in the past suffered great stress), and better for government, since it led to a long-term saving on institutional care .

Labour inherited a major unresolved problem. By the mid-1990s half the households in Britain were on some kind of means-tested benefit. It wanted to avoid raising taxes for extra funding, and adopted a fresh approach, based on the principle of a twin responsibility, that of the community to help those 'who fall on hard times', and the responsibility of all individuals to make their own provision for foreseeable extra costs, for example pensions, social and nursing care for the elderly. That implied a mixture of public (community) and private (individual) funding provision. When it took office it examined ways to make private provision compulsory .

Besides wishing to reduce the community burden, Labour also wished to end the enormous waste of young lives through unemployment. In the words of Frank Field MP, Labour's leading expert on social security, 'Unemployment is both destroying self-respect and teaching that the only way to survive is to cheat. Means-tested benefits paralyse self-help, discourage selfimprovement and tax honesty. It destroys social solidarity and polarizes society between rich and poor.' Labour began to assist some of the one million young single parents to find work that would guarantee substantially extra money each week .

Social security is provided by central government, but social services are almost entirely the responsibility of local government. The local authorities are responsible for services to the elderly, for example institutional accommodation (only about 5 per cent of those over 65 live in institutional accommodation) and support services to encourage them to continue to live at home. Such support includes the home delivery of hot meals (,meals on wheels'), domestic help, laundry services and adaptations in the home, for example fixing handrails in the bathroom .

Most of these services are either free or heavily subsidised. Many of the 6.5 million who are physically and mentally disabled enjoy similar support, and also counselling on the personal and social problems arising from their disability. Residential accommodation is available for the severely disabled, and for the mentally ill. A fundamental principle, however, has been to encourage, wherever possible, the disabled or ill to stay within the community, rather than enter institutions. Although this sounds self-evidently sensible, in practice it has proved controversial since many of those mentally ill actually needed the care of an institution, and ended up sleeping on the streets as the ultimate result of this policy .

The local authority also has social welfare responsibilities for those with particular problems, such as single parents and children at risk of injury, neglect or abuse at home. During the 1980s, for example, local authorities became much more aware of the sexual abuse of children, something which had previously been thought of as a rarity. It slowly recognised that possibly 8 per cent of children suffer some kind of sexual abuse, and that physical violence to children and sexual abuse were related. In certain cases the local authority is empowered to remove children from home if they are considered to be at risk. Local authorities are also required to provide child day-care facilities .

The local authorities could not possibly carry out these responsibilities without the help of voluntary social services. In fact, over 65,000 registered voluntary organisations exist to provide particular forms of help. A few are known nationally, serving, for example, the blind, or those with cerebral palsy and other specific problems. The vast majority, however, operate on a local level, supported by volunteers .

In the London Borough of Richmond, for example, the Vineyard Project provides a day centre in a church basement, with activities for a wide range of people who require community support .

Some have had mental illness, others are homeless or feel alienated in some way. They have somewhere to go where they are welcome. Nearby the Single Persons' Emergency Accommodation in Richmond (SPEAR), provides accommodation for up to three weeks for those stranded without a home. It can accommodate 12 people, providing them with a base from which to seek a job and to seek somewhere to rent. Its wardens assist in the search for long-term accommodation. Such is its success, that many of those who pass through SPEAR continue to use it afterwards as a social centre in the evenings. Voluntary support on a daily basis is provided by the churches of the locality. Both the Vineyard Project, and its daughter project, SPEAR, only began as a result of the concern and determination of local people, Each year they must find the money and the volunteers to keep them going. This is the kind of thing being done allover Britain by many of these 65,000 voluntary organisations .

During the 1980s such voluntary efforts came under greatly increased pressure. The government believed the community, i.e. the churches and voluntary organisations, should shoulder more of the welfare burden, while its social security policy also resulted in increased homelessness and poverty for certain categories. Organisations like SPEAR came into being to respond to a growing need. It remains to be seen whether Labour will be able to meet the demands of the needy more effectively, Questions Section analysis

1. The National Health Service What are the strengths of the GP system?

2. The National Health Service What are the main reasons for the steep rise in the cost of the NHS?

3. The National Health Service What reforms did the Conservative government introduce for hospitals, GPs and regional health authorities, and what do you think were the virtues and defects of these reforms?

4. Social security and services Why did the number of people dependent on social security rise sharply during the period of Conservative government, 1979-97?

5. Social security and services In what ways did the 1986 Social Security Act reduce help provided for young people? What problems resulted?

6. Social security and services How did the Social Security Act of 1986 attempt to reduce the government's social security burden?

Chapter analysis and discussion

1. Policies on health care and social security have changed since the 1970s. In what ways have the following developments affected these changes?

a the huge increase in the number of elderly people b the growing number of unemployed people c the desire of government to spend less on health and social security

2. The 65,000 voluntary organisations in Britain provide many forms of help. Do you think that voluntary organisations a allow the government to avoid its responsibilities?

b put pressure on the government to meet its responsibilities?

c should provide more free help for those in need?

3. Compare the situation in Britain with that in your own country under the following headings:

a Availability of free medical treatment b Incidence of alcoholism c Provision of residential accommodation for the elderly, disabled and mentally

TOPICAL VOCABULARY

medicine n 1. медицина, 2. лекарство medical adj медицинский; medical care медицинское обслуживание health n здоровье; to be/to keep in good health быть здоровым; to ask after smb’s health справляться о здоровье healthy adj здоровый; полезный to feel well/be fine/all right чувствовать себя хорошо to be in good shape/fit быть в хорошей форме How are you? Как ваше здоровье?

How do you feel? Как вы себя чувствуете? I am/feel all right (very well, quite well, much better, a great deal better, so-so) thank you. Спасибо, хорошо (очень хорошо, совсем хорошо, значительно лучше, так себе). I am not very well (not quite well, not at all well, bad, unwell) .

Не очень хорошо (не совсем хорошо, плохо) .

You look the very picture of health. У вас цветущий вид. (Вы выглядите превосходно.) You are not looking very well. Вы неважно выглядите. You don’t look well at all. Вы выглядите совсем плохо .

ill adj больной; to be ill болеть, быть больным, e.g. The boy is ill .

to be taken ill заболеть, e.g. How were you taken ill?

to fall ill/go down with the grippe (measles, etc.) заболеть гриппом (корью и т.д.) to be out of order быть не в форме to be in poor/ill order иметь плохое здоровье to be in a bad/poor shape быть в плохой форме to feel seedy плохо себя чувствовать be in a bad state быть в плохом состоянии to take a turn for the worse наступило ухудшение one’s health gave way здоровье сильно ухудшилось contagious (catching) disease заразная болезнь to catch a disease заразиться not last more than не прожить дольше … to get better выздоравливать to be on the mend (coll.) поправляться marked improvement in one’s condition значительное улучшение to be out of danger быть вне опасности Consulting a Doctor doctor n врач, доктор a district/visiting doctor участковый врач to consult/to see, to go to a doctor обратиться к врачу to send for/to call a doctor послать за врачом, вызвать врача consulting-room n приёмная (врача) ambulance n автомобиль скорой помощи to call/to telephone for an ambulance вызывать скорую помощь patient n пациент, больной; to see a patient принимать больного What is the matter with you? В чём дело? Что случилось?

What is the trouble? На что жалуетесь? Что вас беспокоит?

complaint n жалоба; болезнь, недуг, e.g. What is your complaint?

(poli-)clinic n поликлиника, амбулатория consulting hours приёмные часы, e.g. What are the doctor’s consulting hours?

medical aid медицинская помощь first aid неотложная помощь first-aid station пункт первой помощи to give first aid оказывать первую помощь Patient’s Complaints Something is wrong with my eye (ear, etc.) У меня болит (меня беспокоит) глаз (ухо и т.д.) hurt (hurt) v. 1. причинить боль, повредить, ушибить, e.g. He hurt his leg when he fell downstairs. 2. болеть, испытывать боль, e.g. When I broke my arm last year, it hurt terribly .

pain n боль, e.g. Where is the pain? to have/to feel/suffer from a pain, to have pains испытывать боль, e.g. I have/feel a pain in the heart. The pain was gone. Боль прошла .

headache n головная боль; to have a headache испытывать головную боль; slight (bad) headache небольшая (сильная) головная боль; splitting headache ужасная головная боль;

toothache зубная боль; ear-ache боль в ухе; stomach-ache боль в желудке; back-ache боль в спине sore adj больной, воспалённый; e.g. I have a sore throat (finger, leg, etc.), to have a sore back испытывать боль в спине disorder n нарушение, sleep disorder расстройство сна, liver disorder расстройство печени disturbance n расстройство, visual disturbance расстройство зрения symptoms n pl симптомы to feel/to be giddy испытывать головокружение sweat 1. n пот, испарина 2. v. потеть to catch a chill простужаться to be hoarse охрипнуть, быть охрипшим ache 1. n боль (продолжительная, тупая), e.g. I’m all ache. У меня всё болит. 2. v .

испытывать боль faint 1. n оборок 2. v.падать в обморок insomnia бессонница to lose consciousness терять сознание to recover consciousness/to come to oneself приходить в себя heart trouble болезнь сердца, e.g. I have heart trouble lung trouble болезнь лёгких kidney trouble болезнь почек liver trouble болезнь печени injure v повреждать sprain 1. n вывих ; 2 v вывихнуть, e.g. I have sprained my arm (leg, ankle, etc.) swell (swelled, swollen) v пухнуть, опухать, распухать swollen cheek (arm, leg, etc.) распухшая щека (рука, нога и т.д.) swelling/lump n опухоль scald v ошпаривать splinter n заноза; to get a splinter into one’s finger (hand, foot, etc.) занозить палец (руку, ногу и т.д.) sick adj больной; to be/to feel sick испытывать, чувствовать тошноту, to feel sick at heart испытывать боль в сердце to suffer from insomnia (headache, etc.) страдать от бессонницы (головной боли и т.д.) to have (no) difficulty sleeping иметь (не иметь) проблемы со сном appetite n аппетит, e.g. I have lost my appetite .

to be nervous нервничать weak (bad) heart слабое (больное) сердце, e.g. I have a weak heart .

heart attack сердечный приступ cold n холод; простуда, e.g. Half the children in our school were absent with colds. to catch (a) cold простудиться; to catch a slight cold слегка простудиться; to catch a bad cold сильно простудиться, e.g. Put on some warm clothes or you will catch cold. Cold in the head насморк, e.g. I have a cold in the head .

cough 1. n кашель; slight cough небольшой кашель; bad cough сильный кашель; e .

g. A lot of people have coughs in winter. 2. v кашлять sneeze v чихать My nose is all clogged up. У меня заложен нос .

runny nose/cold in the head насморк fever n жар, простуда to feel feverish знобить, лихорадить temperature n температура One can have a high (low, normal) temperature. Температура может быть высокой (низкой, нормальной), e.g. 36,6 (thirty-six point six) is a normal temperature, to take one’s temperature измерять температуру; The temperature falls (drops, goes down), rises (goes up). Температура падает (поднимается) .

to be running high temperature. Иметь высокую температуру .

to feel shivery испытывать озноб nausea ['nsi,-zi,-] n тошнота vomiting n рвота dizziness n головокружение to feel limp чувствовать сильную слабость to feel stiff тело ломит fatigue [f'tig] n утомление to be low испытывать стресс, быть в подавленном состоянии to be run down быть переутомлённым a bout [baut] n приступ, a bout of depression приступ депрессии cut 1. n порез; 2. v порезать; to cut one’s finger порезать палец to break a leg (an arm, etc.) сломать ногу (руку и т.д.) wound n рана; to be wounded быть раненым, to be badly wounded быть тяжело раненым fit n приступ; fit of coughing приступ кашля; fit of giddiness приступ головокружения rash n сыпь itch n зуд spots n pl прыщи abscess n нарыв, абсцесс sunstroke n солнечный удар burn n ожог blister 1. n волдырь, 2. v покрываться волдырями, пузырями (после ожога) chilblain n обмороженное место constipation n запор constipation n запор diarrhea n понос boil n фурункул bleeding n кровотечение bruise [bruz] n синяк, кровоподтёк a black eye синяк под глазом Examining a Patient to examine/check осматривать, to examine a patient осмотреть больного examination n осмотр to listen to one’s heart выслушать сердце to see one’s tongue осмотреть язык to look in smb’s ears осмотреть уши pulse n пульс; to feel one’s pulse щупать пульс. The pulse may be quick (slow, weak). Пульс может быть учащённым (замедленным, слабым) .

to sound one’s chest (lungs) прослушать грудь (лёгкие) breath n дыхание; to hold one's breath не дышать; to take a deep breath глубоко вдохнуть breathe v дышать diagnose ставить диагноз diagnosis n диагноз, e.g. What’s the doctor’s diagnosis? to make a diagnosis to complain of sth v жаловаться на что-л .

trouble/bother/disturb v беспокоить e.g. What is troubling you? What disturbs you?

to have the symptoms of … иметь (у вас) признаки disease n болезнь; slight (serious) disease болезнь в лёгкой форме; curable (incurable) disease излечимая (неизлечимая) болезнь; catching (contagious) disease заразная болезнь complications n pl осложнения (после болезни), e.g. He had the flu with complications .

to strip to the waist раздеваться до пояса to bare one’s arm засучить рукав the tongue is coated язык обложен Do you have health insurance? У вас есть медицинская страховка?

Do you have any allergies? У вас есть аллергия на что-нибудь?

metabolism n метаболизм, обмен веществ Medical Advice and Medical Treatment treat v лечить; to treat smb for some disease лечить от какой-то болезни, e.g. He was treated for the grippe .

treatment n лечение sick-leave/sick-list n бюллетень, больничный лист; to be put on the sick-list получить больничный лист to write out a medical certificate выписать справку to keep one’s bed/to stay in bed оставаться (лежать) в постели to keep smb in bed держать в постели to have total bed rest to give sth for the flu (one’s cough, headache, etc.) дать что-л. от гриппа (кашля, головной боли и т.д.) prescribe v прописать (лекарство) prescription n рецепт alleviate/relieve the pain v облегчать (боль, страдания); смягчать instructions/directions/recommendations n pl указания, предписания, e.g. That are the instructions for the use (the medicine)? to follow the doctor’s instructions следовать указаниям врача to take sth for one’s cough (headache, etc.) принимать что-л. от кашля (головной боли и т.д.) to take a spoonful of sth = to take a spoon full of sth (here: full of medicine) table spoonful полная столовая ложка dessert spoonful полная десертная ложка, tea spoonful полная чайная ложка compress n компресс diet n диета; to be on/to keep a diet соблюдать диету, e.g. No cake for me, thank you! I am on a diet. to be restricted to a diet hospital n больница, госпиталь operate v оперировать; to be operated on подвергнуться операции, e.g. He was operated on last winter .

operation n операция nurse 1. n медицинская сестра; 2. v ухаживать за больным bandage 1. n бинт; 2. v перевязывать, бинтовать to do (a world of) good приносить (огромную) пользу, помогать, e.g. The electrical treatments did me a world of good. The medicine did not do him any good .

to do harm приносить вред, вредить, e.g. Did medical baths do you any harm?

cure v вылечивать, исцелять; to cure smb of some disease вылечить от болезни, e.g. Take this medicine, it will cure you of your cold .

recover v выздоравливать; recovery n выздоровление analysis n (pl – ses [-siz]) анализ, to have an analysis taken сделать анализ blood-test n анализ крови; to have a blood test taken сделать анализ крови, e.g. You must have your blood-test taken before eating .

to be tested for the AIDS antibody сдать анализ на ВИЧ to be X-rayed, to have an X-ray taken сделать просвечивание, рентген, e.g. You must have your chest X-rayed .

blood pressure n кровяное давление; to have high (low, normal) blood pressure иметь высокое (низкое, нормальное) кровяное давление; to take/measure one’s blood pressure измерить кровяное давление inject v впрыскивать, вводить injection (of some medicine) n укол, впрыскивание, вливание какого-л. лекарства to gargle one’s throat (with some medicine) полоскать горло (каким-л. лекарством) medical baths n лечебные ванны; to take medical baths принимать лечебные ванны electrical treatment электропроцедуры to be laid up in a hospital (with pneumonia) лежать в больнице (с воспалением лёгких) to fit smb in for an operation perform an operation on/for sth оперировать, сделать операцию, e.g. The young surgeon performed an operation for/on appendicitis .

undergo an operation/surgery подвергнуть операции amputate v ампутировать amputation n ампутация to have sth removed удалить post-operative adj послеоперационный to have after-effects/complications иметь осложнения to dress a wound (i.e. to wash, and bandage it) перевязывать рану dressing n перевязка, повязка; in a sling на перевязи heal v затягиваться (о ране и т.д.), залечиваться, зарубцовываться e.g. The wound healed slowly. It soon healed up .

to be under a doctor’s care находиться под наблюдением врача to tell on one’s health (eyesight, etc.) сказываться на здоровье (зрении и т.д.), e.g. This hard work is telling on his health .

to agree with быть полезным, e.g. The treatment doesn’t agree with me. (Это лечение мне противопоказано.) health-resort n курорт DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid ДНК, деоксирибонуклеиновая кислота; DNA test анализ ДНК genetic test генетический тест/анализ At a Chemist’s. Medicines pharmaceuticals n pl фармакология;

pharmaceuticals company фармацевтическая компания remedy n средство, лекарство pain-killer n (разг.) болеутоляющее средство plaster n пластырь, гипс, mustard plaster n горчичник valerian drops n pl валериановые капли hot-water bottle/bag n грелка chemist n аптекарь; chemist’s (shop) аптека to make up a prescription приготовлять лекарство по рецепту mixture n микстура pills/tablets n pl пилюли, таблетки powders n pl порошки drops n pl капли ointment n мазь iodine n йод cotton n вата cups n pl банки; cup v ставить банки laxative n слабительное sedative n успокоительное средство adhesive tape лейкопластырь aspirin n аспирин antacid n нейтрализующее кислоту средство Band-Aids n пластырь boric acid борная кислота cough medicine лекарство от кашля milk of magnesia взвесь магнезии, гидроксид магния nasal drops/spray капли/спрей от насморка petroleum jelly вазелин rubbing alcohol спирт для растирания sterile gauze стерильная марля heating pad грелка-подушка, грелка-матрац three times a day три раза в день every two hours каждые два часа after/before meals до/после еды on an empty stomach натощак pain reliever/killer болеутоляющее for soothing the pain для снятия боли for reducing the temperature для понижения температуры to take for a headache/cough/a cold принимать от … to apply a mustard plaster поставить горчичник to apply a medicine приложить лекарство (компресс) to put a dressing сделать повязку (перевязку) to remove the bandage снять повязку to give a short Am E (injection Br E) сделать укол (вливание) to put a hot-water bottle (to) приложить грелку side effect побочное действие narcotic n наркотик, наркотическое средство toxic substance ядовитое вещество Names of Specialists physician n врач, главным образом терапевт, врач общей практики general practitioner (GP) n терапевт, врач общей практики pediatrician n педиатр; children’s doctor n детский врач psychiatrist n психиатр surgeon n хирург throat-specialist n отоларинголог (врач уха, горла, носа) eye-specialist n окулист ophthalmologist n офтальмолог, глазной врач nerve-specialist n невропатолог neurologist n невролог dentist n зубной врач oncologist n онколог heart specialist кардиолог Names of Diseases illness n болезнь, недуг (non)communicable diseases (не)заразные болезни inherited sickness наследственная болезнь inborn disturbance врождённое нарушение mild case лёгкий случай fatal illness опасная болезнь anorexia n анорексия appendicitis n аппендицит arthritis n артрит attack (bout) n приступ, heart attack сердечный приступ bronchitis n бронхит bronchial asthma бронхиальная астма bad digestion расстройство желудка bulimia n булимия cancer n рак cerebral palsy n церебральный паралич chicken-pox n ветрянка diphtheria n дифтерия dysentery n дизентерия the flu ( сокр. от influenza)/the grippe n грипп measles n pl корь mumps n свинка obesity n ожирение osteoporosis n остеопороз phobia n фобия, страх, боязнь pneumonia n inflammation of the lings воспаление лёгких quinsy n ангина rheumatism n ревматизм scarlet fever n скарлатина yellow fever n жёлтая лихорадка typhoid (fever) n тиф (брюшной) typhus n тиф (сыпной) tuberculosis (TB) n туберкулёз small-pox n оспа substance abuse злоупотребление алкоголем или лекарствами STD sexually transmitted disease заболевание, передающееся половым путём whooping-cough n коклюш Bodily Defects bad/poor (good) eyesight плохое (хорошее) зрение long-/far-sighted adj дальнозоркий short-/near-sighted adj близорукий blind adj слепой deaf adj глухой dumb adj немой deaf and dumb adj глухонемой lame adj хромой cross-eyed adj косоглазый cripple n калека, инвалид limp v хромать to go/to walk on crutches ходить на костылях hunchback n горбун stammer 1. n заикание; 2. v заикаться stammerer n заика squint v косить (глазами) Hospital to take to the hospital положить в больницу psychiatric hospital (Am E)/mental hospital (Br E) психиатрическая клиника clinic (Am E)/ surgery (Br E) n 1. поликлиника (при больнице), лечебница; 2. Амбулатория, медпункт emergency department/room отделение неотложной помощи hospice n хоспис, «дом успокоения», больница для безнадёжных пациентов health centre главное медицинское учреждение района, поликлиника; infant health centre детская консультация medical centre здравпункт отделение больных с коронарной coronary/burns/intensive care unit недостаточностью/ожоговое отделение/отделение интенсивной терапии (реанимация) general practice кабинет терапевта waiting room зал ожидания ward n палата patients with appointments пациенты с назначениями in-patient n стационарный больной out-patient n амбулаторный больной reception(-office) n регистратура patient’s file медицинская карточка case history/medical record/medical card история болезни appointments book журнал регистрации больных to take care of/to look after ухаживать за больным psychotherapy n психотерапия physiotherapy n физиотерапия to be admitted to a hospital положить в больницу to be discharged from a hospital выписать из больницы urgent call срочный вызов to call an ambulance вызвать скорую помощь emergency case неотложное состояние (больного) examination couch n кушетка для больного в кабинете врача instrument table стол для медицинского инструмента crutches n pl костыли syringe [si'rind] n шприц scales, sliding-weight scales n pl медицинские весы height gauge [geid] линейка для определения роста free medical care бесплатная медицинская помощь medical institution лечебное учреждение medical equipment медицинское оборудование care of mother and child забота о матери и ребёнке infection n инфекция infectious adj инфекционный epidemic 1. n эпидемия; 2. adj эпидемический the rate of mortality уровень смертности birth/death rate уровень рождаемости/смертности concern for … забота о … maternity leave отпуск по беременности disease prevention профилактика болезней accommodation card путёвка (в санаторий) to go through пройти, проделать, e.g. To receive an accommodation card to a sanatorium, one must go through medical examinations and have all sorts of tests taken .

Ministry of Health Министерство здравоохранения fracture n перелом to put in a cast накладывать гипс, e.g. His leg was put in a cast .

stretcher n носилки vaccinate v делать прививку, vaccination n прививка inoculate v делать предохранительную прививку, inoculation n предохранительная прививка to be confined to bed быть прикованным к постели to relieve pain облегчить боль convalescent n выздоравливающий to affect one’s health вредить здоровью to have a good (bad) effect on/upon one’s health положительно (отрицательно) сказываться на здоровье tumour (benign, malignant) n опухоль (доброкачественная, злокачественная) drug n лекарство drugstore n (Am.) аптека, all night drugstore medicine for internal (external) use внутреннее (наружное) лекарство antiseptic n антисептическое средство anaesthetic n наркоз, анестезирующее средство to die a natural death умереть своей смертью to die of heart attack умереть от сердечного приступа to commit suicide покончить с собой At the Dentist’s to make an appointment with a dentist записаться к зубному врачу for a check-up на проверку for a dental care на стоматологическое лечение instrument tray лоток для инструментов drill n бор seat n кресло для больного dentures ['dent] n pl (set of false teeth) съёмный протез (искусственная челюсть) bridge (dental bridge) n мост (мостовидный протез) false tooth искусственный зуб crown n коронка porcelain tooth фарфоровый зуб extraction forcepts щипцы для удаления зубов to have one’s tooth treated лечить зуб to be loose шататься (о зубе) to fit on a crown/bridge поставить коронку/мост to have a tooth removed/extracted/pulled out удалить зуб to fill/to stop a tooth запломбировать зуб, to have one’s tooth stopped/filled filling/stopping пломба to pull (out) a tooth удалить (вырвать) зуб, e.g. Doctor, will you fill the tooth or will you pull it out?

to clean a cavity почистить каверну (полость в зубе)

–  –  –

PART 2. SPORTS AND GAMES .

Text “SURGING AMERICAN PROGRAM AT FIFA CONFEDERATIONS CUP”

GUADALAJARA, Mexico – Germany does not want to be here, has not brought its best team and was buried by Brazil 4 – 0 its worst loss in 45 years .

Common sense says the surging American program – which battled Brazil on even terms for 90 minutes in Wednesday's 1–0 loss – should take care of business. It should dust the fading superpower in Friday's FIFA Confederations Cup match and advance to Sunday's semifinals in the eight-team tournament .

Germany's recent problems internationally have been well-documented: a poor World Cup, slow start to European championship qualifying, a 3-0 loss to the USA in Jacksonville and a need for a new generation of young players to step up. With 10 mainstays left behind, Germany said this trip comes during a bad period. The German coach admits his team came to the Confederations Cup to curry favor to host the 2006 World Cup .

But the U.S. coach calls his team the underdog based on Germany's three World Cup titles and No. 5 world ranking. The USA is No. 31. “If you want to be critical of Germany, that's fine, but they are a great team with a great tradition,” he said. “We know what they're about, and they know what we're about. It will be an interesting game.” Those who saw Wednesday's loss to Brazil might have witnessed a turning point in the program as the Americans challenged offensively, put up a strong wall of defense and held the ball assertively in midfield. “We played 90 minutes like we wanted to play,” the U.S. coach said .

“We know we're improving. We can feel good we're going in the right direction.” Text “WOMEN’S TEAM COMPARISONS RANKLE THE MEN’S COACH” GUADALAJARA, Mexico – The comparisons to the U.S. women's soccer team have started to irritate the American men .

Men's coach was asked Monday by a Brazilian TV reporter if his team can learn from the women's World Cup victory. “You actually think we learned something from the U.S. women about playing soccer?” the coach said loudly .

TV reporter: “I don't know, they won the World Cup.” The coach, pausing: “Right … well, we have an expression in America: You're comparing apples to oranges. We didn't learn anything from the Women's World Cup to be very honest. We think the accomplishment was tremendous, but it doesn't apply to our sport.” Some tension is natural. The men have carried the American 'I tort for years and do not appreciate comparisons, even though they were dead last in the 1998 World Cup. They want to remind the public they play the USA's highest level of soccer. The coach does not mind saying it .

He has said the U.S. women could not beat the under-16 boys national team, and he’s probably correct. The women's team routinely scrimmages under-16 and under-I7 boys teams and struggles with the boys' speed, size and strength .

The U.S. men are amused by reports leading players of the women's team could play Major League Soccer, something they agree is beyond their capacity. But the men do concede the women's popularity. The attention the women get is great for all of American soccer .

Text “NEW REF NEEDED” Soccer, the world's most popular game, is governed by an organisation in urgent need of reform .

Anyone doubting this need look no further than the lead-up to FIFA Congress in Paris, which, two days before the start of the World Cup, meets to elect its new president. The two candidates are the Swiss general secretary of FIFA, and the Swedish president of European football's governing body, UEFA .

The way that FIFA behaves owes much to the legacy of the outgoing president. Since 1974, he has presided over world football's commercial transformation. As revenues have grown, so has FIFA’s power, and with it that of the president. He has ruled for many years with a combination of patronage and fear. He is standing down at the age of 82. But he has been the eminence grise of the campaign lobbying for the Swiss general secretary of FIFA, the candidate of continuity .

The best hope for ending the croneyism that has dominated FIFA for so long – and which has been mirrored in other world sports organisations – rests with the other candidate. Three years ago, he challenged the president in an attempt to democratise the organisation .

Of the many promises made during the campaign, one by the Swedish candidate best serves the interest of democracy and the game in general: a radical overhaul of FIFA s structure and personnel, and the establishment of a “fair and accountable” system of governance .

Text “FIFA SETTLES FEUD AS SOUTH AFRICA

DROPS IDEA OF SUING”

ZURICH – The month-long dispute over FIFA's decision to hold the 2006 World Cup in Germany has finally been defused with South Africa deciding not to take the issue to court .

The FIFA Congress also approved the principle of rotating the World Cup between the six continents in the future, a move that was said to placate the bitterly disappointed South Africa .

But Japanese reluctance to host the Confederations Cup and a simmering row between the African and Asian soccer confederations marred an otherwise polished meeting of the Congress .

The meeting of 203 national soccer associations, held one month after FIFA awarded Germany the 2006 World Cup in controversial circumstances, passed off, without incident, prompting the FIFA president to say that “we have unity in the family of football.” SOUTH KOREA – The head of the country's organizing committee for the next World Cup soccer finals is set to quit his post amid reports of conflict within the organization. The president of the Korean Organizing Committee for the World Cup, says he will step down unless Korea's President says otherwise. South Korea will Co-host the World Cup soccer finals with Japan .

COMMENTS FIFA, Federation Internationale de football Association fr. – Международная федерация футбола, ФИФА; UEFA, Union of European Football Associations – Европейская федерация футбольных ассоциаций, УЕФА .

World Cup – Кубок мира; poor World Cup – зд. плохо/неуверенно выступить на играх мирового чемпионата; World Cup title – звание чемпиона мирового первенства, или победителя игр на Кубке мира; World Cup victory – победа на мировом чемпионате; to win the World – выиграть мировой чемпионат; to be dead last in the World Cup – быть последним в таблице игр мирового чемпионата; World Cup soccer finals – финальные игры мирового чемпионата; to host the World Cup – организовать/проводить игру на Кубок мира в своей стране; European Champions Cup – Кубок европейских чемпионов;

Major League Soccer амер. – Высшая футбольная лига .

Under-16 boys national team – команда юниоров (юношей до 16 лет) .

Ref = referee – cnopm. судья, рефери .

ASSIGNMENTS

Exercise 1. Render the content of each article and put 3-5 questions based on the content of every text .

Exercise 2. Look up the following words and word combinations in the Vocabulary; find the sentences where they are used: to be buried by smb. 4-0, surging, to battle on even terms, a 1-0 loss, loss to smb., semifinal in the eight-team tournament, qualifying, mainstay n., to curry favor, underdog, world ranking, to witness a turning point, to put up a strong wall of defense, to hold the ball in midfield, soccer, under-16 boys national team, scrimmage, lead-up n, croneyism, system of governance .

Exercise 3. Fill in the blanks with articles if needed .

They might have witnessed... turning point in... program as... Americans challenged offensively, put up... strong wall of... defense and held... ball assertively in... midfield .

... comparisons to … U.S. women's soccer team have started to irritate... American men .

... FIFA Congress approved... principle of... rotating... World Cup between... six continents in... future,... move that was said to placate... bitterly disappointed South Africa .

Exercise 4. Fill in the blanks with prepositions if needed .

Men's coach was asked Monday... a Brazilian TV reporter if his team can learn... the women's World Cup victory .

The attention the women get is great... all … American soccer .

The way that FIFA behaves owes much … the legacy … the outgoing president .

The month-long dispute... FIFA's decision to hold the 2006 World Cup... Germany has finally been defused,... South Africa deciding not to take the issue... court .

The meeting... 203 national soccer associations, held one month …FIFA awarded Germany.. .

the 2006 World Cup... controversial circumstances, passed off,... incident .

The head... the country's organizing committee … the next World Cup soccer finals is set to quit his post amid reports... conflict … the organization .

Exercise 5. Explain the italicized grammar constructions in the following sentences .

Common sense says the surging American program should take care of business. It should dust the fading superpower in Friday's match .

The coach does not mind saying it .

He has said the U.S. women could not beat the under-16 boys national team, and he's probably correct .

The U.S. men are amused by reports leading players of the women's team could play Major League Soccer .

Exercise 6. Translate into Russian .

If you want to be critical of Germany, that’s fine, but they are a great team with a great tradition .

We know what they’re about, and they know what we’re about .

He has ruled for many years with a combination of patronage and fear .

Of the many promises made during the campaign, one by the Swedish candidate best serves the interest of democracy and the game in general: a radical overhaul of FIFA’s structure and personnel, and the establishment of a “fair and accountable” system of governance .

Exercise 7. Comment on the sentences .

Germany does not want to be here, has not brought its best team and was buried by Brazil 4-0 .

We can feel good we're going in the right direction .

You actually think we learned something from the U.S. women about playing soccer?

We have an expression in America: You’re comparing apples to oranges. As revenues have grown, so has FIFA’s power, and with it, that of the president .

He challenged the president in an attempt to democratise the organisation. Japanese reluctance to host the Confederations Cup and a simmering row between the African and Asian soccer confederations marred an otherwise polished meeting of the Congress .

South Korea will co-host the World Cup soccer finals with Japan .

Exercise 8. Read and translate orally the following texts. Pick up all the sentences with italicized words and look them up in the Vocabulary. Translate these sentences into Russian in writing .

Real Madrid takes a financial shot at the Internet After proving it can get the ball in the net, Real Madrid is hoping to score on the net. The Spanish football club, which won the European Champions Cup is set to break new ground with a finance sales pitch on the Internet. Real, aiming to regain control over its broadcasting and commercial rights, has bought them back from Gesport, part of the Canal Plus empire in Spain .

The contract had been due to run to 2003 .

The club has already sold merchandising rights to the Adidas sportswear group in a 10-year deal worth $10m annually. Some television rights back under Real’s control have also been sold, said the Madrid-based capital markets vice-president at Merrill Lynch, the US investment bank. The rights repurchase is being financed partially by a loan from Merrill, which is now syndicating the facility to a wider group of borrowers, using the Internet for that purpose for the first time in Europe .

This is an investment road show that will not require an away leg. The Real team, led by the club’s president, will be fielded only once, to make a presentation in the friendly confines of Madrid’s stadium on Wednesday. The next day, full proceedings will be available on the Merrill web site. It is still an all-ticket match, however. About 20 UK institutional investors will be given a password to access the presentation .

Merill believes the Internet could change the economics of investment road shows, which are often limited by time and expense to a few venues such as London, Frankfurt, Zurich and Paris, bypassing smaller financial centres .

“This takes away the disadvantage for these investors and enables us to give them full access to this information,” says the Merrill vice-president for marketing and product development .

On-line meetings have been growing in popularity, either in a real-time text version, using modem technology, which Merrill already uses for its regular net events, or in video format, using software products. Two forthcoming Internet seminars accessible through Merrill’s site, for example, are on the topics of “Women and Estate Planning” and “Financing and Cash Management”. These are specifically timed chat events, however, unlike the password-protected Real Madrid presentation .

Use of the Internet is likely to be of increasing importance both to leading football clubs and financial institutions, as improved technology allows wider use of both video-conferencing – offering attractive business travel savings – and either live or delayed match broadcasts .

British clubs including Manchester United, Arsenal, Chelsea and Leeds have all been exploring the potential of Internet broadcasting .

Real’s 7.5 year loan carries an interest rate of 115 basis points (1.15 percentage points). It is guaranteed by the Adidas contract, although borrowers will have recourse to the club, which is owned by its members .

Sports betting finds a jackpot in Costa Rica Costa Rica grows into betting Haven SAN JOSE, Costa Rica – With football season getting ready to kick off in the U.S., this small Central American country is set to intercept a hefty chunk of North American cash .

That is because Costa Rica has become the offshore-bookie capital of the world, surpassing the Caribbean island of Antigua in an arena that has sparked plenty of controversy in the U.S. Drawn by a lack of regulation, good telecommunications and a cheap labor force, an estimated 70 to 100 sports-betting shops have opened here in the past three years. They range from mom-andpop affairs to massive NASA Sports International, which occupies two cavernous floors in a downtown mall and is beefing up to more than 500 operators at computer stations to take bets on toll-free lines .

Not surprisingly, U.S. law-enforcement authorities are blowing the whistle. A 1961 law bans the use of phone lines or wires to transmit bets within the U.S. or between the U.S. and foreign countries. In recent years, the law has been successfully used to prosecute offshore violators. For example, the Florida-based owners of SDB Global, a sports bookmaker that operated out of a free-trade zone on the outskirts of town here, shut the place down in 1998, just before the main owner pleaded guilty to bookmaking charges in a U.S. court and the company paid a stiff fine .

But stamping out – or even curbing – a popular vice in an age when globalization and the Internet have rendered national borders virtually irrelevant is no easy task. New York Attorney says, “It's a problem that bookies have moved from the comer to Costa Rica, but the bigger problem is that the bad guys are trying to use technology – be it the phone or the Internet – to shield themselves from prosecution.” The money involved is far from penny ante. A gaming analyst figures that Americans bet as much as $50 billion a year on sports events – not including horse racing – and that more than $15 billion of that takes place through offshore bookmakers. The fastest-growing segment of that by far is bets placed through the Internet. Another widely quoted figure for online gambling, $1.2 billion, refers to revenue, meaning the net amount consumers were out of pocket after factoring in both winning and losing bets last year; moreover, it encompasses both sports betting and virtual casino games. Indicating the scope of an individual business, the 30-something owner sold his company. He now spends his days on the beach .

Bookmakers here and in Antigua invariably profess amazement that their activities are subject to prosecution in the U.S. They argue that the move offshore has been good for the consumer in many ways. For instance, they point out, bookies in the U.S. routinely allow their clients to gamble on credit. If clients lose badly and can't pay, it isn't unusual for the debts to be sold to organized-crime members for collection .

But offshore, there isn't much need for knee-breaking: Gamblers almost always have to deposit money when they sign up for the service, either through wire transfer or credit card; once their prepaid fund is exhausted, they have to replenish it or stop. “It’s a clean business,” rasps a former Ohio bookie who served time in a U.S. prison on racketeering charges before starting World Wide Tele Sports in Antigua. “People send in their money, they win, they get their money sent back to them.” Still, even some industry boosters worry about the explosion in bookie joints and the potential for customers’ getting stiffed. In Antigua, at least, each sports bookmaker must pay a $75,000 annual licensing fee and submit to oversight by a director of offshore gaming, who can mediate disputes if customers feel slighted. But in Costa Rica and much of the rest of the offshore-betting world, there is no government control, leaving consumer protection to Web sites .

Whatever the pros and cons of offshore betting, it has been great for the Costa Rican economy .

Demand for bet-taking clerks is so strong that two schools have been formed to train them .

Thousands of Costa Ricans, many of them college students, have signed on to work for the betting shops, and the number is growing as the American football season draws near .

Business is so good that the company is putting in a swimming pool and health club at its site in the San Pedro mall. It is installing and leasing satellite connections and land lines that will carry the equivalent of more than 2,000 phone lines, some of which it hopes to rent to banks and other businesses in the off-season. The head of the operation, a powerfully built man who travels with bodyguards, declines to give his real name for fear of raising his profile. “Everybody assumes when a guy like me gets as big as I do, there’s Mafia involvement,” he says, stressing that there is none in his operation. “I have a baseball bat in my closet, but I’ve never broken a leg.” Exercise 9. Translate into English .

Самый высокооплачиваемый футболист планеты По данным журнала «Франс Футбол», самым высокооплачиваемым футболистом в мире является нападающий «Ювентуса» и сборной Италии. Вместе с доходами от рекламы и премиальными его суммарный заработок составляет около 11 млн долларов в год. Таким образом, он отобрал звание самого состоятельного футболиста у бразильского нападающего «Интера», который сейчас проходит курс реабилитации после очередной операции на колене. Он зарабатывает 9,2 млн долларов в год. На третьем месте - еще один форвард «Интера» (6,5 млн в год). Среди футболистов, не выступающих в итальянской серии "А", самыми высокими доходами может похвастаться спортсмен из английского "Манчестер Юнайтед": 6 миллионов долларов в год .

Exercise 10. What is the difference between soccer and football? Translate the following text into Russian .

Soccer – the most common international type of football, in which two teams of 11 players each play on a rectangular field with net goals at either end, maneuvering a round ball by kicking, heading, or by using any part of the body except the arms and hands in attempt to score points by getting the ball into the opposing team’s goal .

Foot-ball – a game played by two teams of 11 players each on a rectangular, 100-yard-long field with goal lines and posts at either end, the object being to gain possession of the ball and advance it in running or passing plays across the opponent's goal line .

Exercise 11. Translate into English .

1) Германия не намеревалась принимать участие в Кубке Конфедерации ФИФА, привезла на соревнования свою не лучшую команду и потерпела сокрушительное поражение от команды Бразилии со счетом 0:4. 2) Судя по всему, одним из лидеров соревнований будет американская футбольная команда, которая на равных в течение 1,5 часов боролась с бразильцами, хотя и проиграла со счетом 0:1. 3) Выступления немецкой команды в последнее время были неудачными: слабая игра на соревнованиях за Кубок мира, проигрыш со счетом 0:3 на встрече с американской командой в Джексонвиле, явная нехватка новых молодых игроков. 4) Тренер команды признает, что участие в Кубке Конфедерации имеет своей целью улучшить шансы Германии на то, чтобы стать принимающей стороной очередных соревнований на Кубок мира. 5) По мнению тренера американской команды, его игроки уступают своим немецким соперникам (his team is underdog). 6) В мировом рейтинге команде США принадлежит 31-е место. 7) Команда Германии занимает 5-е место и три раза добивалась победы на играх Кубка мира. 8) На встрече с бразильцами в среду американцы показали хорошую игру в защите и маневренную игру на середине поля. 9) По словам тренера американской команды, его игроки знают, что теперь они играют лучше и дело у них пойдет на лад. 10) Представителей американской мужской футбольной команды начинает раздражать, когда их сравнивают с американской женской футбольной командой, добившейся победы на играх Кубка мира. 11) В ответ на вопрос корреспондента бразильской телевизионной компании о том, какие уроки американские футболисты извлекают из успеха женской команды, тренер мужской команды сказал: «У нас есть выражение "нельзя сравнивать апельсин с яблоком". Мы рады успеху наших женщин, но к мужскому футболу это отношения не имеет». 12) Такая реакция понятна. Игроки мужской команды долгие годы отстаивали честь американского футбола и недовольны сравнением их с женской командой. При этом нельзя не вспомнить, что на мировом чемпионате 1998 г .

американские футболисты заняли последнее место. 13) В Америке национальная сборная является лучшей среди других футбольных команд и об этом не преминул сказать ее тренер. 14) Он считает, что женская футбольная команда не смогла бы обыграть мужскую юношескую команду, в которой играют подростки до 16 лет. 15) У американских футболистов вызывает улыбку вопрос о том, сможет ли женская команда принимать участие в игре команд Главной Лиги страны. Да и сами женщины признают, что это было бы им не по силам. 16) Вместе с тем успех американской футбольной команды их радует, потому что это содействует международному престижу американского футбола. 17) Организация, представляющая футбол, – самый популярный вид спорта в мире – нуждается в преобразованиях. 18) Свидетельством тому является предстоящий конгресс ФИФА в Париже, на котором должен быть избран ее новый президент. 19) Свои кандидатуры выдвинули швейцарец, генеральный секретарь ФИФА, и швед, президент УЕФА, объединяющей европейские футбольные ассоциации. 20) Нынешний президент исполняет свои обязанности около десяти лет. При нем многократно возросли коммерческие доходы ФИФА. 21) Его правление представляло собой сочетание опоры на своих людей и страха. 22) Против подобного кумовства выступил кандидат от Швеции .

23) В своих предвыборных обещаниях он говорит о необходимости радикальной реформы структуры ФИФА, смены персонала и установления справедливой и поддающейся контролю системы управления. 24) ЮАР приняла решение не обращаться в суд, тем самым положив конец длившемуся месяц спору по поводу решения о проведении очередного мирового чемпионата в Германии. 25) На конгрессе ФИФА был одобрен принцип ротации при определении места очередного чемпионата в будущем. 26) Были опубликованы сообщения о конфликте между членами организационного комитета по про ведению финала очередного мирового чемпионата, местом которого выбрана Южная Корея. 27) Президент организационного комитета Южной Кореи заявил о своей готовности уйти в отставку в том случае, если президент Корейской футбольной ассоциации примет ее. 28) Южная Корея вместе с Японией являются принимающими странами чемпионата мира по футболу .

Text “PAN AM BASEBALL” WINNIPEG – The U.S. baseball team is back on its preferred path to Sydney. And it’s the Cubans who might stay home .

The Americans, who beat winless Brazil 3-2 Thursday night in the final game of the Pan Am Games preliminaries, secured the second seed in the medal round when Canada routed the Cubans 8-1. The USA probably will play Nicaragua in the quarterfinals Saturday, then could meet the winner of the Dominican Republic-Mexico game Sunday in the semifinals. “I think we’re where we wanted to be,” said one of the American players .

Only the finalists qualify for the Olympics, and the USA would avoid playing Cuba or Canada until the final on Monday. The USA lost to Canada 7-6 in 11 innings Monday and beat Cuba 10Wednesday. Canada, 4-0 and seeded first, is expected to meet Cuba in a rematch in the semifinals .

Text “USA DENTS CUBA”S ARMOR” Win could set the stage for medal-round rematch WINNIPEG – The king of international baseball is dead. For a couple of days, anyway. The Cuban national team, which beat the Baltimore Orioles 12-6 in an exhibition game in May, ran into an American team with a little more emotion Wednesday and saw its 12-year dominance of the USA ended .

Team USA, made up of minor leaguers, scored five runs in the ninth inning to upset Cuba 10-5 in a wild preliminary-round matchup at the Pan Am Games. The teams probably will meet again in the medal round Sunday or Monday. The last time the USA beat Cuba in an international tournament was the preliminary round of the previous Pan Ams. The Cubans, however, beat the USA for the gold medal a few days later. “It’s one game. It was big for us, but it wasn’t the goldmedal game,” said the U.S. outfielder who had four hits Wednesday .

The victory comes two days after the USA's heartbreaking loss to Canada. Against Cuba, the Americans lost a two-run lead in the eighth but scored five in the ninth, sparked by the catcher's three-run home run. “We play better as an underdog. That’s the character of our team; we're very scrappy,” he said .

The Americans pounded out 19 hits, and the victory eliminated any notion U.S. minor leaguers couldn’t play with the veteran Cuban squad .

The Cuban team, which has won both Olympic gold medals in baseball, is seeking its eighth consecutive Pan Am gold. It has been the dominant team of the last decade or so, winning 152 consecutive games in international play before Japan ended the streak during the Intercontinental Cup at Barcelona, Spain .

The USA plays its final preliminary-round game against Brazil, which has lost its three games .

Canada meets Cuba in a game that will determine the seedings for the medal round. The USA and Cuba are 2-1; Canada was 1-0 entering its game against Mexico on Wednesday night .

Text “CUBA DECRIES “STALKING” OF ITS ATHLETES” Officials say agents hound baseball team to encourage defections WINNIPEG – At the end of an embarrassing week, politically and on the playing field, a top Cuban sports official blasted outsiders for “stalking” Cuban athletes to entice them to defect while at the Pan Am Games. “People are trying to lure our athletes with verbal and written offers, so they defect. They are “stalking them at different places around the athletes’ village,” said the president of the Cuban Olympic Committee. “We resent it when these people offer our people $5-10 million to play professionally under another flag. That is aggression,” he added .

He didn't mention names, but his comments were aimed at a number of baseball agents attending the Pan Am Games. He said players have turned over written offers they’ve received from agents. “It's a morbid issue and an unfair one. Those people with money want to try to drain the muscle of our poor country,” he said .

The comments came at the end of the most difficult week for Cuban sports in years. While no baseball players had defected as of Thursday, four members of the delegation have asked for political asylum .

Cuban officials complained that the Canadian media are “inciting” its athletes to defect. They cited Sunday’s story in The Winnipeg Sun, in Spanish. The Sun responded by starting a contest offering a one-week trip for two to Cuba to a lucky leader who correctly guesses the number of defections during the Games .

It hasn’t been much better on the field for the Cuban baseball team, losing 10-5 to the USA and 8-1 to Canada. Cuba is in danger of finishing third in the medal standings, which would mark the first time since 1967 it hasn’t been in the top two .

COMMENTS Pan Am (baseball, Games) – панамериканский, всеамериканский Stalking – зд. попытки склонить спортсменов к отказу от возвращения на родину Athletes’ village – Олимпийская деревня To play under another flag – зд.играть за другое государство To drain the muscle of the country – вызывать «утечку мускулов» из страны (по аналогии с «утечкой мозгов» – brain drain) .

Exercise 1. Render the content of each article and put 3-5 questions based on the content of every text .

Exercise 2. Look up the following words and word combinations in the Vocabulary; find the

sentences where they are used:

to beat 1-0, winless, winner, to secure the second seed, to seed, seedings, medal round, to beat smb for the gold medal, gold-medal game, medal standing, rematch n., to rout smb 8-1, quarterfinals, semifinals, finalist, to qualify for the Olympics, to lose to smb 7-6, innings, exhibition game, to run into smb, two-run lead, catcher’s three-run home run, to score five runs, minor leaguer, preliminary-round matchup, outfielder, hit n., scrappy, to pound out 19 hits, squad, to hound, defection, to defect, athlete, to entice, to lure, to tum over, morbid, to ask for political asylum, media, to be in the top two .

Exercise 3. Fill in the blanks with articles if needed .

... Americans, who beat... winless Brazil 3-2 Thursday night in... final game of... Pan Am Games preliminaries, secured... second seed in... medal round .

... last time... USA beat... Cuba in... international tournament was... preliminary round of.. .

previous Pan Ams .

Exercise 4. Fill in the blanks with prepositions if needed .

The U.S. baseball team is back... its preferred path... Sydney .

The Cuban national team, which beat the Baltimore Orioles 12-6... an exhibition game... May, ran... an American team... a little more emotion Wednesday and saw its 12-year dominance.. .

the USA ended .

Canada meets Cuba... a game that will determine the seedings... the medal round .

The comments came... the end... the most difficult week... Cuban sports... years .

Exercise 5. Explain the italicized grammar constructions in the following sentences .

And it's the Cubans who might stay home .

The USA probably will play Nicaragua in the quarterfinals Saturday, then could meet the winner of the Dominican Republic-Mexico game .

Only the finalists qualify for the Olympics, and the USA would avoid playing Cuba or Canada until the final on Monday .

Win could set the stage for medal-round rematch .

It has been the dominant team of the last decade or so, winning 152 consecutive games in international play before Japan ended the streak during the Intercontinental Cup at Barcelona .

He said players have turned over written offers they’ve received from agents. While no baseball players had defected as of Thursday, four members of the delegation have asked for political asylum .

Cuba is in danger of finishing third in the medal standings, which would mark the first time since 1967 it hasn’t been in the top two .

Exercise 6. Translate into Russian .

The USA lost to Canada 7-6 in 11 innings Monday and beat Cuba 10-5 Wednesday. Canada, 4-0 and seeded first, is expected to meet Cuba in a rematch in the semifinals .

Team USA, made up of minor leaguers, scored five runs in the ninth inning to upset Cuba 10-5 in a wild preliminary-round matchup at the Pan American Games. The teams probably will meet again in the medal round Sunday or Monday .

Against Cuba, the Americans lost a two-run lead in the eighth but scored five 111 the ninth, sparked by the catcher's three-run home run .

It hasn't been much better on the field for the Cuban baseball team, losing 10-5 to the USA and 8-1 to Canada .

Exercise 7. Comment on the sentences .

The king of international baseball is dead. For a couple of days, anyway. The Cubans, however, beat the USA for the gold medal a few days later. We play better as an underdog .

People are trying to lure our athletes with verbal and written offers, so they defect .

The Sun responded by starting a contest offering a one-week trip for two to Cuba to a lucky reader who correctly guesses the number of defections during the Games .

Exercise 8. Read and translate orally the following texts. Pick up all the sentences with italicized words and look them up in the Vocabulary. Translate these sentences into Russian in writing .

Text “RED WINGS SWEEP KINGS WITH 3-0 WIN” LOS ANGELES – About the only contribution the Los Angeles Kings made to this year’s playoffs during their brief stay was to allow hockey fans to get a good look at the Detroit Red Wings’ power play .

It looked pretty good. Way too good for the Kings, who surrendered two more power play goals Wednesday night to the Red Wings on their way to losing 3-0 and being swept out of the playoffs again .

The Kings have made the playoffs only twice since getting to the Stanley Cup Finals in 1993 .

But they have left their mark, extending their playoff losing streak to 12 games, tying the Toronto Maple Leafs for the second-longest playoff losing streak in NHL history. The record is 16 by the Chicago Black-Hawks .

The Red Wings, meanwhile, won their sixth consecutive first-round series and gave themselves reason to believe a third Stanley Cup title in four years’ attainable. Detroit goaltender was sharp in registering his second shutout of the series. But it was the Wings’ power play, the best in the NHL this season, that dominated the game again Wednesday .

Capitals 3, Penguins 2: R.T.’s erratic play finally caught up with the Pittsburgh Penguins, and the Washington Capitals are still alive. R. H. scored the game-winning goal on a rebound with 7:05 remaining – on a power play resulting from R.T.’s careless slashing penalty – as the Capitals prevented a series sweep with a 3-2 victory over the Pittsburgh Penguins on Wednesday night .

Senators 2, Maple Leafs 1: A.D. scored twice as Ottawa beat Toronto to even its NHL playoff series. The first-round Eastern Conference best-of-seven series is tied 2-2 heading into Game 5 in Toronto on Saturday night. T.B.’s bid for a seventh career playoff shutout was spoiled with 3:50 remaining when S.B. scored for the Maple Leafs .

Sharks 3, Blues 2: G.S.'s shot from just inside the blue line skipped into the net with 8:37 remaining and San Jose beat St. Louis to take a 3-1 lead in their playoff series. The best-of-seven series moves back to St. Louis on Friday for Game 5 with the top-seeded Blues, who finished the regular season with the NHL’s best record, on the brink of elimination .

Coyotes 3, Avalanche 2: M.R. got the winner 38 seconds into the second period, and S.B., who allowed 12 goals in the first three games, made 36 saves as Phoenix beat Colorado to remain alive in the series. The Avalanche still hold a 3-1 lead in the best-of-7 Western Conference series and could close it out by winning Game 5 Friday in Denver .

Text “DAVENPORT TRIES TO MAKE ANOTHER CALIFORNIA SWEEP” Wimbledon champion Lindsay Davenport’s rise to No.1 began last year when she won the Bank of the West Classic in Stanford, California .

Wednesday, the defending champion took her first step toward a second title in her opening match. “It was just a tough match and, hopefully, I'll get better as the tournament goes along,” Davenport said. She ought to be more than satisfied if she’s able to repeat last year’s California results .

Two weeks after winning a Bank of the West Classic, Davenport completed a California sweep, adding titles in San Diego and Los Angeles before winning her first U.S. Open title. “I just went on such a roll after winning here,” she said. “I think you just have those times in your career where you just play so well and get in a groove. Last year, I just played really well and I really consistently. Duplicating last year is going to be very tough .

Text “BECKER CONSIDERING PLAYING WIMBLEDON” Last year the three-time champion bid an emotional farewell to the grass court Grand Slam tournament that suits his strong game. But now it appears there is a tiny chance he might return to the All-England Club this year .

The champion said goodbye to Wimbledon last July, announcing after his quarterfinal defeat that he would never play his favorite Grand Slam again. Hut he appears to be having second thoughts. “There is a 99 % chance that I will not play Wimbledon again”. The former world №1 was quoted as saying in sports magazine. “That leaves 1 %.” British newspapers reported Thursday that Becker has been telling friends that he may have been too hasty in making the decision not to play again at what he calls “the tournament that made me” .

Meanwhile, Becker will play for a 12th time at the upcoming Monte Carlo Open, this time as a wild card. He has missed only two Monte Carlo Opens since 1985. He never has won the tournament despite being a finalist three times .

Text “FROM BADMINTON “JUST FOR EXERCISE” TO OLYMPICS?” WINNIPEG – Five years ago Tang left China. She met her husband, who is a genetic researcher at the National Institute of Health, when he was in China visiting, and joined a badminton club where she worked out .

She said she never intended to compete in the USA but returned to the sport “just for exercise.” When she did, she was shocked at how much better she was than those around her. “I didn’t realize how different it is,” she said. “In China, the players start very young, and they have professional training and coaching. It isn’t like that here. Except for a few people, the players’ form – well, it isn’t very good.” First, she began winning local tournaments. Then she became U.S. Open champion. Now, she’s thinking about the Olympics. “I think it might be difficult to qualify,” she said. “But I'm going to try.” Competing for the USA for the first time since she got her citizenship, won the first U.S .

badminton gold of the Pan Ams .

Under the sport's international rules, points are awarded in competitions between now and April .

The points are weighted according to the importance of the meet, but their value diminishes as time goes on. So, each competitor must continue to perform well. Up to a limit of three per country, the top 29 singles and top 19 doubles players make the Olympic field .

Text “LOVE’S MAJOR OBJECTIVE: AUGASTA JACKET” AUGUSTA, Ga. – Davis Love's long-anticipated breakthrough at a major came when the smooth-swinging, long-ball striker claimed the PGA Championship .

A 13-year veteran, Love now aims to win a "bunch of majors," beginning with The Masters. He was paired with a Sweden's fellow in the opening round. "I was on top of my game," he says. "I did everything fairly well. That's what it takes – an overall effort. But it comes down to a good putter. If you don't have that, you're not going to win. Tiger (Woods) had no three-putts here last year; I had no three-putts at the PGA."

Love captured the PGA Championship with an l l-under 269. He outdueled Justin Leonard on the final day, winning by five strokes. "If you're patient, you can get through four days of intense pressure," he says. ''It's just a learning experience, what it feels to get that nervous, how your body and mind reacts and what your thoughts are. I don't think I learned anything different about my golf swing or my putting stroke or anything like that."

He made the cut in six of seven events but hasn't won a title. His best result: a tie for third at the Buick Invitational. "I've been playing sporadic, some good golf and some bad golf," he says .

"But I'm feeling good now and excited about this week. I'm trying to convince myself that there's a difference, that somehow it may be a calmer week than the weeks in the past."

"It's hard to have much advantage, no matter what you've been doing. Like Tiger said, now I know what it takes and how to do it. Confidence is a big thing. Coming down the stretch, if I'm with a guy that hasn't done it before, I'm sure that will give me a little boost."

Love missed the cut in his Masters debut in 1988 but was among the top-10 finishers in the last three years. In 1995 with a 14-under 274, Love finished second. "My 13 under is still the best runner-up score," he says. "Even though I've had some (other) top 10s, I feel like a couple of those were near misses. It makes you want to get back into that position again."

Love declined comment on the prediction Woods would win if he plays his game. He hesitated before responding but said that Woods victory was a wake-up call to the rest of the guys on Tour. "The general feeling with the top players is whether it's Tiger Woods or somebody else, no one can win every tournament," Love says. "If Woods wins it's going to be the biggest story in the world of golf."

Love says he's developed a healthy sense of realism about not dwelling on negatives. "I used to stew about it, but I learned from my dad and a lot from sports psychologists," he says. "You find the good and you accentuate that and work on the bad ones and get it over with. I've had some disappointing rounds in the last few weeks, but I'm working on my game and trying to stay positive. So can he win The Masters? "Most everybody in this field is capable of winning, if they play their game," Love says. "If you go out and try to win The Masters, that will hurt you" Text “CHANGE MIGHT MAKE 10 LESS THAN PERFECT” Three strikes. A hole-in-one. And a perfect 10. We all know what they mean. These terms have transcended sports and infiltrated the American culture. But gymnastics is thinking of changing the way it expresses perfection. If the proposed change is passed, a gymnast performing a perfect routine would see 30 instead of 10 on the scoreboard .

"I feel like it's suicide," says one of the coaches of the Olympic team. "It would be a big mistake," says the coach of the gymnast, who made Olympic history with the first 10 in 1976. "It will overcomplicate the judging process. The audience won't enjoy it as much."

Changes are nothing new. During most Olympic cycles, the International Gymnastics Federation (FIG), the governing body of the sport, reviews and adjusts the Code of Points. But the mere notion of tampering with the 10-point scoring system is a hot topic on the eve of the National Gymnastics Day .

Gymnastic scoring is complicated. But what everyone understands, though, is that 10 is awarded to the perfect gymnast. With various proposals m the discussion stages, rumors and confusion are prevalent. The president of the FIG's women's technical committee cautions against overreaction, saying, "There is no consensus yet. The FIG's member countries, which exceed 120, are analyzing data. The earliest any change could be implemented IS next spring." She says

proponents of change seek to unify the judging of the six disciplines under the FIG umbrella:

men's and women's gymnastics, trampoline, rhythmic gymnastics, sports aerobics and sports acrobatics .

International Gymnast magazine sent 40 letters to the FIG from former champions opposed to forsaking tradition. One of them came from Comaneci. "I don't like it," she says. ''It's not only because I was the first to score the perfect 10. A lot of people won't understand. Perfect is associated with 10, not 40 or 50."

Text “SCHUMACHER HAS EYES ON ARGENTINA” Since the outlawing of McLaren's controversial braking system didn't seem to slow the silver cars down, everybody else will just try to "close the gap" at the Argentina Grand Prix. With new wider Goodyear tyres, and a more aerodynamic design, Michael Schumacher is confident of his Ferrari's chances. "I think we will close the gap a bit more on Sunday," he said .

He finished third at the Brazilian Grand Prix. The performance came despite outlawing of McLaren's new braking system the day before qualifying at Sao Paulo. Many are predicting a tie on Sunday at the 2.65-mile circuit on the outskirts of Buenos Aires .

Text “McCARRON TAKES PRIDE IN HONOUR” Learning he would be honored by The Paralysis Project for his horse racing achievements has made jockey Chris McCarron appreciative and reflective .

He takes pride in his Hall of Fame career, which has included nearly 6,900 victories and two Eclipse Awards. But he also thought about his good fortune to have ridden nearly 33,000 mounts without a catastrophic injury .

"It's just a question of fate, because there's really not a lot you can do (in an accident)," said McCarron, who rode Santa Anita Derby winner The Deputy in the Kentucky Derby. "You can exercise caution in races, but when it comes to accidents there's very little a rider can do to avoid them. Because everything happens so fast, you just hope the horse doesn't roll over on you. It's in the back of my mind all the time, but you have to ride with a clear head."

Other honorees at ninth annual Great Sports Legends Awards fundraiser in Pasadena, California, include Olympic gold medal long jumper, International Olympic Committee vice president and World Boxing Council President .

In a sense, the Project isn't much different from the work McCarron and his wife, Judy, perform with the Don Macbeth Memorial Fund, which has raised more than $ 2 million to help 1,400 injured jockeys and their families pay bills .

What makes McCarron even more appreciative of the award is that the Project's honorary chairman is legendary jockey Bill Shoemaker, who was paralyzed in a 1991 car accident. "This is very flattering." he said. "It's always nice to be recognized for your accomplishments, and it's even nicer when you can lend time to a project like this."

Text “DIVING” U.S. men won gold and bronze in springboard diving. Mark Ruiz came from third place on his last dive. Trailing by 13 points, he executed a reverse 3 somersault with a half-twist from the tuck position to edge defending the champion of Mexico. Another American diver took the bronze .

It was the first major international gold for Ruiz, 20, of Orlando. "I've done well before, but never quite gotten it before," he said. "I'm so happy, because that was the goal. I didn't come here for a good showing, or a fourth, or a bronze. I came to get the gold.” Text “JAZZ, MALONE DELIVER MORE PUNISHMENT 98-88” Right now, Karl Malone is the most dangerous player in the NBA. In the last two days, Malone has scored 88 points, sent two players to the hospital and helped the Utah Jazz clinch the Midwest Division title .

Malone had 32 points and 10 rebounds Wednesday as Utah beat San Antonio 98-88. In the first quarter, he knocked David Robinson unconscious with an elbow to the head. Robinson suffered a concussion, and a CAT scan taken at a Salt Lake City hospital was negative but he remained hospitalized overnight for observation .

Malone insisted the elbow was unintentional; Spurs guard disagreed. "He should be suspended," he said. "You saw the replay. Two plus two equals four."

After viewing a replay at halftime, referee said he didn't think the elbow was intentional .

Robinson – not Malone – was called for a foul on the play .

Tuesday, Malone had 56 points and broke one of Golden State's Donyell Marshall's ribs with an accidental knee .

Exercise 9. Render the content of the articles in English .

Легендарный тренер ушел из «Атланты»

Рекордсмен НБА среди тренеров по числу побед, одержанных в регулярном чемпионате (1179), Уилкинс заявил о своем уходе с поста наставника «Атланты Хоукс» после самого неудачного сезона в своей 27-летней тренерской карьере (всего 28 побед в 82 матчах) .

Последние семь лет он проработал в «Атланте», но в нынешнем сезоне результаты команды, постоянного участника плей-офф, резко ухудшились, и легендарный тренер решил сменить обстановку. Однако и в 62 года Уилкинс не собирается уходить на покой .

Сейчас он взял передышку, но заявил, что уже через пару месяцев будет готов рассматривать новые предложения .

Мартина Навратилова возвращается в профессиональный теннис Спустя пять с половиной лет после ухода из профессионального спорта легендарная чешская теннисистка решила вернуться в «теннисную Мекку», чтобы завоевать 20-й титул чемпионки самого престижного турнира и сравняться в этом показателе с выдающейся американской спортсменкой. Бывшая первая ракетка мира собирается выступить в июне в паре с южноафриканской теннисисткой: «Я получу массу удовольствия. Это будет просто фантастика! Ведь я еще не забыла, как бить по мячу» .

ПРОТОКОЛ новости спорта БАСКЕТБОЛ. НБА. Плей-офф 1/8 финала. «Майами» – «Детройт» – 84:82 (счет в серии до трех побед – 2:0, третий матч пройдет в субботу в Детройте). «Сан-Антонио» – «Финикс» – 85:70 (1: 1, третий матч пройдет 8 субботу в Финиксе). Обе команды играли без лидеров: в «Сан-Антонио» и в «Финиксе» травмированы игроки .

ХОККЕЙ. Товарищеский матч Россия – Канада – 2:0. Первую победу в Петербурге накануне чемпионата мира по хоккею одержала сборная России, причем без Павла Буре, который присоединится к партнерам позже. Первую шайбу на второй минуте игры с передачи В.К. забросил М.С. Он же установил окончательный результат за минуту до конца встречи .

ФУТБОЛ. Товарищеские матчи Босния – Сборная мира – 0:1. Гол на 83-й минуте с пенальти забил итальянец Роберто Баджо. Первый тайм в составе сборной мира отыграл россиянин .

«Зальцбург» (Австрия) – молодежная сборная России – 1: 1 ТЕННИС. Турнир АТР в Барселоне (1 000 000 долларов). Второй круг. Россия – Аргентина – 6:7 (2:7), 7: 6 (7: 1), 6:4 .

Exercise 10. What sports аrе dealt with in the texts of this Unit? Write down the пате of а sport and all the terms relating to it .

Exercise 11. Creative writing topics: 1. My favourite sport. 2. Sport 1 go in for .

Exercise 12. Translate into English .

Г) Американская бейсбольная команда имеет хорошие шансы поехать в Сидней, а кубинцы, возможно, останутся дома. 2) В четверг в финальной игре предварительных матчей панамериканских игр американцы добились победы над неудачно играющей бразильской командой со счетом 3:2. 3) Теперь, после того как Канада нанесла сокрушительное поражение кубинцам со счетом 8:0, американцы будут посеяны вторыми в турнире за розыгрыш медалей. 4) Для получения права на участие в Олимпийских играх нужна только победа в финальных соревнованиях, а до финальной встречи в понедельник США будут избегать встречи с командами Кубы или Канады. 5) Король международного бейсбола умер. Во всяком случае на пару дней. 6) Кубинская сборная, выигравшая со счетом 12:6 в дружеской встрече с командой Балтимор Ориолес, не смогла добиться преимущества во встрече с американской командой и потерпела поражение, знаменующее конец ее двенадцатилетнего превосходства над американскими спортсменами. 7) В последний раз американцы нанесли поражение кубинской команде на отборочных соревнованиях предыдущих панамериканских игр. Однако когда, несколько дней спустя, во встрече с американцами кубинская команда добилась успеха и выиграла золотую медаль. 8) Победный матч предшествовал драматическому поражению американцев во встрече с Канадой. 9) Кубинская команда, завоевавшая золотые медали на двух предшествовавших Олимпийских играх, стремится получить свою восьмую золотую медаль на Панамериканских играх. Она была непобедима в течение последнего десятилетия, выиграв подряд 152 международные встречи. Ее победоносное шествие было остановлено Японией, которая нанесла кубинцам поражение в матчах за Кубок Континентов в Барселоне. 10) Прошедшая неделя принесла кубинским спортсменам поражение на поле и неприятности политического характера. По заявлению кубинского спортивного руководителя, кубинских спортсменов пытаются склонить к невозвращению на родину. 11) Им предлагают контракты на сумму от 5 до 10 млн долларов за участие в составе профессиональных команд, «выступающих под другим флагом». 12) Кубинский представитель не называл имен, но было ясно, что он имел в виду ряд представителей бейсбольных профессиональных команд, присутствующих на панамериканских играх. 13) По словам кубинского представителя, письменные предложения, полученные кубинскими спортсменами от этих людей, были переданы ими руководству команды. 14) Ни один из кубинских игроков не выразил желания остаться, однако, четыре члена кубинской делегации обратились к канадским властям с просьбой о предоставлении им политического убежища. 15) Не лучше обстоят дела для кубинцев и на бейсбольном поле .



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