«1. Вартанова, Е. Л. Постсоветские трансформации российских СМИ и журна листики / Е. Л. Вартанова. - М. : Медиамир, 2014. - 280 с. 2. Вешдз1ктау, С. В. Структура i дынамша 1нфармацыйнага ...»
2016 Медиасфера и медиаобразование:
Список основных источников
1. Вартанова, Е. Л. Постсоветские трансформации российских СМИ и журна
листики / Е. Л. Вартанова. - М. : Медиамир, 2014. - 280 с .
2. Вешдз1ктау, С. В. Структура i дынамша 1нфармацыйнага спажывання жыхароу Магшёускай вобласц1 Рэспублш Беларусь / С. В. Вешдз1ктау, В. Д. Выбарны,
C.I. Дашленка // Медиасфера и медиаобразование: специфика взаимодействия в со
временном социокультурном пространстве [Электронный ресурс] : сб. статей / М-во внутр. дел Респ. Беларусь, учреждение образования «Могилевский институт Мини стерства внутренних дел Республики Беларусь» ; редкол.: С. В. Венедиктов (отв. ред.) [и др.]. - Могилев, 2015. - 1 электрон, опт. диск (CD-R). - Загл. с экрана .
3. Градюшко, А. А. Интернет-версия районной газеты в условиях конвергенции медиапространства / А. А. Градюшко // Весн. Гродзенскага дзярж. ун-та mk Яню Купалы. Сер. 3. Фшалопя. Педагопка. Пс1халогш. - 2015. - № 1 (190). - С. 33-39 .
4. Газеты средних и малых городов России. Социологическое исследование:
опрос редакторов и журналистов / Л. Г. Свитич [и др.]. - М. : Факультет журналистиФедечкин, Д. Что газеты делают в интернете? Что должны и что могут де лать? / Д. Федечкин // Журналистика и медиарынок. - 2016. - № 3. - С. 55-59 .
УДК 37.013+374.1 M. A. Debych Institute fo r Higher Education at the National Academy o f Educational Sciences o f Ukraine (Kyiv)
THE ROLE OF M EDIA TECH NO LO G IES
FO R V IRTUA L INTERNATIO NALISATIO N
OF H IG H ER EDUCATIO NThe article highlights the role o f profession oriented media education in higher education, thanks to which a future specialist is becoming media and information literate and able to modernize the educational process using new media technologies. Fluency in information technology has become a central pillar o f higher education in preparing students for the global labour markets. It is stated that virtual internationalization can provide the same positive outcomes as internationalization: better foreign language competence, intercultural knowledge and critical thinking. We consider Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) to be one o f the highest profile aspects while using technology in teaching in recent years and as a means o f virtual internationalization. Short review on incorporating information and communication technologies into Ukrainian higher educa tion establishments is given .
специфика взаимодействия в современном социокультурном пространстве Роль медиатехнологий в виртуальной интернационализации высшего обра зования В статье показана роль профессионально ориентированного медиаобразова ния в системе высшего образования, благодаря которой будущий специалист стано вится медиа- и информационно-грамотным и может модернизировать учебный процесс с помощью новых медиатехнологий. Свободное владение медиатехнологиями важно для подготовки специалистов для глобальных рынков труда. Указано, что виртуальная интернационализация может обеспечить положительные результаты:
лучшую иноязычную компетентность, межкультурные знания и критическое мыш ление. Мы считаем, что массовые открытые онлайн-курсы (МВОК) являются одним из самых распространенных аспектов использования медиатехнологий обучения в течение последних лет и средством виртуальной интернационализации. Приведены примеры внедрения ИКТ в учебный процесс украинских вузов .
Having analyzed the ways of media education advancement, its theoretical concepts and models developed by teachers, journalists, arts specialists, social peda gogues, psychologists and experts from other fields of knowledge, we paid attention to interdisciplinary and ongoing interest in this relatively new phenomenon .
Highly networked world requires specialists with critical thinking able to ana lyze and select information, to structure it and be a conscious user. This can be achieved through media education. Currently there are many definitions of this concept. But we want to draw scientific and teaching communities’ attention to the potential of profession oriented media education in higher education, thanks to which a future specialist is becoming media and information literate and able to modernize the educational process in the classroom using new media technologies .
The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the role of media technologies for virtual internationalization of higher education .
It should be noted that profession oriented media education (POME) was intro duced by the Ukrainian researcher H. Onkovych [1; 2]. Thanks to POME a specialist acquires media competence which is essential for him to be competent in his profes sion. This is also proved in researches done by R. Buzhykov, N. Dukhanina, I. Sakhnevych, O. Yanyshyn, I. Hurinenko, I. Chemerys and others under Professor H. Onkovych supervision .
Electronic media technology prepares students to bridge the gap between traditional media production disciplines and new digital technologies of media production and communications. It includes instruction in research skills and critical studies in media. The new media technologies encompass a wide variety of webrelated communication technologies, such as blogs, wikis, online social networking, virtual worlds and other social media forms .
In general media technologies are very important in learning and teaching in higher education and widen access to education and training. As societies rapidly
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develop into knowledge-based information economies, information technology becomes a key driver for both economic competitiveness and social development .
Fluency in information technology has become a central issue of higher education in preparing students for the global labour markets .
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have become one of the most high profile aspects while using technology in teaching in recent years, with 142 universities providing free courses open to all participants via Coursera and edX alone .
The MOOC revolution of 2012 not only injected new vitality into the various discourses on digital teaching and learning, but continues to enhance the perceived legitimacy of online learning around the world. Within Europe, the digital discourse has frequently referred to the potential of virtual mobility to realise the vision of European integration. To the extent that it permits access to higher education for new constituencies of learners who otherwise would be excluded, the digital revolution is a good thing. To the extent that it institutionalises two-tier (elite vs. mass) higher education systems globally, it is less desirable . The digital revolution expresses both of these tendencies at once .
Digital learning, by which is meant «learning facilitated by technology that gives students some element of control over time, place, path and/or pace» , is not new: universities started making courses and degrees available online for their own students in the 1990s .
While physical mobility is a key component of the European integration project, virtual mobility is a key component in the internationalisation of digital learning. A widely reproduced definition of virtual mobility, from the former eLearningeuropa.info portal is «The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to obtain the same benefits as one would have with physical mobility but without the need to travel» .
This definition is far from an established fact that virtual mobility delivers the same benefits as physical mobility. It is therefore best read as an intent or aspiration of virtual mobility rather than as a fait accompli. A less presumptuous definition is «a set of ICT-supported activities that realise international collaborative experiences in a context of teaching and/or learning»  .
Virtual mobility can provide the same positive outcomes: better foreign language competence, intercultural knowledge and critical thinking, and it reaches new constituencies .
With a couple of notable exceptions, the role of European higher education institutions (HEIs) in the digital disruption of education has been modest and sporadic. The Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) was a true pioneer and has offered 100 % специфика взаимодействия в современном социокультурном пространстве online degrees since 1995. The University of Tbingen may have started the OpenCourseWare (OCW) movement by publishing videos of lectures online in 1999 - three years before Massachusetts Institute of Technology .
At the EU level there have been numerous initiatives on the digital revolution .
A Virtual University for Europe (VirtUE) feasibility project was funded by the European Commission from 1996 until 1998. A Collaborative European Virtual University (cEVU) was funded from 2001 to 2003 by the Commission under an eLearning initiative based on collaboration between existing European university networks . It saw ICT in education as a strategic European issue in higher education development. A recent initiative to bring the digital revolution into education is Opening up Education .
Opening up Education, launched in 2013, is a direct and perhaps belated response to the digital divide, funded through Erasmus+ and the huge Horizon 2020 programme . It provides an online portal to European Open Educational Resources (OERs) in different languages in order to increase their use. It aims to increase broadband penetration in schools. It also targets the skills gap .
There is evidence that employers favour digital graduates for being more obviously motivated, driven, disciplined, and skilful in ICT. But there is also evidence from the US that they may be mistaken: one recent large-scale study of students taking both online and face-to-face courses found that the former had higher failure rates; another study found that online students earned lower grades and were less persistent .
It is also questionable if the richness of an international study experience can adequately be captured in a virtual environment, particularly as many educational experiences in studying abroad arguably take place outside of the classroom. As such, it remains to be seen to what extent virtual mobility schemes will serve to equalise access to internationalisation activities in the European Union, and how much value participating students and institutions ascribe to their virtual exchanges  .
The internationalisation strategies of elite universities, with their emphasis on research and partnerships, are unlikely to be disturbed by these digital developments .
They simply add online offerings to what they do. But for the great majority of HEIs, internationalisation is about mobility (and targets), internationalising the campus at home, and «preparing graduates for a global market of products, services, and ideas»
Innovations in digital learning impact directly on how this is achieved. The most see tools like MOOCs as a potential enhancement to traditional forms of pedagogy, not as a replacement or even a successor stage in pedagogy, but they con sider the future to be blended .
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Blended learning is a way institutions can prepare themselves for what is coming, and studies in the US and UK suggest that students prefer blended learning to solely face-to-face or solely online. The most successful online offerings will find ways of incorporating community and social interaction, along with consistent facultystudent engagement. UOC and the FutureLearn platform are examples .
In its simplest form, the concept of Open Educational Resources (OERs) describes any educational resources (including curriculum maps, course materials, textbooks, streaming videos, multimedia applications, podcasts, and any other materials that have been designed for use in teaching and learning) that are openly available for use by educators and students, without an accompanying need to pay royalties or licence fees  .
The term OER is largely synonymous with another term: Open CourseWare (OCW), although the latter may be used to refer to a specific, more structured subset of OER. An Open CourseWare is defined by the OCW Consortium as «a free and open digital publication of high quality university-level educational materials. These materials are organized as courses, and often include course planning materials and evaluation tools as well as thematic content»  .
OER has emerged as a concept with great potential to support educational transformation. While its educational value lies in the idea of using resources as an integral method of communication of curriculum in educational courses (i.e .
resource-based learning), its transformative power lies in the ease with which such resources, when digitized, can be shared via the Internet. Importantly, there is only one key differentiator between an OER and any other educational resource: its licence. Thus, an OER is simply an educational resource that incorporates a licence that facilitates reuse, and potentially adaptation, without first requesting permission from the copyright holder .
As it is stated in «A Basic Guide to Open Educational Resources» OER is not synonymous with online learning or e-learning, although many people make the mistake of using the terms interchangeably. Open educational resources are materials used to support education that may be freely accessed, reused, modified and shared .
Openly licensed content can be produced in any medium: paper-based text, video, audio or computer-based multimedia. A lot of e-learning courses may use OER, but this does not mean that OER are necessarily e-learning. Although use of OER can support open learning/open education, the two are not the same. Making «open education» or «open learning» a priority has significantly bigger implications than only committing to releasing resources as open or using OER in educational programmes. It requires systematic analysis of assessment and accreditation systems, student support, curriculum frameworks, mechanisms to recognize prior learning, and so on, in order to determine the extent to which they enhance or impede openness .
специфика взаимодействия в современном социокультурном пространстве Open learning is an approach to education that seeks to remove all unnecessary barriers to learning, while aiming to provide students with a reasonable chance of success in an education and training system centred on their specific needs and
located in multiple arenas of learning. It incorporates several key principles:
• Learning opportunity should be lifelong and should encompass both education and training;
• The learning process should centre on the learners, build on their experience and encourage independent and critical thinking;
• Learning provision should be flexible so that learners can increasingly choose, where, when, what and how they learn, as well as the pace at which they will learn;
• Prior learning, prior experience and demonstrated competencies should be recognized so that learners are not unnecessarily barred from educational opportunities by lack of appropriate qualifications;
• Learners should be able to accumulate credits from different learning contexts;
• Providers should create the conditions for a fair chance of learner success .
As this list illustrates, while effective use of OER might give practical expression to some of these principles, the two terms are distinct in both scope and meaning  .
There has been significant emphasis placed in OER discussions on the quality of OER. This makes the concept of resource-based learning of particular interest .
What does the notion of resource-based learning mean? It means moving away from the traditional notion of the «talking teacher» to communicate curriculum; a significant but varying proportion of communication between students and educators is not face to face but rather takes place through the use of different media as necessary. Importantly, the face-to-face contact that does take place typically does not involve simple transmission of knowledge from educator to student; instead it involves various forms of student support, for example, tutorials, peer group discussion, or practical work. Resource-based learning is not a synonym for distance education. Rather, resourcebased learning provides a basis for transforming the culture of teaching across all educational systems to enable those systems to offer better quality education to significantly larger numbers of students. Many courses and programmes at all levels of education now incorporate extensive use of instructionally designed resources, as educators have learned the limitations of lecture-based strategies for communicating information to students .
To summarize it should be stated:
• There is no direct relationship between OER and resource-based learning .
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• Many OER available online have not explicitly been designed as part of deliberate strategy to shift to resource-based learning .
• Likewise, most practice in resource-based learning currently uses fully copyrighted materials rather than OER [4, p. 7] .
Nevertheless, linking OER and resource-based learning provides an opportunity to leverage both most effectively .
National policy of Ukraine in the field of ICT in education is determined by a number of international documents ratified by Ukraine, laws of Ukraine, decrees of the President of Ukraine, decrees and orders of the Cabinet of Ministers, normative acts of the Ministry of education and science of Ukraine and other Central authorities .
During Olvia forum (2009) the Ukrainian University Association was founded:
26 universities-founders signed Olvia Declaration of the universities of Ukraine «Ac ademic freedom, University autonomy, science and education for sustainable devel opment.» Free access to information is an important component of scientific re searches in the modern global world, the key to further development of science, inte gration of Ukraine into the global academic community .
Ukraine has actively joined the movement to achieve open access to education al resources since 2005. The main focus of the projects was directed to support Ukrainian universities on the development of electronic libraries, electronic journals, electronic archives and open access repositories .
So, in 2006 they started two pilot projects to set up a University repositories: at the Ukrainian Catholic University and the National University of «Kyiv-Mohyla Academy». 80 % of higher education institutions have set up special units to ensure the implementation of ICT and distance learning technologies; 70% of higher educational establishments nominated person (Vice-rector), responsible for the implementation and use of ICT in the educational process  .
The state program «Information and communication technologies in education and science» for 2006-2010, which defines the action plan for ICT development for education sector was launched. Ukrainian Institute for information technologies in education NTUU «KPI» actively contributes to the learning in environment Moodle .
On the website http://www.udec.ntu-kpi.kiev.ua free access to the platform and to a special distance course for training to work in Moodle is open for University professors and everyone who wishes to master the program .
Many institutions are incorporating information and communication technologies into their management, administration and educational programmes in order to serve their students more cost-effectively and to prepare them to work in the highly networked world. In many developing countries, however, access to hardware, software and connectivity remain challenges. ICT is dramatically increasing the transfer of information through global communication systems, leading to an специфика взаимодействия в современном социокультурном пространстве explosion in the generation and collective sharing of knowledge. This opens up opportunities to create and share a wider array of educational resources, thereby accommodating a greater diversity of student needs. Increased online access to OER has further promoted individualised study, which, coupled with social networking and collaborative learning, has created opportunities for pedagogical innovation and for virtual internationalization. Educational institutions are making these investments in order to improve the quality of teaching and learning and to better prepare gradu ates for global labour markets .
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