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«учреждение Высшего профессионального образования «Казанский (Приволжский) федеральный университет» Елабужский институт федерального государственного автономного образовательного учреждения Высшего ...»

Министерство образования и науки Российской федерации

Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное

учреждение

Высшего профессионального образования

«Казанский (Приволжский) федеральный университет»

Елабужский институт федерального государственного

автономного образовательного учреждения Высшего

профессионального образования

«Казанский (Приволжский) федеральный университет»

Кафедра английской филологии

Non-finite forms

of the Verb

Елабуга, 2015

Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета

ФГАОУ ВПО

Елабужского института «Казанского (Приволжского) федерального университета»

Протокол № 39 от 29.05.2014 г .

ББК 81.432.1 - 212 УДК 811.111’36 С 60

Рецензенты:

Р.Д. Шакирова – д. филол. наук, профессор, зав. каф. романогерманских языков и методик их преподавания Набережночелнинского института социально-педагогических технологий и ресурсов ФГБОУ ВПО;

А.В. Теренин – к. филол. н., доцент кафедры английской филологии Елабужского института К(П)ФУ .

Г.В. Соловьева. Non-Finite Forms of the Verb (Неличные формы глагола): Учебно-методическое пособие. – Изд-е 2-ое, доп. – Елабуга, 2015. – 86 c .

Данное учебно-методическое пособие содержит грамматический материал по теме ‘Неличные формы глагола’. Материалы, представленные в пособии, предлагаются в помощь студентам 1 курса факультета иностранных языков, а также для широкого круга лиц, изучающих английский язык .

©Издательство ЕИ КФУ, 2015 ©Автор-составитель Г.В. Соловьева, 2015 ©Верстка Е.Ю. Петрова, 2015 Предисловие Учебно-методическое пособие предназначено для студентов 1 курса факультета иностранных языков дневного и заочного отделений и содержит грамматический материал, изучаемый по дисциплине ‘Практическая грамматика английского языка’ во втором семестре .

В соответствии с программными требованиями материал разделен на три темы по следующим разделам: Инфинитив, Герундий, Причастие I, II. Пособие завершается четвертым разделом — Контрольные упражнения (Revision Exercises) .

Материал пособия первых трех разделов представлен в виде теоретического объяснительного материала и примеров на английском языке. Затем следуют тренировочные упражнения, состоящие из нескольких этапов: ознакомительнораспознавательного, аналитического, активизирующего (включающего разные типы заданий) и повторительного, а также контролирующего этапа с заданиями творческого характера .

Раздел "Revision Exercises" служит цели подведения итогов, то есть для окончательной проработки изучаемых тем, контроля знаний студентов и выработки у них автоматизированных навыков употребления неличных форм глаголов как в устной, так и в письменной англоязычной речи .

Учебно-методическое пособие должно научить студентов использовать изученные явления грамматики современного английского языка в речи с учетом коммуникативной ситуации и коммуникативной функции данного явления .

Настоящее пособие может быть использовано как для работы в аудитории с преподавателем, так и для самостоятельной работы студентов, а также может быть рекомендовано самому широкому кругу лиц, изучающих английский язык .

NON-FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB

The Infinitive, the Gerund and the Participle are the non-finite forms of the verb (the verbals) .

The verbals are forms of the verb, but they have peculiarities of their own. Like the finite forms of the verb the verbals have tense, voice and aspect forms, can be modified by adverbs and can take direct objects. But they can not express person, number or mood and their syntactical functions are different from those of the finite forms .





The Infinitive and the ing-form (the Gerund) have many features in common. The Infinitive and the Gerund are the forms of the verb, which have the syntactical characteristics of the noun. The Participle differs from both these forms considerably. The Participle is the form of the verb, which has the syntactical characteristics of the adjective or the adverb .

The Russian non-finite forms ‘причастие’, ‘деепричастие’, ‘инфинитив’ do not quite correspond to what we find in the English language .

–  –  –

The Infinitive developed from the verbal noun, which in course of time became verbalized, retaining at the same time some of its nominal properties. Thus in Modern English the Infinitive has a double nature, nominal and verbal .

The Infinitive has tense and aspect distinctions; the Infinitive of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions .

The Infinitive is a plain verb stem which is usually proceeded by the unstressed particle to, e.g. to write, to read, to tell. In addition to the simple

form, the Infinitive has analytical forms. Thus the Infinitive has six forms:

–  –  –

The Indefinite Infinitive expresses an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb, so it may refer to the present, past or future .

E.g .

1. I am glad to speak to you .

2. I was glad to speak to you yesterday .

3. I will be very glad to speak to you tomorrow .

The Perfect Infinitive denotes an action prior to the action expressed by the finite verb .

E.g .

I am glad to have spoken to you .

The Continuous Infinitive denotes an action simultaneous with that expressed by the finite verb, but it is an action in progress. Thus it is not only a tense form, but also an aspect form, expressing both time relations and the manner in which the action is presented .

E.g .

I am glad to be speaking to you now .

The Perfect Continuous Infinitive denotes an action which lasted a certain time before the action of the finite verb. It is not only a tense form, but also an aspect form .

E.g .

I am glad to have been speaking to you all this time .

The Active and Passive forms of the Infinitive show whether the subject of the Infinitive acts or is acted upon .

E.g .

1. You are lucky to be taken to the theatre .

2. She wanted to be taken seriously .

3. She comes here to be taught English .

In sentences with the construction there is the Infinitive of some verbs can

be active or passive without any change in the meaning:

E.g .

1. There is no time to lose .

2. There is no time to be lost .

Note: Transitive verbs which are not used in the passive voice have only four forms of the Infinitive: to stand, to be standing, to have stood, to have been standing .

–  –  –

Exercise 1. Give all the possible forms of the following Infinitives .

Model:

1) to discuss – to be discussed; to be discussing; to have discussed; to have been discussed; to have been discussing .

2) to sleep – to be sleeping; to have slept; to have been sleeping .

To describe, to explain, to smile, to jump, to cross, to read, to walk, to call, to keep, to have, to bring, to see, to wait .

Exercise 2. Give all the possible forms of the following Infinitives .

To do, to study, to live, to sit, to lie, to raise, to set, to sell, to leave, to go, to inform, to like, to write, to run, to make .

Exercise 3. Comment on the forms of the Infinitives .

1. The child was happy to have been brought home. 2. I am sorry to have spoilt your mood. 3. I am awfully sorry to have kept you waiting. 4. I am very happy to have had the pleasure of making your acquaintance. 5. To be instructed by such an experienced specialist was a great advantage .

6. When I go on holiday I ask Mum to look after my house plants. 7. He seemed to be reading my mind. 8. He was witty and clever and he made me laugh. 9. You have your own life to consider. 10. Don’t you understand that all the personal sentiments ought to have been put aside. 11. The manuscript appears to have been written in Greek. 12. I am sorry to have added some more trouble by what I have told you. 13. Jane remembered to have been told a lot about Mr. Rochester. 14. When Clyde looked at the girl closely he remembered to have seen her in Sondra’s company. 15. I remembered to have been moved by the scene I witnessed. 16. Nature has many secrets to be discovered yet .

Exercise 4. Use the verbs in brackets in the required form .

1. I like (give) presents to friends, but even more I like (give) gifts. 2. She is so lucky (have) such a good family, (see) all love and care since childhood. 3. The dictionary seems (belong) to my great-grandfather. It appears (publish) ages ago. 4. The young man seemed (study) Marion, and she gave him a cold stare. 5. The key to the grandfather clock was believed (lose) some twenty years before. 6. One more window remained (wash) .

7. The child is so pale! She ought (have) a change of food and air. 8. Well, sir, I want (take) my words back. I'm sorry (call) you names. 9. The case was urgent. The man had (operate on). 10. He was sorry (not notice) the fax on the secretary's table. 11. But what kind of rules might (require)?

12. The rules (leave) to the Government to decide. 13. Everybody is going (give) a rise. 14. Parenthood, someone once said, is the only 24-hour-aday job for which you (not pay) overtime. 15. She pretended to be more ill than she actually was (pet) and (make) much of by her parents. 16. English people don't like (tell) what to do .

Exercise 5. Answer the following questions. Express your ideas using the forms of the Infinitive .

1. Which is more pleasant: to give or to be given presents?

2. Isn’t it natural that we like to be praised and don’t like to be criticized and scolded?

3. Do you like to be reminded of your duties?

4. What do absent-minded people tend to do?

5. What do stubborn people refuse to do?

6. What are generous people willing to do?

7. What do you have to get ready to do on a Monday morning?

8. Where are you planning to go next summer?

9. What are you planning to do in future?

Functions of the Infinitive

Like the finite forms of the verb the infinitive has tense, voice and aspect forms, can take a direct object and be modified by an adverb. These are the verbal features of the infinitive .

The finite forms of the verb have only one syntactical function — that of the predicate or part of the predicate. The syntactical functions of the infinitive are quite different. They are close to those of the noun and may be considered to be the noun features of the infinitive .

The Infinitive has a variety of syntactical functions, typical of

different parts of speech:

1. A subject

a) to do smth is/was/will be (means /meant).. .

E.g .

1. To study well is our duty .

2. To know all about English is one thing; to know English is quite another .

3. To visit English speaking countries is her aim .

b) It is necessary (important, nice, good, bad, easy, difficult, pleasant, unpleasant, dangerous, etc.) to do smth E.g .

1. It’s nice to have seen you .

2. It’s good to have been met at the station .

c) It takes (took, will take) smb to do smth E.g .

1. It takes me twenty minutes to get to the University .

2. It will probably take much time to do this task .

2. A predicative

a) a part of compound nominal predicate after the link-verbs: to be, to mean E.g .

1. To know English is to speak English .

2. The students’ duty is to study well .

b) a part of a secondary predicative E.g .

1. The book is easy to read .

2. He is difficult to deal with .

3. She is pleasant to look at .

4. Granny is difficult to please .

3. An object

a) after the verbs: to want, wish, prefer, like, expect, learn, refuse, try, decide, allow, mean, order, promise, remember, regret, hope, attempt, plan, agree, forget, intend, etc .

E.g .

1. I’ll try to help you .

2. I remember to have seen him once .

3. I want to know everything about him .

b) after the verbs: to be glad, to be sure, to be sorry, to be eager, to be anxious, to be able, to be surprised, to be astonished, to be puzzled, to be frightened, to be scared, to be thankful, to be grateful, to be proud, to be touched, etc .

E.g .

1. He was sorry to be late .

2. I am glad to have met you .

3. I’m distressed to have done you harm .

c) with verbs: to find, to consider, to think, to make + "it" + an adjective, + an infinitive E.g .

1. I find it useless to teach him English .

2. We thought it important to tell him the truth .

3. Her last word made it possible to understand .

d) with verbs: to know, to show, to wonder, which can take only a conjunctive Infinitive phrase, called the "wh-phrase". (It may be also considered to be one of the Complexes — an Infinitive Phrase.) E.g .

1. She didn’t know what to say .

2. I know well enough where to stop .

3. I couldn’t decide whether to speak or not .

4. An attribute modifying a noun, a pronoun or a numeral .

a) a noun E.g .

1. I’ve no time to waste .

2. This is the picture to be exhibited .

b) a pronoun E.g .

1. It was she to behave like that .

2. It’s always he to speak first .

3. Have you anything to tell me?

c) a numeral E.g .

1. Jane was the first to come .

2. He was the second to speak .

d) a substantivized adjective (the last, enough, more, much, little, a lot, etc.) E.g .

1. He was the last to write the exposition .

2. He knows much to inform her .

Note 1: The Passive Infinitive is seldom used in the attributive function .

So we should say "it is a book to read" and not "to be read".Exceptions:

there is nothing to be done — nothing to do; there is something to be seen, to be said — something to see, to say .

Note 2: The attributive Infinitive besides naming an action may express a meaning corresponding to the Russian ‘надо, можно, следует’ .

E.g .

1. It’s the only thing to do (Это единственное, что можно и нужно сделать) .

2. It’s a book to read and remember (Такую книгу надо прочесть и запомнить) .

Note 3: The attributive Passive Infinitive may have a future meaning .

E.g .

1. The house to be built here will be of the same type .

2. She will always find something to complain about .

5. An adverbial modifier

a) of purpose (in order, so as, as if, as though may be used as modifiers) E.g .

1. I went out to buy the morning paper .

2. She hurried so as not to give him time for reflection .

3. He opened his mouth wide as if to speak .

b) of result (too, enough, so...as) E.g .

1. He is too clever to do it .

2. The problem is difficult enough to solve it .

3. You are so stupid as to lend him your car. You must expect it to be damaged .

c) of comparison (manner) (than, as if, as though) E.g .

1. I’d prefer to see it myself than to hear it somewhere .

2. He looked at them as though to be still in doubt .

3. He watched her face as if to explain it .

d) of exception denotes the only possible action that can be performed under the circumstances. It’s proceeded by except or but used in negative or interrogative sentences after: nothing could be done, he could do nothing, he could not help, etc. The infinitive is used without to .

E.g .

1. I had nothing to do but wait .

2. There is nothing to be done about it except tell you the truth .

3. What could he do but smile?

e) of condition E.g .

To touch it, one would believe that it was the best of furs .

f) of time E.g .

1. His brother lived to be ninety four (until) .

2. I to see you here (when I see) .

6. Parenthesis: to begin with, to tell the truth, to put it mildly, needless to say, so to speak, strange to say, to cut a long story short, to say nothing of..., to say the least of it, to be more exact, etc .

E.g .

1. To tell the truth you have been lying all the time .

2. To crown it all I had an accident the other day .

3. To begin with he is not the man to trust .

7. A part of compound verbal

a) phasal (aspect) predicate after phasal (aspect) verbs: to start, to begin, to commence, to go on, to continue, to keep on, to finish, to stop, etc .

E.g .

1. The child started to cry .

2. The girls go on to talk .

b) modal predicate after modal verbs: must, can, may, etc (In Rus. may ‘возможно’, must ‘должно быть’) .

E.g .

1. He must (may) listen to the text every day .

2. He must (may) be listening to the text .

3. He must (may) have been listening to the text from 9 o’clock already .

4. Could you tell me the time?

8. A predicate. It is used in interrogative (affirmative and negative) sentences beginning with why and implying a suggestion used in the conversation. We always find an infinitive without to here .

In interrogative-affirmative sentences the implication is that there is no need to perform the action .

E.g .

1. Why lose your temper over a little thing like that?

2. Why do this kind of work alone?

In interrogative-negative sentences the implication is that there is nothing to prevent one from performing the action .

E.g .

1. Why not go for a walk?

2. Why not invite him to the party?

–  –  –

Exercise 1. Comment on the forms and functions of the Infinitives .

Translate the sentences into Russian .

1. To read books means to enlarge one's horizons. 2. He read a lot to broaden his mind. 3. To part from friends is to die a little. 4. To win friends and influence people, one must employ guile and fraud, some politicians believe. 5. A friend is someone special to laugh with, to dream with, to shape with... 6. He had no idea whom he was to meet. 7. What he really wanted was to be alone, entirely alone. 8. She could not afford to panic, not under any circumstances. 9. “You always make me feel better”. — “Do I”? 10. She didn't love Willy enough to marry him .

11. Gradually, she came to understand how wrong she had been. 12. To begin my story I must go back in time, to 1990. 13. He was far too bright a boy to be deceived. He would probe and probe. 14. To tell the truth, a cigar gives me a chance to relax and to meditate. 15. Maxim flew to New York only to discover that his daughter was on the Coast. 16. She began to realize that her husband was a difficult man, not easy to know, or live with. 17. In Greece people often shake their heads from side to side to say “Yes”. With us it means “No”. 18. They need nobody to protect them .

19. Why not ask him about this problem, he can advise what to do. 20. It makes everybody so happy to see you again! 21. It takes a long time to become a personality. 22. It gives me great comfort to think of you .

23. Under those circumstances his silence was difficult to explain .

24. Сhildren ought to obey their parents. 25. “It might have been just my imagination,” — said Virginia. 26. Bad habits are easy to acquire and hard to break .

Exercise 2. Translate into English. Use the Infinitive in the functionof:

a) a subject (a,b,c)

1. Знать язык — значит свободно говорить и писать на нем. 2. Думать так было бы неверно. 3. Убеждать его было бесполезно .

4. Рассердиться было бы глупо. 5. Объяснить ему будет делом трудным. 6. Помогать ей значит просто все сделать самой. 7. Сказать "да" было невозможно, сказать "нет" было бы невежливо .

8. Перевести эту статью займет около двух часов. 9. Из моей комнаты можно было услышать то, что происходило на улице. 10. Ее обязанностью было поддерживать порядок в доме. 11. Чтобы добраться до Владивостока на поезде, занимает немало времени .

12. Было очень трудно делать вид, что ты не понимаешь .

b) a predicative (a,b)

1. Единственный выход из положения — это сейчас же все рассказать. 2. Его хобби — коллекционирование марок. 3. Вашей работой будет уход за лабораторными животными. 4. Единственный шанс успеть на поезд — это найти такси. 5. Его единственным желанием было добраться до дома. 6. С ней было трудно иметь дело .

7. На него было не очень приятно смотреть. 8. В этом доме удобно жить. 9. За этим столом удобно работать. 10. Это стихотворение легко выучить наизусть. 11. Результаты невозможно предсказать .

c) an object (a,b,c,d)

1. Она, вероятно, была рада видеть нас. 2. Он боялся, что они его увидят. 3. Ей было жаль, что она упустила эту возможность. 4. Он пригласил своих друзей посмотреть его новую квартиру. 5. Филипп обещал пообедать с ними в следующее воскресенье. 6. Его последнее слово заставило все понять. 7. Я считаю необходимым объяснить ему все подробно. 8. Я не знаю, что и подумать о нем. 9. Они не знали, в какую сторону направляться. 10. Мы не знали, что сказать в таком случае. 11. Майкл притворялся, что читает газету. 12. Почему ты так удивлена, что он получил двойку?

d) an attribute (a,b,c,d)

1. Он первым пересек финишную линию. 2. Кто последний разговаривал с ним? 3. У вас еще есть что сказать? 4. Я тебе должен что-то показать. 5. У них очень много дел. 6. Ей нечего было сказать, так как было стыдно. 7. Кто-то должен первым начать говорить. 8. У него были дети, о которых он должен был заботиться. 9. У него было много новостей, которые он должен был немедленно сообщить Ральфу. 10. У него был небольшой багаж, который следовало упаковать. 11. Это джемпер, который можно носить с брюками или широкой юбкой. 12. Дайте мне время подумать, пожалуйста .

e) adverbial modifiers

1. Она говорит по-английски настолько хорошо, что ее можно принять за англичанку. 2. Слишком она молода, чтобы принимать ее всерьез. 3. Вопрос слишком сложен, чтобы на него сразу ответить .

4. Слишком он ленив, чтобы читать книги в оригинале. 5. Я пришла сюда не за тем, чтобы со мной обращались как с ребенком .

6. Мальчики стояли во дворе и не уходили, чтобы их тоже взяли с собой. 7. Он еще раз прочел статью, чтобы лучше ее понять. 8. Он остановился, чтобы закурить. 9. Что я могла сделать, как ни наказать его за такой поступок? 10. Он смотрел на нее, словно ожидая ответа .

11. Он пересек улицу, чтобы поздороваться с другом .

Exercise 3. Translate into English. Use the Infinitive in the function of parenthesis .

1. Мягко выражаясь, вы меня удивили. 2. Для начала она открыла все окна. 3. По правде говоря, я очень устал. 4. По меньшей мере, мы были удивлены. 5. Сказать по правде, я не люблю каши. 6. Самая известная книга Джерома — “Трое в лодке, не считая собаки” .

7. Начнем с того, что приготовим салат. 8. В довершение всего, я попал под сильный дождь. 9. Чтобы быть более точным, фильм оставляет желать лучшего. 10. Чтобы быть абсолютно откровенным, он не благородный человек. 11. Я очень голоден, если говорить правду. 12. Это очень странно, по меньшей мере .

Exercise 4. Give the English equivalents for the following phrases .

Make up sentences with them .

По правде говоря, чтобы быть абсолютно откровенным, в довершение всего, для начала, мягко говоря, не говоря больше, нет нужды говорить, чтобы быть более точным, короче говоря, как ни странно это звучит .

Exercise 5. Translate into English. Use the Infinitive in the function of a predicate .

1. Почему тебе тратить время на эту работу? 2. Почему не извиниться, если он знает, что он не прав? 3. Почему не позвонить, чтобы предупредить его об этом? 4. Почему не позвонить им и не поздравить их? 5. Почему помогать ему? Он может делать это сам .

6. Почему бы не купить эти джинсы? Они тебе идут. 7. Почему ехать туда именно сейчас? 8. Почему не рассказать ему правду? Так будет лучше, я думаю. 9. — Я устала. — Почему бы не лечь спать пораньше? 10. Почему приходить так рано? Не беспокойтесь, мы уже организовали все заранее. 11. Почему бы не предложить им присоединиться к нам? 12. Почему нам торопиться? У нас еще есть достаточно времени .

Exercise 6. Complete the sentences by using suitable Infinitives .

Comment on the function .

1. I learned... when I was around six or seven. 2. We've decided...a new washing-machine. 3. Hugh promised not... late for his own wedding. 4. My boyfriend and I would love... Venice. 5. The first thing you must do... .

6. Felicia was obviously pleased.... 7. The Martins can't afford... a house .

8. Try... to class on time every day. 9. The trouble is too deep-rooted... .

10. She is very sorry. She didn't mean... you. 11. My friend offered... me a little money. 12. Erik is only five, but he intends... a doctor when he grows up. 13. What time do you expect... the Hague? 14. I forgot... some cheese when I went to the grocery store. 15. They are planning... to the Canaries after they get married. 16. We were not sure.... 17. I’m so bewildered, I don’t know.... 18. The very names of the chapters were enough... one a headache. 19. His behaviour leaves much.... 20.... I am unable to accept your kind invitation. 21.... is not my custom. 22.... is a real pleasure. 23. His original idea was.... 24. Again he was the last... .

25. We are too aware of the fact not... .

Exercise 7. Translate into English. Comment on the form and function of the Infinitives .

1. Я счастлива пригласить вас на вечер. 2. Я рада, что меня часто приглашают на премьеры. 3. Я счастлива, что меня пригласили на новый спектакль в "Сатирикон". 4. Хочу рассказать вам последние новости. 5. Хочу, чтобы мне рассказали эту историю. 6. Я рада, что мне рассказали об этом. 7. Роберт не собирается обвинять вас. 8. Он не предполагал, что его обвинят. 9. Мне жаль, что я причиняю вам столько хлопот. 10. Мне жаль, что побеспокоила вас. 11. Дети любят выдумывать разные истории. 12. Дети обожают, когда им рассказывают страшные истории. 13. Вот план кинотеатра, который будет построен на этой площади. 14. Девочка боялась, что ее поведут к зубному врачу. 15. Мы были очень рады, что поговорили с ним .

16. Я все это говорю, чтобы меня правильно поняли. 17. Предложение было настолько оригинальным, что вызвало всеобщий интерес. 18. С этой мыслью трудно было расстаться. 19. Они продолжали обсуждать проблему. 20. Я начинаю так думать. 21. Вам не нужно ждать. 22. У меня нет времени объяснять это тебе сейчас .

Exercise 8. Translate into English. Comment on the function of theInfinitives .

1. Эту ручку очень удобно держать и пользоваться ею — настоящее удовольствие. 2. Подать в отставку (to quit) значит проиграть игру .

3. Смысл в том, чтобы знать, как пользоваться этим ключом. 4. Эти данные трудно найти. 5. За этим столом приятно работать. 6. Любить значит жертвовать. 7. Моя задача — проинструктировать вас .

8. Вынужден признаться, что вы правы. 9. Когда ты начнешь думать о будущем, сынок? 10. Эту программу очень легко установить. 11. На нее приятно смотреть, и очень легко иметь с ней дело. 12. Ему следовало уступить. 13. Вам следует сесть на диету. 14. Этим цифрам трудно поверить. 15. Слова этой песни легко запомнить. 16. Часто Марию было трудно контролировать. 17. Хорошего управляющего, как вы, трудно найти. 18. Причину их отказа легко угадать .

19. Только что начался дождь. 20. Они должны будут обсуждать эту проблему завтра .

Exercise 9. Answer the following questions. Express your ideas using the Infinitive .

1. What are you learning to do, and why do you do it?

2. What can't students afford to do?

3. If someone studies or works hard, why does he do it?

4. What do students aim to do?

5. What do you have to do in order to pass your exams successfully?

6. What do you have to do to master English?

–  –  –

The Infinitive may have a subject of its own within the sentence. In this case it forms with it a construction called a complex. The relations between the elements of the complex are predicative. The Infinitive forms three such complexes: the Objective-with-the Infinitive Construction, the Subjective-with-the Infinitive Construction, the For-to-Infinitive Construction. Also there is one more complex — the Infinitive Phrase .

I. The Infinitive as a part of Complex Object (The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction) This complex consists of a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case and the Infinitive. (e.g. I saw the boy drop the cup. I saw him drop the cup.). This complex is always an object in the sentence .

It is mostly translated into Russian by an object clause .

E.g .

I saw him do it (Я видел, как он это сделал. or: Я видел, как он это делает) .

There are groups of verbs followed by Complex Object:

1. Verbs of sense perception. After these verbs no particle to is used: to see, to hear, to notice, to watch, to observe, to feel, etc .

E.g .

1. I saw him enter the room .

2. I watch the children play .

But: He felt it to be very unjust. (after the verb "to feel" with "it" to is used.)

2. Verbs expressing desire (intention): to want, to wish, to intend, to mean, etc .

E.g .

1. They want him to do it at once .

2. I wish her to be present here .

3. Verbs expressing mental activity: to expect, consider, think, suppose, know, believe, find, etc .

E.g .

1. I believe the story to be interesting .

2. Robert expects you to return in time .

3. I know him to be honest .

4. Verbs denoting order, request, permission: to make ‘заставлять’, to let ‘позволять’, ‘разрешать’, to have ‘распорядиться’, to order, to allow, to forbid, to get. After the verbs “let”, “make” and “have” no particle to is used .

E.g .

1. She ordered us to come back .

2. She allowed them to go for a walk .

3. You made me feel uneasy .

4. She let her take the book for tomorrow .

5. After verbs of emotions (liking and disliking): to like, to prefer, to dislike, to love, to hate, etc .

E.g .

1. She hated her son to be separated from her .

2. I'd love you to go with me again .

3. I dislike you to do all the work alone .

Note: After the verb "to help" Complex Object may be used with or without the particle to .

E.g .

Help me do it. (or: Help me to do it.)

–  –  –

Exercise 1. Read and translate the sentences. Define the functions and comment on them .

1. I don’t expect you to understand, you haven’t listened to me. 2. I want you to take some precautions. 3. Would you like me to help you? 4. If you don’t want anyone to know your business, keep your mouth shut. 5. What made you decide to enter that competition? 6. They wanted her to relax and sent her children to their aunt’s. 7. I know him to be a responsible person. 8. Sunglasses make you look mysterious. 9. The desire for fame makes men work hard and does not let them rest till the goal is gained .

10. She regards him to be a superman. 11. Let me take you to the Milky Way on your holiday! 12. It makes my mouth water just to think about all those tasty things. 13. Try to make your dream come true. 14. Let the music play, let’s stay together to the end! 15. I don’t let my children watch TV shows that are violent. 16. These articles will make your hair stand on end! 17. Have the secretary take the papers and give them to him, it’s of great importance. 18. She has had the breakfast be ordered and prepared .

19. He felt his heart beat with joy. 20. I heard someone enter and go upstairs. 21. Her smile was friendly and she made you feel that she was really pleased to see you .

Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks with “to” where necessary in the function of Complex Object .

1. I expected her... behave quite differently. 2. That funny scene made me... laugh. 3. He didn’t let his mother... go away. 4. They wanted... cross the river. 5. Have you heard him... sing the part of Hermann in Tchaikovsky’s “Queen of Spades” ? 6. They saw the waves... carry the boat away. 7. What makes you... think you are right? 8. My pride forbade me... ask any questions. 9. I tried to induce him... see a doctor. 10. I’d love you... see my little daughter. 11. You can’t make me... say what you want me...say. 12. She begged me to let her... know when Mother would be back. 13. I had expected him... be disappointed. 14. We heard the door of the entrance hall... open and close softly. 15. Don’t let it... trouble you .

16. He ordered the mail... be brought at once. 17. Have him... make the report for tomorrow, please. 18. You can’t make him... come if he doesn’t want to. 19. Have them... make the task in time. 20. Have someone.. .

bring some paper and pens. 21. They all gathered on the hill to watch the sun... rise. 22. The question made him... feel embarrassed. 23. They compelled him... go .

Exercise 3. Paraphrase the following sentences using Complex Objects with the Infinitive .

Model : She watched how he went. — She watched him go .

1. He heard how one of the girls in the shop addressed Jane .

2. He felt that the eyes of his fellow-students rested on him .

3. She saw that the door of the room opened and her mother entered .

4. What I want is that your uncle shouldn’t be left alone .

5. Jack watched how Eliza left .

6. I’ve never heard him how he spoke of his life in Canada .

7. He ordered that the things should be brought at once .

8. I never smoke indoors as my wife doesn’t like it .

9. No one had expected that she would marry so young .

10. We don’t eat ice-cream before dinner because Mother has forbidden it .

11. He is a truthful boy. I know it .

12. People believe that the twenty first century will bring peace on the Earth .

Exercise 4. Translate the sentences into English using ComplexObjects .

Она наблюдала, как он вышел из дома .

1 .

Кто видел, что они вышли из дома?

2 .

Он наблюдал, как жена налила ему кофе и поставила чашку на 3 .

стол .

Я хочу, чтобы вы рассказали мне что-нибудь о своих родителях .

4 .

Я видела, что Дженни уже упаковала чемодан .

5 .

Вы хотите, чтобы я пошла туда сейчас?

6 .

Она никогда не слышала, чтобы они упоминали его имя .

7 .

Он заставил себя сдержать свое слово .

8 .

Не позволяйте им беспокоить его, он очень занят сейчас .

9 .

Распорядитесь заказать билеты на поезд .

10 .

Пусть они напишут контрольную работу еще раз .

11 .

Звук его громкого голоса заставил ее вздрогнуть .

12 .

Exercise 5. Translate the sentences into English. Comment on the functions and groups of verbs .

1. Она считает их прекрасными студентами. 2. Я заставляю себя упражняться и делать приседания около десяти минут каждое утро .

3. Я не хочу, чтобы это произошло. 4. Почему вы заставили нас так долго ждать? 5. Она предполагает, что они будут все делать вовремя .

6. Она знает, как заставить людей делать именно то, что нужно ей .

7. Мы заметили, что какие-то мальчишки забрались в соседский сад .

8. Мы слышали, что она нашла новую работу. 9. Я почувствовал, что это правда, и почувствовал, как у меня заколотилось сердце .

10. Когда я попадаю на Арбат, то очень люблю наблюдать, как рисуют художники. 11. Мама не позволяет мне играть в футбол .

12. Директор распорядился, чтобы принесли почту. 13. Она не может заставить ребенка съесть весь суп. 14. Не позволяйте ему есть столько конфет и шоколада. 15. Когда вы ожидаете, что они придут?

16. Распорядитесь, чтобы кто-нибудь принес мел. 17. Почему заставляешь его кататься на коньках, если он не хочет?

Exercise 6. Complete the sentences by adding infinitives in the function of Complex Object .

1. Let the children.. .

2. Make the boys.. .

3. Why don’t you let them... ?

4. Why doesn’t he make his son... ?

5. Why don’t you forbid your son... ?

6. Try to allow.. .

7. Do you hear...?

8. Do you see... ?

9. Do you feel... ?

10. I expect my friend.. .

11. I’d love you.. .

12. They prefer... and don’t like … II. The Infinitive as a part of Complex Subject (The Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction) This complex consists of a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case and any of the six forms of the infinitive. The complex is considered to be the subject of the sentence. Its Russian equivalent is in most cases a subordinate clause .

E.g .

She was seen to leave the house (Видели, как (что) она выходила из дома. or: Её видели, когда она выходила из дома .

This construction is used with the Passive Voice of the following verbs: expect, believe, suppose, know, say, report, announce, consider, think, find, understand, make, see, hear, etc .

Functions as a part of Complex Subject may be presented by verbs

denoting:

1. sense perception: is/was seen, is/was heard, is/was watched, is/was felt, etc .

E.g .

1. Soon he was heard to open the front door .

2. She is often seen to be reading much in the reference library .

2. mental activity: believe, consider, expect, find, know, mean, suppose, think, understand, etc .

E.g .

1. They were thought to be honest .

2. Her father was considered to be a great respectable man .

3. Philip Bosinney was known to be a young man without fortune .

3. statement with the verbs of speech: announce, declare, report, say, state, etc .

E.g .

1. He was announced to be a competition winner .

2. Kate is said to be good at painting .

4. order, request, permission: to make ‘заставлять’, to let ‘позволять’, ‘разрешать’, to have ‘распорядиться’, etc .

E.g .

1. He was made to wash the dishes .

2. The children were let to go for a walk .

5. probability and other modal meanings with such phrases as: to be likely, to be sure, to be certain ‘конечно’, ‘обязательно’, to be not likely ‘вряд ли’ E.g .

1. He is sure to come in time .

2. Mike is likely to marry Jane .

3. She is not likely to inform them about the accident .

6. with the pairs of synonyms without the verb "to be": to seem — to appear ‘казаться’, to happen — to chance ‘случаться’, to prove — to turn out ‘оказаться’ .

E.g .

1. They seemed to have quite forgotten him .

2. He appeared to have already been informed about their departure .

3. I turned out to have been reading long .

Note 1: The Infinitive as Complex Subject in any of the meanings is used with particle to .

Note 2: The negative statement is formed by adding the negation to the

predicate and not to the Infinitive:

E.g .

1. He seems to know it .

2. He does not seem to know it .

–  –  –

Exercise 1. Read and translate. Define the functions and comment on them .

1. He was seen to cross the street and turn round the corner. 2. He is said to be one of the best students at our faculty. 3. When he recovered he was allowed to ski every Sunday. 4. He proved to be their devoted friend. 5. He seemed to know her thoughts. 6. At any moment the guests were likely to come. 7. Everybody is happened to have taken the problem seriously .

8. She was announced to be the best teacher at our school. 9. The exhibition of the nineteenth century French painting is expected to open by the end of the week. 10. The American astronaut Neil Armstrong is known to be the first man to walk on the moon in 1969. 11. Leonardo da Vinci is known to be a great Italian painter of the Renaissance. 12. The Mona Lisa is considered to be one of his most famous works. 13. He seems to have been taken suddenly ill at the office. 14. He seemed to be taken aback .

15. The situation appears to have changed a lot. 16. Children appear to go through definite stages as they develop. 17. He seemed to be wondering whether much anxiety of mind had affected his eyesight. 18. She appears to have so much influence over him. 19. She seemed to have been moved by her uncle’s last words and looked at him doubtfully. 20. The letter will be found on the desk to be signed and ready to be posted. 21. She is considered to be a beauty .

Exercise 2. Open the brackets. Use the appropriate form of the infinitive in the function of Complex Subject. Translate into Russian .

1. He was seen (to cross) the street and (to turn) round the corner .

2. She is heard (to breathe) heavily .

3. She is expected (to be absent) for another week, because she is ill .

4. He was made (to eat) a cheese cake and was spoken (to have) a cup of tea .

5. He appeared (to be ) so helpful .

6. His pockets turned out (to contain) nothing except a packet of cigarettes and a box of matches .

7. At any moment the boys were likely (to be ) away .

8. They are sure (to get into) one of their chess games .

9. He happened (to be ) her brother-in-law .

10. Some violent emotions seemed (to torture) him .

11. The picture proved (to steal) .

12. My friend was not likely (to make) a mistake .

13. She lost her head and seemed (to forget) the little English she knew .

14. They were expected (to be back) any minute .

15. She is supposed (to inform) about this news by her parents .

16. He is likely (to get well) .

17. The cat is not likely (to steal) .

Exercise 3. Paraphrase the following sentences using Complex Subject with the Infinitive .

Model: It happens that she sings well. — She happens to sing well .

1. It happened that his father came .

2. It happened that I knew Eliza’s brother well .

3. It appeared that they were coming down when I left the room .

4. It seemed that he didn’t notice that I was in outdoor clothes .

5. It seems George needs a real friend .

6. A voice on the stairs behind made us start .

7. It is unlikely that he will come and see us soon .

8. It is known that he has been one of the most popular writers of his time .

9. It was told that the Head Master was waiting in the office .

10. It is certain that everything will get better .

11. It is likely that he will win the prize .

12. They say that he is honest .

13. It seemed to him that his father was inclined to be patient with him .

Exercise 4. Make the sentences passive .

Model: They saw him do it. — He was seen to do it .

1. Everybody heard her say that. 2. The neighbours noticed the burglar get into the house. 3. The policeman saw the car disappear in the tunnel .

4. The public made the poet read some more of his poetry. 5. Don't worry!

We shall let you go to the match. 6. Tom's father made his son apologize .

7. They made the customer accept their terms. 8. They consider him to be an expert in his sphere. 9. She regards her father a perfect example to follow. 10. I saw him back the car into the garage. 11. They suspected that the teenager helped them. 12. It was announced that the pop-group had arrived. 13. It is understood that the business partners have come to an agreement. 14. Everybody knows that this theatre was built by a famous architect .

Exercise 5. Translate into English. Comment on the functions .

1. Говорят, что он лучший доктор в нашем городе. 2. Видели, как он перевернул страницу и начал читать. 3. Слышали, что он вскоре поднялся наверх. 4. Вам разрешат идти вместе со мной? 5. Джейн, кажется, раньше, чем вы, изъявила желание помочь им. 6. Многие из пассажиров, по-видимому, были туристами. 7. Они сказали, что подобное вряд ли случается дважды. 8. По-видимому, он собирается стать врачом. 9. Детям не разрешалось трогать кроликов .

10. Оказалось, что я его хорошо знаю. 11. С того времени вы, кажется, очень сильно изменились. 12. Слышали, как хлопнула входная дверь. 13. Предполагалось, что мы встретимся в шесть часов около школы. 14. Вряд ли она написала записку. 15. Казалось, что они уже совсем его забыли. 16. Вероятно, она была единственным человеком, который останется здесь навсегда. 17. Рочестер случайно встретил Джейн по дороге домой. 18. Как известно, английская писательница Войнич жила в течение нескольких лет в Петербурге и изучала русскую литературу. Считают, что русская литература оказала влияние на ее творчество. 19. Я, кажется, хорошо знаю вас. Я, должно быть, встречал вас у своих родителей. 20. Очень вероятно, что они будут благодарить меня за эту помощь. 21. Кажется, вы много знаете об этом городе. 22. Слышали, как открылась дверь, и кто-то вошел в комнату. 23. Случилось так, что меня не было дома, когда он звонил. 24. Когда он говорил, он, кажется, больше говорил о себе. 25. Слышали, как он играл на рояле и что-то пел. 26. Случилось так, что я сказал, что вы знаете его. 27. Сообщают, что экспедиция достигла места назначения. 28. По-видимому, она согласилась поехать на экскурсию в Смоленск. 29. Александр хотел задать еще вопрос, но, по-видимому, изменил свое намерение .

Exercise 6. Complete the sentences in the function of Complex Subject .

1. He is expected... .

2. They are expected... .

3. She will be supposed... .

4. My student-mate is considered... .

5. My cousin will be sure... .

6. The book proved... .

7. My granny happened... when she was young .

8. I seem... and I am certain... .

9. He appears... .

10. He (she) is (not) likely... .

–  –  –

The For-phrase consists of three elements: the preposition for, a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case and an infinitive, mostly in its Indefinite, Passive or Continuous form. The For-phrase has different syntactical functions in the sentence .

1. A subject: it is good (bad, hard, easy, important, impossible, necessary, not, etc.) for smb (smth) to do (to be doing, to be done) smth E.g .

1. It will be best for her to go back home (Ей лучше уехать домой) .

2. It’s silly for you to be asking me questions (Глупо, что ты задаешь мне вопросы) .

3. It was unusual for a woman to be seen smoking (Женщину редко можно было увидеть курящей) .

4. It is not for me to say so (Не мне это говорить) .

But: It’s nice (kind) of you to say so (Это) очень мило с вашей стороны так говорить (что вы так говорите) .

It will be very sensible of you to go there at once. (Будет очень разумно, если ты пойдешь туда сейчас же) .

2. An object

a) to wait (to arrange, to mean, to be anxious, etc.) for smb to do smth E.g .

1. I am anxious for you to succeed (Я очень хочу, чтобы ты добилась успеха) .

2. He didn’t mean for them to stay here (Он не рассчитывал (не имел в виду), что они остановятся здесь) .

b) to make (think, believe) it difficult (easy, necessary, important, best, etc.) for smb to do smth E.g .

1. Your attitude made it difficult for him to tell you the truth (Ему было трудно сказать тебе правду из-за твоего отношения) .

2. I think it is best for you to stay here (По моему мнению, тебе лучше оставаться здесь) .

3. A predicative E.g .

The question is for you to decide (Тебе решать эту проблему) .

4. An attribute

a) somebody (nothing, anyone, etc.) for smb to do smth E.g .

1. There is nobody in the family for him to play with (Ему не с кем в семье играть) .

2. There is nothing else for me to say (Мне больше нечего сказать) .

b) man (thing, time, place, etc.) for smb to do smth E.g .

1. It is not the right time for us to speak about it (Сейчас не время нам об этом говорить) .

2. It was the only thing for me to do (Это было единственное, что я мог сделать) .

5. An adverbial modifier

a) of purpose: to do smth for smb to do smth E.g .

He stood aside for us to pass in (Он отступил в сторону, чтобы мы могли пройти) .

b) of result: (too) easy (difficult, young, old, etc) (enough) for smb to do smth E.g .

1. The rain can last long enough for us to miss the train (Дождь может идти так долго, что мы опоздаем на поезд) .

2. The day was too cold and rainy for anyone to have a good time (День был слишком холодный и дождливый, чтобы кто-нибудь мог хорошо провести время) .

–  –  –

Exercise 1. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the functions of the ‘for-phrase’ with an Infinitive .

1. For him to act so is rather unusual. 2. It was difficult for Bill to keep such a big family. 3. All she wanted was for her mother to come to terms with her past, gain peace of mind, as well as a bit of happiness for once .

4. The best thing is for you to leave at once. 5. Teddy put the kettle on, stood near the stove waiting for the water to boil. 6. He stopped the car for the kids to get in. 7. That is for the boss to decide, isn't it? 8. Steve was a suitable candidate for them to hire. 9. I am still waiting for the mail to come. 10. Emma was a suitable child for them to adopt. 11. I've bought a tin of pastries for you to enjoy them. 12. After all, we have known the man long enough for Steve to trust him. 13. It is important for you to think twice before you agree. 14. It’s harmful for you to smoke so much .

15. It would be hypocritical for me to pretend that I’m sorry. 16. It is not for you to explain such things to him. 17. It was silly of him to ask such a question. 18. Under the circumstances I really think it is best for me to refuse. 19. Have you brought something for me to read? 20. He stopped the car at the entrance for us to get off. 21. The water is warm enough for the children to bathe this summer. 22. For him to help his friend is quite natural. 23. It’s natural for him to help his friend. 24. The task is for you to do. 25. It’s always interesting for tourists to make a trip along the Thames by boat .

Exercise 2. Transform the sentences so as to use ‘the for-to-infinitive’ construction .

1. The most important thing is that we should stay cool. 2. Let us wait till the fax arrives. 3. This is the day which they shall remember for a long time. 4. He is the expert whom you should have consulted. 5. I shall leave some money so that they may spend it. 6. Martin sent his family to his parents' so that they could be safe there. 7. The days have become too short, so we can't walk as much as in the summertime. 8. The new manager must be very competent as the director has entrusted him with a most difficult task. 9. It is quite natural that she should have refused his proposal. 10. What I want is that you should understand me. 11. There is no need that we should stay here any longer. 12. It's unbelievable that he should have really meant it. 13. Phone the office and someone will meet us. 14. When I became a vegetarian, I had to wait for some period of time until my organism got used to it. 15. It is impossible that he didn't believe you even after you showed him the file. 16. He waited in the reception .

The secretary hadn't turned up yet. 17. Mr. Marshall's suggestion was that the contract should be signed without any delay .

Exercise 3. Translate into English using ‘the for-to-infinitive’construction .

1. Вам полезно быть на воздухе каждый день. 2. Им будет проще поехать туда на метро. 3. Будет очень мило, если вы ей об этом расскажете. 4. Не мне ее критиковать. 5. Детям там негде играть .

6. Мне здесь больше нечего делать. 7. Ты ждешь, чтобы я высказал свое мнение? 8. Мама испекла пирог, чтобы мы съели его за ужином .

9. Чай был такой вкусный, что мы не смогли отказаться от второй чашки. 10. Она говорила так медленно, что мы понимали каждое слово. 11. По моему мнению, вам лучше не торопиться. 12. У нас слишком мало времени. Я не могу тебе все рассказать сейчас. 13. Я оставила письма на столе, чтобы Мистер Браун подписал их .

14. Надеюсь, вы понимаете, что мне очень неудобно оставаться в городе летом. 15. Все настолько просто, что каждый может это сделать сам. 16. Студентам первого курса пока еще трудно читать газеты, изданные в Англии .

Exercise 4. Complete the sentences in the function of the For-toinfinitive construction .

1.... is too important for the students... .

2. There is nobody... .

3. There is nothing... .

4. I find it necessary for you (him, her, them)... .

5.... for her to explain... .

6.... for us (them) to discuss... .

7. It would be difficult for first-year students... .

–  –  –

The Infinitive may be used in combination with how, when, why, where (to do smth), what, who, whom, which (to take, to choose), whether, if (to do smth). This combination is called the Infinitive Phrase (or the ‘wh’- phrase). It has some syntactical functions in the sentence .

1. A subject:

E.g .

1. What to do in this situation was the problem .

2. It was clear which to choose .

2. A predicative:

E.g .

1. The difficulty was how to explain her absence .

2. The problem was how to get across .

3. An object:

E.g .

1. She wondered whom to invite to the party .

2. She did not know whether to go or stay .

4. An attribute:

E.g .

1. She gave me a long explanation of (about) how to do it .

2. We had a choice whether to go to the Caucasus or to the Crimea .

–  –  –

Exercise 1. State the syntactical function of ‘the Infinitive Phrases’ .

1. The only thing we didn’t discuss was the not so insignificant detail of how to get money for the trip. 2. I can’t make up my mind whether to take this job or not. 3. She simply did not know where to turn for help. 4. Well, have you finally made up your mind which to take? 5. What to say and what to leave unsaid was a delicate point. 6. The main difficulty was where to get the fuel. 7. The problem is how to find him and say about it .

8. Why didn’t you explain to her how to make a long-distance call?

9. I don’t think much of her plan how to get in touch with him. 10. You will be told when to begin. 11. It is important how to explain the rules to be understandable. 12. What time to choose was the point .

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences choosing a suitable ‘Infinitive

Phrase’ from the following list and state the function:

When to come, how to phrase, how to keep, how to handle, what to do, which to choose, where to put, how to start the conversation, where to go, what to say, whether to stay here or go back

1. He asked his mother... back. 2. We know... snow and ice; we live with it. 3. There were a lot of books on the shelves. We did not know.... 4. We were not sure.... 5. Show me please.... 6. I did not know... the baby warm. 7. She did not.... Her head swam and she was afraid she was going to faint. 8. I was helping her to put away the clean linen. She was telling me... it. 9. He did not know... his faith in her. 10. I’m so bewildered, I don’t know.... 11. They didn’t know... .

Exercise 3. Translate into English. State the function of the InfinitivePhrase .

1. Не знаю, куда бы пойти сегодня вечером. 2. Вот план, как добраться до станции. 3. Основная трудность в том, как это ей объяснить. 4. Ты решила, куда ехать летом? 5. Вопрос в том, кого пригласить. 6. Не знаю, вмешаться мне или нет. 7. Он колебался, идти ли ему на встречу или остаться дома. 8. Мне очень понравилось его объяснение, как совершенствовать английский язык. 9. Совершенно не ясно, как это делать. 10. Потом они обсудили тему, какой маршрут путешествия выбрать и что с собой взять. 11. Он думает о возможности, как познакомиться с ней. 12. Главное — передать тему, идею и основные события этого рассказа. 13. Они не знали, что ему сказать. 14. Мы сомневались, не рассказать ли нам все маме .

–  –  –

In Modern English the Infinitive is chiefly used with the particle to .

But there are cases when the so-called bare infinitive is used. They are as

follows:

1. After auxiliary verbs E.g .

1. I don’t understand the meaning of the word .

2. We shall go there at once .

2. After modal verbs except the verb ought E.g .

1. We must explain him everything in detail .

2. He could speak French when he lived in France being a child; but now he can’t do it .

3. After verbs denoting sense perception, such as to hear, to see, to feel, etc.(in the function of Complex Object) E.g .

1. They heard him ascend the ladder (Они слышали, что он поднимается по лестнице) .

2. I felt my heart jump (Я почувствовал, что у меня ёкнуло сердце) .

But: the verb to be after the verb to feel is used with the particle to .

E.g .

I felt this to be very true (Я почувствовал, что это совершенно верно) .

4. After the verb to let ‘позволять’, ‘разрешать’ E.g .

1. Let us be the best friends in the world!

2. Let him have a chance, please .

5. After the verb to make in the meaning of ‘заставлять’ and the verb to have in the meaning of ‘заставлять’, ‘допускать’, ‘велеть’ E.g .

1. What makes you think so?

2. I had them take my baggage .

Note: The verb to have in the meaning of ‘допускать’ is chiefly used after the modal verbs will and would in negative sentences .

E.g .

1. I will not have you call him Daniel any more ( Я не допущу, чтобы вы его продолжали называть Даниэлем) .

2. I would not have him think that I am selfish .

6. After the verb to know when its meaning approaches that of to see, to observe .

E.g .

I have so often known a change of medicine work wonders .

In this case, however, the particle to is sometimes used: I have never known her to weep before (Я никогда раньше не видел, чтобы она плакала) .

Note: After the verbs to hear, to see, to make, to let and to know in the passive voice the to- infinitive is used in the function of Complex Subject .

E.g .

1. He was heard to mention your name several times (Слышали, как он упомянул несколько раз ваше имя) .

2. The child was made to obey ( Ребенка заставили слушаться) .

7. After the verb to bid ‘предлагать’ E.g .

I thought she would bid me take a seat (Я думала, что она предложит мне сесть.)

8. After the expressions had better, would rather, would sooner, cannot but ‘не могу не’, nothing but, cannot choose but E.g .

1. I cannot but think so ( не могу не думать) .

2. You had better go to bed and leave the patient ( Вы бы лучше оставили пациента и пошли спать) .

9. In sentences of a special type ( infinitive sentences) beginning with why E.g .

1. Why not come and talk to her yourself?

2. Why not go to the cafe and have a bite?

–  –  –

Exercise 1. Insert the particle ‘to’ before the Infinitive where possible .

1. We did everything we could... make him... join us. 2. You can't... make me... do what I don't want.... 3. Are you sure you can... afford... waste another year? 4. You need... take more care of yourself. 5. It would be very foolish... let the child... have his way. 6. Let the next student... come in now. 7. We'd rather... take a train than... fly. 8. Why not... go with us?

Let's... have fun! 9. You'd better... stay in bed not... make your cold... get worse. 10. I need a car... get to my country- house. 11. We heard the postman... come up to the front door and then we saw him... slip a thick envelope into the box. 12. He can't but... admire her beauty and talent .

13. You ought... have told me all this before. 14. We got them... rebuild the house. 15. He was seen... enter the house through the back door .

16. “What made you... terrorize me?” —“I was made... do it.” 17. Will you be able... let your son... decide his future?

Exercise 2. Use the required form of the Infinitive in brackets. Insert the particle ‘to’ where necessary .

1. She began (to talk) of Moscow. 2. I don't want them (to think) you in the wrong. 3. It was a command from her mother, and there was nothing for her (to do) but (to obey) it. 4. You must (to take) care not (to offend) her .

5. I'd rather not (to go) home that way. 6. "I think we'd better (to go) and (to get) dry,"—he said. 7. I stood by the door and watched him (to take) the drinks over to Wells. 8. “Do you want (to write)?” — “Of course.” — “Then why not (to write) it?” 9. It heartened Mary (to hear) him (to speak) so lightly. 10. How dare you (to interfere) with my private concerns? No, don't speak. Don't try (to excuse) yourself. 11. Liza felt herself (to grow) red to the tips of her toes. 12. I had not seen Jimmie (to lose) his temper before. 13. Mrs. Carey rose (to help) her (to lay) the cloth. 14. Why not (to make) him a doctor like his father? 15. He would never cease (to regret) his lost opportunities. 16. I want (to begin) (to earn) my corn. 17. I used (to spend) a lot of time in Robinson's rooms. 18. He never let himself (to be) angry. 19. He had felt that they should (to bring) up by their mother .

20. I don’t like (to see) men (to cry). 21. Some important decisions must (to make) soon. 22. I think he must (to suffer) from injury now .

Exercise 3. Translate into English. Use the particle ‘to’ wherenecessary .

1. Мой брат может прекрасно говорить по-французски. 2. Я хотел поговорить с Ником по телефону, но не мог найти его номера .

3. Позвольте помочь Вам. 4. Что заставляет тебя думать, что ты прав?

5. Тебе давно пора ложиться спать. 6. Она почувствовала, что он говорит неправду. 7. Она хотела, чтобы ее сын хорошо окончил школу. 8. Я не хотел, чтобы вы меня ждали. 9. Вы случайно не знаете этого человека? 10. Ваш друг, кажется, очень интересуется древней историей. 11. Мы слышали, что девочка смеялась от радости .

12. Слышно, что он тяжело дышит. 13. Они начали понимать причину его поведения. 14. Нам нужно купить немного хлеба и масла? 15. Я не могу не восхищаться ее красноречием! 16. Почему бы не испечь яблочный пирог? 17. Врач не допустит, чтобы они ее беспокоили .

18. Я, пожалуй, пойду пешком. 19. Нам ничего не остается, как ждать .

20. Он предлагает ей выбрать (чтобы она выбрала) эту картину .

21. Тетушка Полли заставила Тома прибраться в комнате. 22. Тома заставили прибраться в комнате. 23. Что заставило ее отказаться от этого проекта?

–  –  –

The gerund developed from the verbal noun, which in course of time became verbalized preserving at the time its nominal character .

The gerund is formed by adding the suffix –ing to the stem of the verb .

The gerund has tense distinctions; the gerund of transitive verbs has also voice distinctions. Objective verbs have four forms of the gerund in

Modern English:

–  –  –

Subjective verbs have only two forms of the gerund. They have no passive forms: standing, having stood .

1. The gerund of transitive verbs can take a direct object (writing a letter, understanding the speech) and be modified by an adverb (writing slowly, crying bitterly). Thus the gerund has verbal features because it has tense and voice forms, can take a direct object and be modified by an adverb .

2. The gerund has also nominal (noun) features. It can be used with a preposition (by writing; after writing; before writing). Most of its syntactical functions strongly remind us of the noun because the gerund can be the subject, the object and the predicative in the sentence .

E.g .

1. Travelling and sightseeing is his hobby. (subject)

2. I am very tired of walking. (object)

3. The duty of all progressive mankind is fighting for peace .

(predicative) Like the noun the gerund can be modified by a possessive pronoun or a noun in the possessive case. The relations between the noun and the modifying pronoun or noun in the possessive case are attributive .

E.g .

1. His reading has considerably improved .

2. Roger’s reading has considerably improved .

The tense distinctions of the gerund are as follows:

The Simple Gerund Active and Passive expresses a simultaneous action with the finite verb .

E.g .

1. She walked on without turning her head .

2. He can swim for number of hours without being tired .

The Perfect Gerund expresses an action prior to that of the finite verb .

E.g .

1. He was ashamed of having shown irritation .

2. They parted without having spoken to each other .

But: with the verbs remember, excuse, forgive, thank and after the prepositions on/upon, after, without the Perfect Gerund is seldom used .

E.g .

1. I don't remember hearing the legend before .

2. On leaving the house we hurried to the station .

The gerund has voice distinctions .

E.g .

1. He liked neither reading aloud nor being read aloud to .

2. She was upset at having been treated like that .

Note: After the verbs to want, to need, to deserve, to require and the adjective worth the gerund is used in the active form, though it is passive in meaning .

E.g .

1. He realized that his room needed painting .

2. The child deserves praising .

3. The film was not worth watching .

Functions of the Gerund

The Gerund has the following syntactical functions:

1. A subject

a) doing smth is/does/would do/means smth E.g .

1. Growing flowers is my hobby .

2. Crying will do you no good (Слезы вам не помогут) .

3. Talking mends no holes (proverb: Разговоры не помогают в беде) .

b) with introductory "it": it is/was no use (useless, no good, etc.) doing smth E.g .

1. It's no good denying it (Отрицать не имеет смысла) .

2. It's no use telling her about it (Бесполезно ей говорить об этом) .

c) with introductory "there": there is/was no doing smth E.g .

1. There is no avoiding it (Этого не избежать) .

2. There was no going back (Назад пути уже не было) .

2. A predicative

a) the main thing (smb’s wish, job, duty, etc.) is/was doing smth E.g .

1. John's hobby is collecting stamps .

2. The only remedy for such a headache is going to bed .

b) to feel like (up to) / to be for (against) doing smth (the gerund may be also considered to be an object) E.g .

1. I don’t feel like walking (Мне не хочется идти пешком) .

2. Are you for or against staying here? (Ты за или против того, чтобы остаться здесь?)

3. A part of a compound verbal

a) phasal (aspect) predicate with phasal verbs

• begin, start, burst out

• continue, keep(on), go on

• give up, stop, finish, leave off, cease E.g .

1. He gave up smoking .

2. The child went on crying .

3. The boys burst out laughing .

4. He left off shooting .

b) modal predicate: саn't help, саn't stand, can’t bear, саn't afford, can’t imagine, can’t fancy, can’t resist (the gerund may be also considered to be a direct object) E.g .

1. I саn't afford buying this coat now .

2. I саn't help admiring him (Я не могу не восхищаться им) .

4. An object

a) direct (non-prepositional) with the verbs: to enjoy, hate, like, love, prefer, mind (in negative and interrogative sentences), admit, be worth, avoid, need, want, consider, delay, postpone, deny, suggest, propose, try, etc .

E.g .

1. I enjoy reading English books in the original .

2. I don’t mind waiting .

3. The suit needs/ wants pressing .

b) indirect (prepositional) with the verbs: to succeed in, to prevent from, to depend on, to object to, to think of, to worry about, to apologize for, to look like, etc .

E.g .

1. She succeeds in studying English .

2. He apologized for coming late .

3. It looks like raining (Похоже, что будет дождь) .

5. An attribute

a) with the words which require an explanation of their meaning: idea, habit, point, sign, intention, way, chance, plan, mistake, (dis)advantage, aim, art, attitude, capacity, (in)convenience, custom, difficulty, favour, hope, illusion, importance, method, necessity, notion, opinion, possibility, process, risk, sense, standard, success, talent, use, good, harm, etc. + of doing smth E.g .

1. There's no chance of meeting her there .

2. I don’t like his habit of making people wait .

b) there is no (little) / smb sees no sense, harm, difficulty, point, danger, chance, etc. + in doing smth E.g .

1. There is no harm in asking her again (Ничего не случится, если мы ее еще раз спросим) .

2. There is little point in refusing (Мало смысла отказываться) .

6. An adverbial modifier of: (with prepositions)

a) manner (by, without, in) E.g .

1. You can make your dress tighter by taking in at the waist .

2. The day was spent in packing .

3. Don’t leave your flat without turning off the gas stove and switching off the light .

b) time (after, before, upon, on, in, at) E.g .

1. On arriving at the picnic ground they began looking for water .

2. After coming home she usually starts looking through the newspapers .

c) reason (cause) (because of, for, for fear of, owing to) E.g .

1. I couldn't go to the picnic for being ill .

2. He didn’t attend the party for fear of making a fool of himself .

d) concession (in spite of, despite of) E.g .

1. In spite of having good weather, we couldn't start at once .

2. In spite of being busy, he did all he could to help her .

e) attendant circumstances (without) E.g .

1. She passed by without taking notice of me .

2. Then he left us without saying good-bye .

–  –  –

g) condition (in case of, without, but for) E.g .

1. You can't go there without being invited .

2. But for meeting her I wouldn't have become a teacher .

Note 1: The following verbs are followed only by the gerund:

a) without prepositions: to appreciate, to avoid, to deny, to detest, to enjoy, to excuse, to fancy, to imagine, to mention, to mind, to intend, to miss, to postpone, to practise, to put off, to recollect, to resent, to resist, to risk, to remember, to suggest, to propose, to understand, can't help, can't stand, can’t bear, саn't afford, can’t imagine, can’t fancy, can’t resist;

b) with prepositions: to consist in, to persist in, to succeed in, to be engaged in, to count on, to depend on, to rely on, to congratulate on, to plan on, to reckon on, to insist on, to agree to, to object to, to complain of (about), to ask about, to be used to, to be accustomed to, to admit to, to save from, to prevent from, to stop from, to refrain from, to assist in, to help in, to believe in, to end in, to invite into, to persuade into, to care for, to thank for, to be grateful for, to long for, to apologize for, to praise for, to blame for, to punish for, to reprimand for, to reproach for, to scold for, to sentence for, to give for, to be responsible for, to be thankful for, to return to, to hear of, to learn of, to think of, to tell of (about), to remind of, to accuse of, to suspect of, to boast of, to be worth of, to be afraid of, to be aware of, to be conscious of, to be capable of, to be fond of, to be ignorant of, to be proud of, to be sure of, to be tired of, to be ashamed of, to be sorry about (for), to worry about, to be excited about, to be nice about, to be keen on, to be crazy about, to be wrong in, to be right in, to have no difficulty in, to be slow in, to be interested in, to be absorbed in, to be skilled in, to be successful at, to be good at, to be clever at, to be touched at, to be upset at, to be irritated at, to be furious at, to be surprised at, to be pleased at (with), to be amused with, to be in charge with, to look like, etc;

c) set phrases: to look forward to, to make a point of, to plead guilty to, to find excuses for, to take pride in, to lose time in, to have no doubt about and some others .

Note 2: The following verbs are followed either by the gerund or the

infinitive:

To like, to prefer, to dislike, to hate, to intend, to plan, to forget, to remember, to regret, can’t bear, can’t afford .

–  –  –

Exercise 1. Read and translate. Analyse the syntactical functions of the Gerund .

1. This habit of discussing other people's affairs may damage reputations and ruin friendships. 2. Well, don't go if you don't feel like going but for God's sake stop talking about it. 3. He couldn’t help asking me: “Isn’t there anything else I can do for you?” 4. I see no harm in letting them enjoy themselves in vacation time. 5. So you like the part and want to play it. But is it worth going to such lengths to get it? 6. He was only thanking me for taking his part at lunch. 7. Tom went on whitewashing. 8. You can't learn to skate without falling. 9. It's no use trying to make you see my point. 10. It's different for you. You're used to walking. 11. As to me I simply love cooking. 12. My job is not teaching you manners. 13. She can't stand being contradicted. 14. She washed her face and combed out the tangles in her hair before going downstairs again. 15. I'd go any place if there's the slightest chance of getting this job. 16. I didn’t feel like talking to him after what had happened. 17. I watched her for a little while without being seen. 18. It’s no use talking like that to me. 19. The problem is worth finding it out. 20. At night it started raining. 21. What did she mean by boasting like that? 22. He felt like giving up the whole affair .

23. Persuasion is the art of getting other people to do something or to believe something without being compelled to do so. 24. They had a million-to-one chance of making it .

Exercise 2. Use the right form of the Gerund of the verbs in brackets .

1. We insist on (do) the work right now. The customers insist on the work (do) at once. 2. I enjoy (go) to her parties. But I dislike (take) there by my boyfriend. 3. Stop (talk) about it. The incident isn't worth (mention). 4. — Have you finished (correct) the composition? — No, it still needs (brush up). 5. Sue admitted (tell) a lie. And she didn't mind (reprimand) for it. 6. I am used to (remind) by my mother that life is great and I should keep (smile). 7. Ted couldn't imagine (abuse) anyone, or (abuse) by anyone .

8. He is very secretive. He avoids (ask) any personal questions or (ask) any even by his closest friends. 9. I remember (beat) once by my elder brother for cheating. 10. They suspected the inspector of (get) some more evidence and were afraid of (call) to the police station. 11. He wasn't used to (ignore). 12. She insisted on (treat) like a grown person. 13. She suspected me of (read) her diary. 14. Who is responsible for (keep) the place in order? 15. He couldn’t get used to (call) a grandfather. 16. The car needs (repair). 17. He is ashamed of (be rude) to his best friend. 18. She spoilt everything by (tell) a lie .

Exercise 3. Complete the sentences. Add the necessary preposition .

Comment on the syntactical function .

1. He's very punctual. You can count.... 2. I'm tired. I don't feel.... 3. The people criticize the government.... 4. The prisoner was accused... .

5. Lifeguards rescue people.... 6. I am out of work. I'm anxious.... 7. Are you interested... ? 8. This programmer is an expert.... 9. The children are excited.... 10. If you run out of money, you would have difficulty... .

11. In a tight situation you have to find a way.... 12. Teenagers spend a lot of money.... 13. The police charged the motorist.... 14. We suspected her... not telling all she knew. 15. Tactless people make a habit.... 16. If you live in a foreign country, you have the opportunity.... 17. You are a Jack-of-all-trades. Why not try your hand... ? 18. How can I prevent her... ? 19. The water in this area requires.... 20. My piano needs.... 21. She is not looking forward.... 22. What are the advantages... ? 23. I’m always dream.... 24. What prevented him... ? 25. He is not very good.... 26. I didn’t feel like … .

Exercise 4. Translate into English using the Gerund. State thefunctions .

1. Мне не хочется спорить. 2. Он продолжал курить, не говоря ни слова. 3. Я не видела смысла в том, чтобы продолжать этот разговор .

4. Бесполезно обсуждать этот вопрос. 5. Я вас ни в чем не обвиняю .

6. Встаньте, пожалуйста, в сторону. 7. Я была против поездки туда с самого начала. 8. План нуждается в доработке. 9. У нее не было надежды когда-нибудь поехать в Самарканд. 10. Одними разговорами результатов не получишь. 11. Теперь назад уже не повернуть. 12. Мы были благодарны ему за то, что он пришел нас встретить. 13. Она не пропускает ни одной возможности поговорить по-английски .

14. Научиться говорить на языке можно только, если много говорить .

Только читать недостаточно. 15. Кто за то, чтобы пригласить ее?

16. Мы извинились за опоздание. 17. Бесполезно расстраиваться, его не переубедишь. 18. Он был против обсуждения данной проблемы .

Exercise 5. Translate into English using the Gerund. State thefunctions .

1. Изучение иностранного языка — трудная, но интересная работа .

2. Отсутствие прогресса — это регресс. 3. Выбор профессии — важнейший шаг в жизни каждого человека. 4. Связаться с ними безотлагательно — вопрос жизни и смерти. 5. Заниматься пересудами — любимое занятие не только женщин, но и мужчин .

6. Меня не проведешь. Даже не пытайся сделать это. 7. Выращивание клубники стало ее страстью. 8. Он был так упрям. И убедить его было невозможно. 9. Купание в ледяной воде чуть не убило меня .

10. Ссориться и мириться — любимое занятие моих соседеймолодоженов. 11. Добраться до сути дела — это было все, чего он хотел. И остановить его уже было невозможно. 12. Заводить романы — это не по моей части. 13. Преподавание — не очень благодарная работа. И отрицать этого нельзя. 14. Предаваться воспоминаниям о прошлом — пустая трата времени. Ведь назад дороги нет .

Exercise 6. Translate into English using the Gerund. State thefunctions .

1. Мои увлечения — это чтение, решение кроссвордов, танцы и вязание. 2. Он не мог удержаться, чтобы не сказать ей как она хороша. 3. Когда же вы закончите спорить! Ведь спорить — это попусту тратить время. 4. Я не могу позволить этим людям заставлять моего сына делать все, что они хотят. 5. Вы должны хорошенько подумать, прежде чем начнете работать над этой проблемой. 6. Его обычные занятия — это написание писем, гуляние с собакой, игра в шашки с друзьями. 7. Он продолжал вести себя так, словно ничего не произошло. 8. Перестаньте обращаться со мной так, словно я ребенок! 9. Затем они стали рассказывать о последних событиях в их городке. 10. Вам не нужно ничего объяснять мне. Я вижу, в чем суть .

11. Им пришлось принять экстренные меры, чтобы избежать конфликта. 12. Ее величайшее удовольствие — танцевать и петь .

13. Мне не хочется выходить сегодня вечером. 14. Он извинился за то, что заставил меня ждать. 15. Он с предвкушением ждет встречи с ней. 16. Я поздравила Аню со сдачей экзамена .

Exercise 7. Complete the sentences by adding Gerunds to them. Use prepositions where possible. Make up a dialogue with the phrases .

1. Do you mind... ?

2. I don’t mind... .

3. Can you afford... ?

4. I can’t help... .

5. We couldn’t help... .

6. I couldn’t stand... .

7. Who is responsible... ?

8. Remind me..., please .

9. I don’t feel... .

10. I (don’t) insist... .

11. I (don’t) approve... .

–  –  –

The Gerund can have a subject of its own different from that of the sentence. (Compare: I insist on doing it — I insist on your doing it). In this case the Gerund and its subject form a construction called the gerundial complex. The relations between the elements of the complex are predicative. The first element of the complex may be expressed in a number of ways: by а noun in the common case, a noun in the possessive case, a pronoun in the objective case, a possessive pronoun: boy’s (boy, my, me) doing smth, being done .

The complex is used only if the Gerund has a subject, which is different from that of the sentence. The Russian equivalent of the complex is often a clause .

E.g .

1. I’m so grateful for his helping me (Я так благодарен за то, что он помог мне) .

2. Do you mind my waiting here? (Вы не возражаете, если я подожду здесь?)

3. How can you stand their making all that noise? (Как вы можете выносить то, что они так шумят?) The gerundial complex has practically the same syntactical functions as the gerund and is used in most of its patterns .

–  –  –

Exercise 1. Replace the gerund by a gerundial complex by adding a subject to it. The subject of the gerundial complex must be different from the subject of the sentence. Comment on the functions .

Model: 1) Everything depends on getting there in time. — Everything depends on your getting there in time .

2) I'm against writing this review. — I'm against Jack's writing this review .

1. I fail to see the point of raising the question now. 2. She simply can't help laughing at you. 3. We did not mind waiting a little. 4. I'll take the opportunity of being here to ask you some questions. 5. He succeeded only through making the right contacts from the very beginning. 6. He began to grow fast only after coming to live with us. 7. You can't go through college without planning and saving. 8. It's no good trying to make her change her mind. 9. I'm used to coming home very late. 10. She likes being praised and made much of.11. I’m against going there alone. 12. It is useless doing it now. 13. I have an idea of going to the South. 14. There is little sense in staying here now.15. They apologized for having made the noise.16. Who is for telling him the truth? 17. I object to interfering in my personal life .

They are just neighbours .

Exercise 2. Translate into English. Use the complex only if the gerund has a subject different from that of the sentence .

Model: Он требовал, чтоб они ему немедленно заплатили. — Не insisted on their paying him at once .

But: Она требовала, чтобы ей немедленно заплатили. — She insisted on being paid at once .

1. Я сделаю все до того, как он вернется. 2. Ты не боишься, что тебя увидят? 3. Я не вижу большой беды, если он пропустит одну лекцию .

4. Она извинилась за то, что дети так шумели. 5. Я отвечаю за то, чтобы все было в порядке. 6 Кто за то, чтобы сделать все в воскресенье? 7. Кто за то, чтобы я сделал все в воскресенье?

8. Терпеть не могу возражать и спорить. 9. Терпеть не могу, когда ты возражаешь и споришь. 10. Закройте, пожалуйста, дверь. 11. Ничего, если я закрою дверь? 12. Он привык оставаться с бабушкой. 13. Он привык, что Джек остается с ним. 14. Она была так благодарна за то, что ее взяли тоже. 15. Она была так благодарна за то, что мы взяли ее с собой. 16. Он ушел, не попрощавшись. 17. Он ушел так, что мы этого не заметили. 18. Я не могла не видеть его. 19. Я не могла помешать ему видеть вас. 20. Мне нравится, когда ты так говоришь .

21. Я не могла не согласиться. 22. Будьте добры, говорите помедленнее. 23. Ничего, если я буду говорить негромко?

Exercise 3. Use complexes with the Gerund instead of the subordinate clauses. State the functions .

1. He remembered that his friend had seen the girl several times at the entrance exams. 2. I remember that the children looked through the album last Sunday. 3. Mum suggested that we should make up. 4. Nancy insists that her father should allow her to keep a monkey as a pet. 5. My sister is very displeased that I have broken her favourite cup. 6. I insist that you should tell us what the real reason is. 7. Helen was confused that they were watching her. 8. There is a chance that my family will move to another flat. 9. Do you mind if they join us? 10. Do you remember that they promised to call us? 11. Do you know that Kate is leaving soon? 12. Fancy how Boris appeared here all of a sudden! 13. I have no objection if you see Jim. 14. Excuse that I call you in the middle of the night. 15. We are keen that the team will win the game. 16. She objects that they interfere in her personal life. 17. That his friends betrayed him, filled him with bitterness .

18. There is no doubt that he has mastered English thoroughly .

Exercise 4. Translate the contents of the brackets into English using the Gerund or the gerundial complex where possible. State the functions .

1. I insist (чтобы вы мне это рассказали). 2. Do you object (чтобы я пригласила его на вечер)? 3. I hope you don’t object (чтобы я произнес эту речь)? 4. By that time they were used (что он приходит и уходит в самые неожиданные моменты). 5. She gave me the letter (когда я пришел домой вечером). 6. The fire started (потому что кто-то бросил зажженную сигарету в корзину для бумаг). 7. I am so grateful to you (за то, что вы мне это объяснили). 8. Do you want (чтобы он это сделал сегодня)? 9. Do you suspect (что я лгу)? 10. I don’t like (когда ты так говоришь). 11. I am too tired (чтобы разговаривать). 12. I am too tired (чтобы вы разговаривали). 13. I don’t mind (чтобы ты сделала все завтра) if you don’t feel like (работать сегодня). 14. So much depends (что он является подходящим человеком для работы). 15. Why do you avoid (употреблять неличные формы глагола в речи)?

Exercise 5. Answer the questions using the Gerund .

1. What do you like doing in your spare time?

2. What can you remember doing when you were a child?

3. What do you regret doing in the past?

4. When you left school, what did you go on doing?

5. What can you try doing if you want to improve your English?

6. What do you practise doing in conversation lessons?

7. What are students busy doing before exams?

8. Where do you feel like going for your holiday after passing your exams?

Exercise 6. Complete the sentences by adding gerundial complexes to them. Use prepositions where possible. Make up a dialogue with the phrases .

1. Don’t you mind my... ?

2. I don’t mind your... .

3. Do you object … .

4. I can’t help... .

5. I get used... my parents’ (friends’)... .

6. Do you succeed... ?

7. Are you looking forward... ?

Unit Three. THE PARTICIPLE I, II

The Participle is a non-finite form which has certain verbal features and the syntactical functions of adjectival or adverbial character .

There are two participles in the English language — Participle I and Participle II. They are also called the present and the past participles though they differ in voice rather than in tense .

–  –  –

Participle I is formed by adding the suffix –ing to the stem of the verb .

It has tense and voice distinctions .

Objective verbs have four forms of Participle I:

–  –  –

E.g .

When writing letters she doesn’t like to be disturbed .

Being written in pencil the letter was difficult to make out .

Having written some letters he went to post them .

Having been written long ago the letter was illegible .

Note: Subjective verbs have only two forms of Participle I: standing, having stood; walking, having walked, etc .

The Indefinite Participle I Active and Passive show that the action named by the participle took place at the same time with that of the finite verb. These forms denote simultaneousness in the present, past or future .

E.g .

Asking that question he did not want to offend me .

The Perfect Participle I Active and Passive expresses an action prior to the action expressed by the finite verb .

E.g .

1. They were old friends, having been at school together .

2. The man, having spread a handkerchief over his knees, began to eat and drink .

But:

1. The Perfect Participle is not used in the syntactic function of an attribute. In this function only Indefinite Participle may be used .

E.g .

I’ve just talked to the students coming back from the teaching practice (Я поговорил со студентами, возвратившимися с педпрактики) .

To express a prior action, we should use an attributive subordinate clause .

E.g .

I’ve just talked to the students who have come from the teaching practice.(or:...who came from their teaching practice last week (...вернувшимися с педпрактики на прошлой неделе) .

2. Non-perfect Simple Participle is regularly used to express immediate priority with verbs of sense perception and motion (hear, see, find, look, come, enter, arrive, leave, start, seize, turn, etc.) and with verbs associated with motion (put, put on, take, take off, seize, grasp, open, close, etc) in the function of an adverbial modifier .

E.g .

1. Hearing a noise in the street, I looked out of the window .

2. Arriving at the station he took a taxi .

3. Taking off our shoes we tiptoed to the nursery .

Note: The Perfect Participle of the same verbs is used when there is a

lapse of time between the two actions. Compare:

Seeing Jane I rushed to greet her .

Having seen the girl only once I didn’t recognize her .

–  –  –

The Participle I has the following syntactical functions:

1. A predicative Participle I is used after link-verbs; it is usually rendered into Russian by an adjective .

E.g .

1. The story is really very exciting .

2. The effect of her words was terrifying (Впечатление, произведенное ее словами, было страшно) .

3. The dog lay sleeping under the tree .

2. Parenthesis (to introduce a new idea): generally speaking, strictly speaking, granting it to be true, judging by..., cutting a long story short, putting it mildly, taking everything into consideration, etc .

E.g .

1. Roughly speaking, the number of birds on this island exceeds one million .

2. Cutting a long story short, he is a liar .

3. An attribute It can preceed the noun it modifies and follow it .

E.g .

1. The falling leaves made me think about the coming autumn .

2. Everybody looked at the dancing girl .

3. We admired the stars twinkling in the sky .

4. An adverbial modifier of:

a) time (with conjunctions: when, while) E.g .

1. Seeing him on the other side of the street, I called him .

2. Having sent the invitation I felt a sense of relief .

3. Be careful while crossing the street .

b) reason (cause) E.g .

1. Feeling more at ease the man spoke in a louder voice .

2. Being an orphan at six, he was brought up by a distant relative .

c) attendant circumstances E.g .

1. I wrote him a friendly letter thanking him for his help .

2. He was silent, again looking at his hands .

d) condition E.g .

1. Not catching the train I wouldn’t have there in time .

2. Driving at this speed, we’ll be there in no time .

e) comparison (manner) (with conjunctions: as if, as though) E.g .

1. He paced up and down restlessly as if trying to make some decision .

2. She began to walk carefully, counting her steps .

3. This was said as if thinking aloud .

f) concession E.g .

1. Walking a short distance today nevertheless we were very tired .

2. Though being ill she went to school .

g) purpose E.g .

She straightened her handbag searching for her pencil .

–  –  –

Exercise 1. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the syntactical function of Participle I .

1. You shouldn’t waste time dwelling on that old situation. 2. This novel explores the healing power of love. 3. I will always be here waiting for you! 4. My days are spent taking books off the shelves and putting them back. 5. There was such a freezing cold wind, and such heavy rain, that we all stayed indoors. 6. Sliding down off the tall stool, she lifted her arms above her head, did a few stretching exercises, and then walked across the studio, heading for the kitchen. 7. They sat down, continuing to look at her with curiosity. 8. Not giving him the opportunity to start the ball rolling, Meredith jumped in with both feet. 9. Being an architect and a designer, he was an extremely visual man and so it was her looks that had initially attracted him to her. 10. I love to watch my city waking up. 11. Keeping in mind the weather and the length of the hike, decide what you need to take .

12. You know, I racked my brains last night, trying to remember the name of the man Kate married. 13. He sat for a long time wandering in a world of dream and memory. 14. Reaching for the kettle, she filled it and put it on the cooktop to boil. 15. At that point, the mother came in carrying a large tray on which were the four suppers. 16. Sally spends all her time going to parties. 17. Madagascar is a living zoo. 18. Let sleeping dogs lie .

19. The cat lay sleeping on the floor. 20. He stood irresolute on the steps leading down to the street. 21. Being ambitious, he hopes to get promotion. 22. Being ambitious is the driving force to success .

Exercise 2. Use the appropriate form of Participle I of the verbs inbrackets .

1. (to put) the books on the shelf, he sat at the desk. 2. (to greet) her, he turned the key in the door with a certain skill. 3. I felt a bitter envy towards the two small boys (to walk) along the path. 4. She had a pale face and dark hair (to turn) grey. 5. He and Soames stood in the drawing-room (to wait). 6. Not for a moment did he show surprise at the wedding gift (to present) to him personally. 7. (to dry) his hands, Tom came across from the washstand. 8. Miss Lindey, (to see) Rose, smiled. 9. (to come) home he found a letter awaiting him. 10. We felt very tired (to work) the whole day in the sun. 11. (to turn down) an obscure street, he went up to a smith’s shop. 12. (to hear) a footstep below he rose and went to the stairs. 13. (to read) this book I can tell you my opinion of it. 14. As (to spend) most of her housekeeping money, she reluctantly decided to go home. 15. (to see) that it was beginning to get cold we went home. 16. (to butter) the last slice of bread she started pouring out the coffee. 17. (to pick up) his suitcase, Maxim took a deep breath and went out. 18. (not to know) his telephone number I could not get in touch with him. 19. (to make up) my mind I told her about my plan .

Exercise 3. Translate what is given in brackets using Participle I .

State the functions .

1. (Сделав уроки), he switched on the TV set. 2. She was looking at the son, (делающего уроки). 3. (Когда он перечитывал письмо), he found it rather clever and convincing. 4. (Перечитав сочинение), he found the only mistake in it. 5. We came up to the man (стоявшему на углу), and asked him the way. 6. (Рассказав все, что он знал), the witness left the box. 7. Each time (рассказывая об этом случае), he could not help smiling. 8. (Приехав в гостиницу), she found a telegram awaiting her. 9. (Когда их поставили в воду), the flowers opened their petals. 10. (Толкнув дверь) he felt that it was not locked, and (открыв ее) he looked inside. 11. (Написав письмо), George folded and put it into an envelope. 12. The leaves (которые падали), covered the earth which was waiting for the winter to come. 13. They watched the sun (которое садилось), and admired the sight. 14. I walked happily through the streets (наблюдая, как город) come to life. 15. (Мягко выражаясь), she was rather rude and impolite. 16. (Выражая свое собственное мнение), he did not want to offend them .

Exercise 4. Translate into English. Comment on the syntactical function of Participle I .

1. Никогда не подписывайте бумаги, предварительно не прочитав их .

2. Не зная ни имени, ни адреса девушки, он боялся, что никогда ее не найдет. 3. Ребенок разбирал новую игрушку, не скрывая своего любопытства. 4. Она иногда не может вымыть посуду, чтобы чегонибудь не разбить. 5. Они и пяти минут не могут провести вместе, чтобы не поссориться. 6. Альпинисты двигались к вершине, не обращая внимания на палящее солнце. 7. Не узнав меня, она прошла мимо. 8. Они вошли, не постучав. 9. Вдруг я услышал звук ключа, поворачиваемого в замочной скважине. 10. Написав последнее слово, она вопросительно посмотрела на меня. 11. Толкнув дверь, он почувствовал, что она не была заперта, и, открыв ее, он заглянул вовнутрь. 12. Рассказывая об этом случае, она не могла не смеяться .

13. Его внимание привлекла девушка, сидевшая напротив него в метро. 14. Девушка, сидевшая напротив него в вагоне, вдруг встала и вышла. 15. Мы наблюдали за удаляющимся от нас самолетом .

16. Удалившись от станции, поезд начал набирать скорость. 17. Читая книгу, он всегда мог предвосхитить дальнейшие события .

18. Прочитав книгу до конца, он положил ее на стол. 19. Положив книгу на стол, он встал и посмотрел в окну .

Complexes with the Participle I

Participle I forms three complexes: Complex Object (The Accusative with the Participle or: The Objective Participial Construction), Complex Subject (The Nominative with the Participle or: The Subjective Participial Construction) and The Nominative Absolute Construction .

I. Complex Object

It consists of a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the objective case and the present participle: to see (hear, feel, leave, find, imagine, have — ‘довести до...’, ‘заставить’, ‘добиться’, keep, get, set, to want, to like, etc.) smb doing smth .

Complex Object usually corresponds to a subordinate object clause in Russian .

E.g .

1. We heard a child crying (Мы слышали, как ребенок плачет) .

2. I watched his mother going to and fro in the room (Я видел, как его мама ходит по комнате) .

3. I can’t imagine her cooking or mending (Я не могу представить, как она готовит или шьет) .

4. Don’t keep her waiting (Не заставляйте ее ждать) .

II. Complex Subject

It consists of a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the nominative case and the present participle: smb/ smth is (was, will be, can be) seen (heard, found, left, kept, etc.) doing smth .

The principal clause is of the type which in Russian syntax is called "indefinite personal" (неопределенно-личное предложение) .

E.g .

1. Jane was seen crossing the street (Видели, как Джейн пересекала улицу) .

2. The children were heard going up the staircase (Слышали, как дети поднимались вверх по ступенькам) .

3. She was kept waiting for a long time (Ее заставили долго прождать) .

III. The Nominative Absolute Construction

It consists of a noun in the common case or a pronoun in the

nominative case and any of the four forms of the participle:

a) smb/ smth doing (being done, having done, having been done) smth smb did (could do) smth .

b) smb does smth (with) smb/ smth doing (being done, adjective, noun, adverb, prep. phrase) .

It’s function is to describe appearance, behavior or inner state of a person. This construction is generally rendered in Russian by means of an adverbial clause. It is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of time, cause, attendant circumstances, condition .

E.g .

1. The room being practically dark I could not at first see where the speaker was (Так как в комнате было совсем темно...)

2. The children having gone to school the house was unusually peaceful (Так как дети ушли в школу, в доме было непривычно тихо) .

3. How can you expect me to do any work (with) the children making so much noise (Ты думаешь, как я должен выполнять работу, если дети так шумят?)

4. Time permitting, we shall go to the theatre (Если время позволит, мы пойдем в театр.)

Training Exercises

Exercise 1. Read and translate. Analyse the syntactical functions of complexes with the Participle I .

1. Presently other footsteps were heard crossing the room below. 2. Sally left the child playing in the room. 3. I couldn’t imagine them quarrelling .

4. Meredith walked over to the window, stood looking out at the garden, her mind on her mother. 5. Petrol having gone up in price, the demand for cars has fallen. 6. Many times a day, he would see other children taking bars of creamy chocolate out of their pockets and eating them greedily, and that, of course, was pure torture. 7. He was sitting in the armchair, his mind turning again to business. 8. From my window I could sometimes see her taking her little woolly dog for his daily run. 9. And all night long we heard the window frames rattling in the wind. 10. With her face pale, her smile sad, she looked a different girl. 11. During several days she had him behaving rather well. 12. They found him wandering in the park. 13. How could you leave the child crying in the darkness? 14. I was kept waiting for a long time. 15. I imagined her sitting by the fire-place, alone and in tears .

16. The day being really sunny and warm, I told them they could take their lunch and eat it in the park. 17. Then he looked out of the window and saw clouds gathering. 18. Circumstances permitting, we shall start tomorrow .

19. She danced light as a feather, eyes shining, feet flying, her body bent a little forward .

Exercise 2. Translate into English. Use Complex Object with the Participle I or the Infinitive depending on the predicate verb and on the meaning of the sentence. Give two variants where possible .

Model: 1) Ты за полчаса довел ее до слез. — You had her crying in half an hour .

You made her cry in half an hour .

2) Я видел ее, когда она выходила из дома. — I saw her leaving the house .

I saw her leave the house .

3) Я застал ее в слезах. — I found her crying .

4) Я никогда не видал, чтобы она брала эти книги. — I have never seen her take the books .

5) Мы не ждали, что она придет сегодня. — We did not expect her to come today .

1. Она спала, когда я уходил. 2. Не могу себе представить, чтобы она так долго ждала. 3. Не беспокойтесь, я добьюсь, чтобы она все делала, как надо. 4. Я никогда их не видела во время ссоры. 5. Я никогда не видела, чтобы они ссорились. 6 Я застала их перед телевизором. Они смотрели передачу. 7. Я легко могу себе представить, что она откажется от этой работы. 8. Кто-нибудь видел его, когда он брал книги? 9. Мы не видели, чтобы он брал книги .

10. Кто-то слышал, что он это говорил. 11. Кто-то слышал его, когда он это говорил. 12. Я терпеть не могу, когда ты разговариваешь так!

13. Не заставляйте их так долго ждать. 14. Она заметила, что дети играли на проезжей части улицы. 15. Он нашел ее на платформе в ожидании поезда. 16. Он чувствовал, что у него дрожали руки .

17. Когда Джек увидел, что Том пересекал улицу, он помахал ему рукой. 18. Мы слышали, как гид рассказывала туристам об истории Москвы .

Exercise 3. Translate into English. Use Complex Subject with the Participle I and the Infinitive where necessary .

Model: 1) Ее попросили подождать. — She was asked to wait .

2) Ее застали ожидающей своей очереди .

She was found waiting for her turn .

1. Оказалось, что она все знает. 2. Ее считали умной. 3. Вряд ли чемодан найдут. 4. Чемодан считали украденным. 5. Работу можно считать хорошей. 6. Кажется, никто не знает его адреса. 7. Письма были обнаружены в корзинке для бумаг, отпечатанные и подписанные. 8. В последний раз его видели занимающимся в читальном зале. 9. Оказалось, что он ничего не знает. 10. Слышали, как он говорил, что он очень сожалеет. 11. Его назначили секретарем общества. 12. Ночью слышали, как собака лаяла в саду. 13. Собаку нашли привязанной к дереву. 14. Считали, что книга раскуплена .

15. Меня не заставили ждать. 16. Видели, как Джейн открывала дверь. 17. Видели, как мальчики из нашей школы играли в футбол .

18. Вряд ли она изменит свое отношение к нему после этого случая .

Exercise 4. Read and translate the sentences. Find Nominative Absolute Participial Constructions and state their functions .

1. Eyes bright, Peg shot up her head. 2. Nose in the air, she walked right past me. 3. Head down, the bull charged straight at the man. 4. Chin on his chest, Finch dozed. 5. The weather having changed, we decided to stay where we were. 6. I stood on the deck, the wind whipping my hair. 7. His voice breaking with emotion, Ed thanked us for the award. 8. The naughty boy was carried upstairs, arms waving and legs kicking. 9. The next evening, it being Sunday, they all went to the theatre. 10. Now she stood at the front door, her hand on the brass knocker. 11. Pulling open the door leading into the hall, Maxim suddenly stopped dead, one foot poised on the step. 12. “Don't tell me he's proposed to you already!” — Kitty cried, sitting up in the bed, her eyes flashing and flying open in surprise and alarm. 13. My knuckles white, my hair standing on end, my stomach heaving, I gripped the wheel of the skidding car. 14. Horns honking, truck drivers yelling, policemen whistling, the traffic inched along. 15. The fifth of June arriving, they departed. 16. This being understood, the conference was over. 17. All the necessary preparations having been made with utmost secrecy, the army launched an attack. 18. They heard the noise of the plane, its shadow passing over the open glade. 19. He was standing there silent, a bitter smile curling his lips. 20. She was standing on the rock ready to dive, with the green water below inviting her .

Exercise 5. Change the sentences according to the model. State the functions of Nominative Absolute Constructions .

Model: The weather was bad so they decided to stay at home. — The weather being bad, they decided to stay at home .

The demand for cars has fallen because petrol has gone up in price. — Petrol having gone up in price, the demand for cars has fallen .

1. There was a queue so they had to wait. 2. It was late so they decided to go home. 3. After the programme had finished, they went to bed. 4. As the boss was out, the secretary took the message. 5. All the shops were closed because it was Sunday. 6. After the film started, everyone stopped talking .

7. Her husband committed adultery so she decided to get a divorce .

8. There was no coffee left so they had tea instead. 9. The castle was haunted so nobody wanted to live there. 10. After the operation had been completed, the patient was wheeled back to the ward. 11. It was the height of the season so all the hotels were full. 12. A lot of people have given up smoking because cigarettes have gone up in price. 13. The student forgot the meaning of the word so he had to look it up in the dictionary. 14. As our work was finished, we went home. 15. As the driver was caught exceeding the speed limit, he had to pay a fine. 16. If the telegramme is posted today, the news will reach them in the evening. 17. When the packing had been done, the girls left for the station. 18. They stood there;

the night wind was shaking the drying whispering leaves. 19. As the situation was urgent, we had to go ahead. 20. The town of Crewe is known to be one of the most busy junctions in England: many railway lines pass through it. 21. Dinner was served on the terrace, as it was very close in the room. 22. There was in fact nothing to wait for, and we got down to work .

23. The question was rather difficult to answer at once, and I asked for permission to think it over. 24. There was very little time left; we had to hurry. 25. Our efforts to start the car had failed, and we spent the night in a nearby village .

Exercise 6. Make up sentences or situations, using the following phrases as Nominative Absolute Constructions .

Her (my) mind turning again to business, the weather being unusually hot, it being rather frosty, the situation being urgent, the experiment proving fruitless, the circumstances being favourable, the circumstances permitting, introductions over, there being no way out, with my heart beating fast, it being my day off .

–  –  –

As the Past Participle it has the only form: written, used, sent, which may denote the action simultaneous with the action of the verb-predicate or prior to it .

E.g .

1. This is the letter written by you yesterday. (письмо, написанное — a prior action)

2. Put down some words written with a final y in English. (которые пишутся — simultaneuosness) Note: Participle II of objective verbs is always passive in meaning: the broken cup, the closed door, a complicated sentence, etc .

Functions of the Participle II

Participle II has the following syntactical functions:

1. A predicative (a part of a compound verbal predicate) used after the verbs: to go (out), to come, to lie, to sit, to stand, to grow, to feel, etc .

E.g .

1. He stood surprised in front of his house .

2. He was lying back relaxed in his chair .

3. While we were speaking, she grew more and more excited .

Examples of this kind are of rare occurrence, and the participle may be adjectivized here .

2. An attribute In this function Participle I can modify any noun. It can procede the noun it modifies and follow it .

–  –  –

3. An adverbial modifier It is preceded by a conjunction which lends its adverbial meaning such as time, cause, concession, condition and comparison (when, till, until, once, as, unless, though, as if, as though, even if, even when). It can be used after any verb .

E.g .

1. He didn’t usually utter a word unless spoken to. (of condition)

2. Occupied by his thoughts he didn’t hear my question. (of cause)

3. Though occupied by his thoughts, he willingly answered my question. (of concession)

–  –  –

Exercise 1. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the syntactical function of the Participle II .

1. She sat on a fallen tree that made a convenient seat. 2. I am naturally very disappointed. 3. He looked upset and frustrated. 4. If sent immediately, the telegram will certainly be delivered by 8 o’clock .

5. When asked he always helped me. 6. If asked she always explained me the material. 7. Though astonished by her interest in the details of the accident, I went on with my story. 8. He looked at me, as if bewildered by my question. 9. She continued staring at the screen as if fascinated by her first sight of television. 10. The suit was not hopelessly damaged though badly stained in one or two places. 11. John felt rather disappointed .

12. She was expensively dressed. 13. Look at that broken cup. 14. Look at the cup broken by you. 15. This speech was received with great applause, mixed with the cries of: "That’s the talk!" 16. They skated again with crossed hands. 17. Sam looked up relieved. 18. Surrounded by difficulties and uncertainty, he longed for Christine. 19. I had been seated at the desk a long time, lost in thought. 20. She said nothing as if deeply impressed by my words. 21. Absorbed in her book, she did not hear my question .

22. Embarrassed he didn’t know what to say. 23. There were several letters in the pile laid on the table. 24. He could have passed me by unnoticed .

Exercise 2. Translate what is given in brackets using the Participle II .

State the functions .

1. (потерянный) in the world of imagination, I forgot my sad, lonely existence for a while. 2. The shoes (потерявшиеся) on the beach were her favourites. 3 He looked (очень удивленным) by her (неожиданным визитом). 4. "Gone with the wind" is a fascinating and (незабываемая) book. 5. They were (разочарованы) with the meal and complained to the manager. 6. The girl went to the party (сопровождаемая) by her boyfriend. 7. (погруженный в свои мысли) he didn’t notice my coming .

8. She stared at the countryside (словно зачарованная) by this picturesque view. 9. The dress was still beautiful though (изрядно поношенное) .

10. These are the themes (обычно обсуждающиеся) in this programme .

11. The film (впервые показанный) on TV produced a deep impression .

12. She grew (все более взволнованной) listening to that story. 13. He lay there with his eyes (закрытые). 14. Meditatively he took from his pocket a neatly (сложенное) letter which he opened and reread. 15. Ferry found the (скомканную) note with the phone number on it, which Grace had left .

Exercise 3. Translate the following word-expressions into Russian .

Comment on the usage of the Participle I or the Participle II in the syntactical function of an attribute. Make up your own sentences with them .

1. growing interest 2. a growing boy 3. a complicated explanation 4. an excited child 5. an exciting story 6. a terrifying experiment 7. well-paid job

8. a passing car 9. a burned house 10. a burning house 11. a stolen bike

12. a flying bird 13. a flown leaf 14. running water 15. a freezing lake

16. a frozen pond 17. blinding light 18. a broken heart 19. a swimming lesson 20. the following chapter .

Exercise 4. Translate into English. Use the Participle I or the Participle II in the syntactical function of an attribute. Make up your own sentences with them .

1. разбитая чашка 2. ломающийся голос 3. проигранная игра

4. проигравшая команда 5. проигрывающая команда 6. кипяченая вода 7. кипящая вода 8. забытый метод 9. человек, забывший.. .

10. жареная рыба 11. жарящаяся рыба 12. вспрыгнувший на стол кот

13. прыгающая собака 14. смеющийся голос 15. смеявшаяся девушка

16. выбранная тема 17. потерянный шанс 18. постоянно теряющаяся тетрадь 19. рвущаяся нить 20. разорванный конверт .

Exercise 5. Translate into English. Comment on the syntactical function of the Participle I or the Participle II .

1. Она что-то говорила плачущему ребенку. 2. Студент, потерявший ручку, может получить ее обратно в деканате. 3. Проигравшая команда молча покидала поле. 4. Он болел за проигрывающую команду. 5. Написавший это человек ошибается. 6. Девушке, которая пела, было около шестнадцати лет. 7. Вот девушка, рассказавшая мне эту историю. 8. Она положила яйца в кипящую воду. 9. Посмотри на девушку, которая стоит у окна. 10. Я подошла к девушке, стоявшей у окна (которая стояла у окна). 11. Девушка, стоявшая у окна, уже ушла. 12. Дети, которые играли во дворе, громко смеялись. 13. Дети, которые играли во дворе, уже ушли домой. 14. Разорванная на кусочки бумага лежала на его письменном столе. 15. Постоянно рвущаяся нить создавала проблемы. 16. На нем был поношенный пиджак. 17. Погруженная в мысли, она не сразу услышала телефонный звонок. 18. Дайте им мой телефон, если у вас его попросят. 19. Он заметил, что она покраснела и выглядела смущенной .

Exercise 6. Translate into English. Comment on the syntactical function of the Participle I or the Participle II .

1. Вот темы, обычно обсуждающиеся на семинарах по языкознанию .

2. Это тема доклада, обсуждавшегося на прошлом семинаре. 3. Вот мои записи лекций, прочитанных в прошлом году. 4. Как вам нравится книга, которую сейчас обсуждают? 5. Игра, которую выиграла эта команда, была ключевой игрой чемпионата. 6. Я хорошо помню его слова, сказанные на открытии конференции. 7. Это было стихотворение, написанное за год до смерти поэта. 8. Эти стихи были похожи на все стихи, которые пишут подростки. 9. Если мы сравним дома, которые строили пять лет назад, и дома, которые строят теперь, мы увидим значительные перемены. 10. В доме, который строится напротив нас, будет большой магазин. 11. Она показала мне его письмо, написанное в 1941 году. 12. Очень интересно читать некоторые сочинения, написанные детьми. 13. Сочинения, которые пишут современные дети, отличаются от тех, которые писали дети 50-х годов. 14. Как тебе нравятся фасоны, которые теперь носят?

15. Фильм, показанный в первый день фестиваля, произвел хорошее впечатление. 16. Фильм, который будет показан здесь завтра, одна из первых картин этого режиссера .

–  –  –

Participle II forms three complexes: Complex Object (The Objective Predicative), Complex Subject (The Subjective Predicative) and The Nominative Absolute Construction .

–  –  –

It is used after transitive verbs followed by a direct object which is expressed by a noun or a pronoun: to believe, to consider, to feel, to find, to get, to have, to hear, to see, to keep, to leave, to like, to want, to make, etc.; set phrases: won’t like, won’t have, should/would like .

E.g .

1. Soames felt his attention caught .

2. On arriving at the cottage she found it locked .

3. I had not heard the matter mentioned .

4. I have my hair cut every month .

5. He has had his house painted this summer .

–  –  –

It is used after the Passive of the verbs: to find, to consider, to hear, to see, to make, to leave, etc .

E.g .

1. He was found engaged in a conversation with a charming girl .

2. He is constantly seen drunk in the mid of the afternoon .

–  –  –

It may be non-prepositional and prepositional (prep. with). It’s function is to describe appearance, behavior or inner state of a person. This construction is generally rendered in Russian by means of an adverbial clause. It is used in the function of an adverbial modifier of time, cause, attendant circumstances, condition .

E.g .

1. In the library Diana, her face flushed, talked to a young dramatist .

2. I lay in a big chair, talking now & then, listening sometimes with my eyes closed .

–  –  –

Exercise 1. Read and translate. Analyse the syntactical functions of complexes with the Participle II .

1. The dog heard his name pronounced through the open door. 2. You will probably find your nephew grown. 3. He was seen taken unawares. 4. This duty completed, he had two months’ leave. 5. One morning he stood in front of the shop window, his nose almost pressed to the glass. 6. I shall have my son taught music. 7. She has had no photographs of herself taken since her childhood. 8. She felt her attention paid. 9. He is often seen tired and frustrated. 10. Mary must have a new dress made for the party .

11. You look smart. Where do you usually have your hair cut? 12. His story told, he leaned back and sighed. 13. The cathode heated, the electrons leave the surface and move to the anode. 14. She stood silent, her lips pressed together. 15. He sat down quickly, his face buried in his hands.16. The speaker faced the audience, his hand raised for silence .

17. The boy sat on the steps, with his arms crossed upon his knees .

18. Little Oliver Twist was lying on the ground, with his shirt unbuttoned and his head thrown back. 19. A good child is not supposed to speak unless spoken to. 20. Everything packed, she went downstairs for a much needed cup of tea. 21. He seemed calmed and at peace. 22. When did you have your hair cut? 23. He likes to hear his children praised. 24. My fears laid to rest, I climbed into the plane for my first solo flight. 25. Arms linked, the two women walked over to the bench, and sat down. 26. The pictures were considered stolen .

Exercise 2. Read and translate. State the syntactical function of the Participle I, Participle II or their complexes .

1. She was delighted to see us. 2. The children were already gone. 3. She left the document typed and signed and ready to be posted. 4. She pursed her painted little mouth as if trying to express disapproval and sympathy at the same time. 5. She ran like a boy of twelve, slim, poised and swift, her long dark hair streaming in the breeze behind her. 6. She was not at all surprised to see us. 7. Of course a clever lawyer would have her contradicting herself in close to no time. 8. It was with a shock of surprise that I read the chapter containing a description of these customs. 9. She raised her eyebrows a little as if astonished to see me there. 10. You, my dear lady, having led a rather sheltered life, have probably never seen anything of the kind. 11. My mother, horrified by a particularly lurid cover of one of my books, told me to tear it up. 12. The room was nearly empty now, most of the audience having already left. 13. This problem once solved, there will be nothing to stop us. 14. They were found talking in the garden. 15. I noticed you looking at this picture yesterday. 16. I don't want this problem discussed in my presence. 17. He earns a living playing the violin in the streets. 18. A growing boy should get plenty of vitamins .

19. The weather being rainy, they decided to stay at home. 20. When told to come in he seemed to change his mind and still clutching the briefcase left the room. 21. Sixteen being a difficult age, the girl proved more of a problem than we had expected. 22. Denis rose to his feet, his arms folded in his favourite Napoleonic pose. 23. The children were left playing on the beach. 24. The missing car was considered stolen. 25. Shoulders hunched, hair streaming in the wind, toes curled over the edge of the board, Jackie rode the big wave. 26. Forehead wrinkled, mouth pursed, watch ticking, Reese studied the board .

Exercise 3. Translate into English. Use Complex Object with the Participle II or Complex Object with the passive Infinitive depending on what verb precedes the complex .

Model: 1) Он рассчитывает, что все будет сделано сегодня. — Не expects everything to be done today .

2) Я хочу, чтобы все было сделано сегодня. — I want everything done today .

1. Я видел, как снимали эту картину. 2. Мы нашли стекло разбитым .

3. Он сделал так, что обед принесли в номер. 4. Он приказал, чтобы дело было расследовано. 5. Он не хотел, чтобы его слова были записаны на пленку. 6. Я не хочу, чтобы этот вопрос обсуждался. 7. Я нашел все сделанным. 8. Почему ты оставил дверь не запертой? 9. Я хочу, чтобы это было напечатано сегодня. 10. Он знал, что его легко уговорить. 11. Она позвонила, чтобы принесли обед .

Exercise 4. A. Complete the following sentences using the verbs get or have something done .

1. I must get to the optician's to.... 2. She went to the dentist to.... 3. This coat is too long. I will.... 4. The piano is out of tune. You must.... 5 .

Teresa will have to run to the chemist's to.... 6. Hard work is the best way to.... 7. As Bill couldn't find a suit to fit him, he had to.... 8. This article is too long, I shall never.... 9. If someone touched a hot iron, he.... 10 .

The work of a lazy man never.... 11. Let us... this business... as soon as possible. 12. You will ruin your reputation if.... 13. I must take my dog Patrick to the vet's to.... 14. Peter's wife can't stand his beard. So he is going to the barber's to.... 15. We need a special cake for the wedding .

We must go to the confectioner's to... .

B. Speak about the things you have done this week. What other things have to be done?

Exercise 5. Translate into English using the pattern to have smth done .

Model: 1) Я делаю прическу в парикмахерской каждую пятницу. — I have my hair done every Friday .

2) Здесь вам почистят пальто за одни сутки. — Here you can have your coat cleaned overnight .

1. Вам надо отгладить и почистить костюм. 2. Мне надо сфотографироваться. 3. Здесь можно отдать в чистку плащ? 4. Вам не починят кран до понедельника. 5. Где вам шьют? 6. Где вам шили это платье? 7. У него украли документы в прошлом году. 8. Ей выкрасили кухню в светло-зеленый цвет. 9. Она сшила себе новое пальто .

10. Мне нужно сделать прическу. 11. Где я могу почистить пальто?

12. У вас проблема с мотором. Вам должны посмотреть и отремонтировать его .

Exercise 6. Translate into English using the pattern to do oneself done .

1. Она добилась всеобщего уважения. 2. С некоторым удивлением она услышала, что о ней говорят. 3. Вы увидите, что вас забыли. 4. Я сделаю так, что меня будут помнить. 5. Он хотел, чтобы его забыли .

6. Он услышал, как о нем упомянули. 7. Она хотела, чтобы о ней помнили. 8. Вы только добьетесь того, что вас будут бояться. 9. Если вы хотите, чтобы вас уважали, не выходите из себя из-за пустяков .

10. Ей не хотелось, чтобы ее повели к зубному врачу. 11. Им очень хотелось, чтобы она успокоилась .

Exercise 7. Make up sentences using the following constructions withParticiple II .

1. have the report typed 2. heard it suggested 3. found him absorbed in

4. kept the eyes fixed on 5. get his voice recorded 6. heard her name mentioned 7. had the article printed 8. with his eyes lowered 9. heard the key turned 10. had her hair cut very short 11. had the letter sent

12. considers herself offended 13. wants herself composed 14. wants himself remembered .

Exercise 8. Paraphrase the following sentences using Complex Subject with Participle II .

Mode l : They considered that the picture had been stolen .

The picture was considered stolen .

1. We found that the safe had been locked and the papers stolen. 2. It could be considered that she was cured. 3. We found the missing car. It had been abandoned on the highway. 4. They considered that the plan had been lost .

5. One can believe that the art of glass blowing has been forgotten. 6 .

When he left her she was greatly upset and worried. 7. I found her in her room. She was dressed for the party. 8. You will find the letter on your desk. It is signed and ready to be posted. 9. You can often see her to be tired. 10. We found the documents in the basket by chance. They were typed and signed. 11. He believed that all his novels were sold. 12. She is sure that the children have been brought to the theatre .

Exercise 9. Make up sentences with the following word-expressions in the function of Complex Subject .

seemed surprised; seems frightened; looked bewildered; sounded annoyed;

felt disappointed; looked relieved; looked embarrassed; seen frustrated;

seen carried away by his (her) memories Exercise 10. Read and translate the sentences. Find Nominative Absolute Participial Constructions with Participle II and state their functions .

1. The work done, the two men lay down on the chairs for a short nap. 2 .

His directions to the porter finished, he came up to the niece. 3. His story told, he leaned back and sighed. 4. She sat on the bench in the park, with her arms crossed upon her handbag. 5. She sat staring into the fire, the book forgotten on her knee. 6. The dog sat close to the table, his eyes fixed expectantly on his master. 7. She stood silent, her lips pressed together. 8 .

She removed her coat and stood motionless, her head bent, her hands clasped before her. 9. Jack sat silent, his long legs stretched out. 10. The young teacher faced the class, his hand raised for silence. 11. The letter written, he went out to post it. 12. He stood, with his arms folded. 13 .

Twenty minutes later he went out of number seven, pale, with his lips tightly compressed and an odd expression on his face. 14. The decision taken nothing could make her give it up. 15. She was a charming healthy child of ten with her long arms and legs already tanned to a lovely golden brown. 16. He went out at the sound of her voice, the unread newspaper still in his hand .

Difference between the Participle II and the Participle I Simple Passive Participle II expresses merely a state, while Participle I Indefinite Passive expresses rather a progressive passive action represented as a state .

E.g.1. The letters written by my sister are difficult to read (Письма, написанные...) .

2. The letters being written by the engineer will be signed by the director (Письма, которые сейчас пишет...) .

Difference between Participle I and the Infinitive Both verbals serve to express simultaneous actions. But with terminative verbs, the infinitive shows that the action is accomplished, whereas the – ing-form denotes an accomplished action in its progress .

Complex Subject of Participle I expresses a process, also it is adjectivized .

E.g.1. He was seen leaving the house (Видели, как он выходил из дома .

or: Его видели выходящим...) .

2. The door was heard shutting .

Complex Subject of the Infinitive expresses a state .

E.g.1. He was seen to leave the house (Видели, что он выходит из дома) .

2. The front door downstairs was heard to shut .

With durative verbs, the difference between the two verbals disappears and the choice of the form is free .

E.g.1. They had been heard to discuss the possibility .

2. They were heard laughing in the hall .

Complex Object of Participle I expresses a process .

E.g.1. We heard the child crying in his pram (Мы слышали, как ребёнок плачет в коляске. or: Мы слышали плачущего ребёнка...)

2. Nobody had heard him coming in .

Complex Object of the Infinitive expresses a fact .

E.g.1. We heard the child cry in the pram (Мы слышали, что ребёнок плакал...)

2. Nobody had heard him come in .

–  –  –

You can distinguish between the gerund and the –ing-forms of the participle in the following way: if the –ing-form is the subject, object or predicative it is not a participle .

The –ing-form in the attributive or adverbial function is a gerund if it has a preposition and a participle if it has no preposition (the participle may follow "when" and "while"). The –ing-form after such verbs as: to keep, to begin, to start, to continue, to go on, etc. is always a gerund .

E.g.1. Speaking fast does not always mean speaking fluently. (gerunds)

2. She is used to speaking fast. (gerund)

3. On seeing me she smiled and waved her hand. (gerund) Seeing me she blushed. (participle)

4. I like your way of doing it. (gerund) We watched the playing children. (participle)

–  –  –

Exercise 1. Open the brackets. Use the infinitives or the gerunds in the appropriate forms. Add prepositions where necessary .

1. We felt the ground (to rock and tremble) under our feet. 2. There is no (to reason) with her now. 3. The poems are believed (to write) by a young woman. 4. How can I do it without somebody (to notice) me and (to begin) to ask questions? 5. She is not likely (to forget) her promise. 6. The poet is known (to live) in Odessa at the time. 7. Don't make the mistake (to underestimate) the opponent. 8. Can I learn to speak better (to listen) to records? 9. He is far too lazy (to do) it himself. 10. Are you really thinking (to give up) this job? 11. So much depends (he to be) the right man for the job. 12. I see no harm (he to play football). 13. I must apologize (to be) so late. 14. Have you ever heard (he to say) anything of the kind? 15. They don't seem (to understand) the explanation, they are still making the same mistake. 16. It has just started (to rain) heavily. 17. They couldn’t but (to agree). 18. I don’t mind (to invite) him too. 19. She insisted (to tell) the truth. 20. We are sorry (to hear) the bad news. 21. The children are anxious (to go) to the circus. 22. He denied (to steal) the money. 23. Please stop (to ask) me questions! 24. He is fond (to ski) and (to skate) in winter .

Exercise 2. Translate into English using the infinitives or the gerunds .

1. Вряд ли она вернется. 2. Мне не хочется об этом говорить. 3 .

Словам вашим трудно поверить. 4. Он не дал мне слова сказать. 5 .

Бесполезно объяснять ей это. 6. Никто не настаивал, чтобы она осталась. 7. Вы довели ее до слез. 8. Оказалось, что он уехал. 9. Кто видел его последним? 10. Мне не нравится мысль, что она останется одна в лагере. 11. Факты не спрячешь. 12. Стоит ли об этом разговаривать? 13. Она не могла не добиться успеха. 14. Ни к чему писать ей об этом. J5. Вымой руки, прежде чем есть. 16. Спасибо, что помогли мне. 17. У тебя есть что-нибудь почитать? 18. Мне не хочется вмешиваться. 19. Не такой он человек, чтобы позволить кому-нибудь оскорблять себя. 20. Все оказалось гораздо проще, чем мы думали. 21. Он первый вышел из себя. 22. У тебя странный способ помогать людям. 23. Я могу успеть на поезд, если буду бежать всю дорогу. 24. Я не могла не согласиться 25. Будьте добры, говорите помедленнее .

Exercise 3. Analyse the 'ing'-forms. State which of them are the gerunds and which the participles. Comment on the functions .

1. There is no telling what she may do. 2. They were engaged in packing .

3. She went back to the terrace trying not to step on the grass. 4. Laughing and talking at the top of their voices the little girls filled the hall. 5. She poured the boiling water over the tomatoes. 6. He greatly disliked being called brother. 7. The book is not worth reprinting. 8. Is there any chance of seeing him here again? 9. Reaching the garden he was struck by a thought. 10. Finally we managed to lock the still barking dog in the bathroom. 11. He discovered that an idea had come to him for making a series of water-colour drawings of London. 12. There was a great deal of excited coming and going. 13. He lived not thinking of altering a thing. 14 .

You spoke without thinking. 15. The sun has set, the sky was growing dark, bringing to view the twinkling stars. 17. Coming up to the door I found him sitting near it. 18. There is no sense in your doing it now. 19 .

She kept looking at them. 20 While saying these words he got up. 21 .

Deciding is acting. 22. Acting this way he didn’t understand the danger of the situation .

Exercise 4. Insert ‘not’ or ‘without’ before the -ing-form. State the function of the participle or the gerund .

1. He took my book... asking my permission. 2. He stopped, when he saw Lucy, and looked politely,... recognizing her for a moment. 3. "I’m awfully sorry," he said,... knowing what to say. 4. He looked at me for a moment... speaking. 5. They can carry on an amusing and animated conversation... giving a moment’s reflection. 6.... thinking he changed slightly the position of the chair. 7. Often... exchanging a word they would sit for an hour. 8. He pressed her hand... speaking. 9. He stood... moving, watching her as she went upstairs. 10. We worked... ceasing, day and night, and we seemed to make no progress. 11. She sat quietly mending the socks,... talking. 12. Kate passed by... taking notice of him. 13. You can’t go there... being invited. 14. Someone phoned and he suddenly left us.. .

saying good-bye. 15. He had enough on his mind... wanting to relinquish his secretary. 16. She smiled... showing her teeth. 17. Jack would have gone to the library... being seen. 18. She laughed... replying. 19. Ralph began disappearing for days and weeks... warning. 20.... speaking they went along .

Exercise 5. Translate into English using the participles. Comment onthe functions .

1. Мы весь день бродили по городу и уехали поздно вечером. 2 .

Сделав уроки, он включил телевизор. 3. Читая книги на английском, выписывайте новые слова. 4. Он показал мне ручку, купленную в Ленинграде. 5. Спортсмены, которые заняли первые десять мест, будут выступать во второй половине состязания. 6. Лающие собаки не кусаются. 7. Он боялся лаявшей собаки. 8. Когда он рассказал все, ему стало легче. 9. Методы, применявшиеся в этой операции, были сначала испробованы на животных. 10. Он говорил о методах, применяющихся в советской хирургии. 11. Врачи, пользующиеся этим методом, достигают хороших результатов. 12. Врач, пользовавшийся этим методом, сделал интересный доклад. 13. Это был дом, построенный в прошлом веке. 14. Пытаясь привлечь мое внимание, он постучал по столу. 15. Когда мы обратили внимание на этот вопрос, мы поняли, как это важно. 16. Он подписал письмо и отдал его секретарю. 17. Она не знала, что сказать, и не говорила ничего. 18. Говоря на эту тему, он всегда волнуется. 19. Когда он перечитывал письмо, он нашел его довольно убедительным. 20 .

Перечитывая письмо, он нашел в нем ошибку .

Exercise 6. Translate into English using the participles. Comment onthe functions .

1. Он говорил громко, чтобы его было слышно. 2. Он услышал, как назвали его имя. 3. Мне это сделали за три дня. 4. Я добьюсь, что все будет улажено. 5. Я бы хотела, чтобы эту песню записали на пленку .

6. Я никогда не видела, как это делают. 7. Она нашла их играющими в саду. 8. Маме не нравилось, что она курит. 9. Она не ожидала, что что-нибудь будет сделано. 10. Я не хочу, чтобы мои дела обсуждали .

11. Вы хотите, чтобы письмо было написано сегодня же? 12. Можешь ты ее себе представить в брюках и резиновых сапогах? 13. Сошьют ли мне здесь костюм за неделю? 14. Мы нашли его сильно изменившимся. 15. Мы слышали, как сигнал повторился. 16. Я почувствовал, что меня толкают к краю платформы. 17. Врач не позволил его допрашивать. 18. Я знаю, что он прав. 19. Кто видел, как это случилось? 20. За несколько дней она добилась того, что он стал вести себя вполне хорошо .

Exercise 7. Open the brackets. Use the necessary forms of the participle or the infinitive .

1. He did not wish himself (to criticize). 2. How he got himself (to elect) is a mystery. 3. He ordered the garage door (to lock and to seal). 4. Nobody expected any measures (to take). 5. How can I make myself (to hear) in this uproar? 6. And I want everything (to deliver) at my hotel. 7. Nobody heard the door (to open). 8. When do you want the letters (to type)? 9. I had the dress (to copy) and sent the original back. 10. How could you leave that child (to cry) in the darkness? 11. There were so many people there and nobody saw it (to do). 12. They found him (to wander) in the park. 13. They found the lock (to break) and the man (to go). 14. I could see her (to stand) in the doorway (to say) good-bye. 15. I am so happy (to listen) to the concert of my favourite singer now. 16. The manuscript appears (to write) in Latin. 17. She seems (to read) my mind. 18. This material could (to explain) very easily. 19. The rain seems (to stop). 20 .

Ann is proud (to be) the top student in her group. 21. (to live) in that country all his life, he knew it very well. 22. (to check) with great care, the composition didn’t contain any errors. 23. (to tell) of his arrival, I went to see him. 24. The noise in the entrance hall continued, and more vehicles could be heard (to arrive) at the door .

Exercise 8. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the syntactical function of –ing-forms and the infinitives .

1. Swimming makes you fit. 2. The whole family has taken up cycling. 3 .

Her worst habit is lying. 4. Everyone loves to win. 5. I am looking forward to my friend’s returning. 6. I tried not to look at the accident. 7. For evil to succeed it is only necessary for the good to do nothing. 8. Meeting new people is one benefit of taking evening classes. 9. Giving presents is a traditional part of the Christmas festivities. 10. The remaining items will be sold in our spring sale. 11. The report is to be handed in first thing tomorrow morning. 12. Cover the turkey in silver foil to keep the meat moist. 13. We have just seen an exciting film. 14. That film was exciting .

15. I find him to be very reliable. 16. I never find fast food very satisfying .

17. I found him a friendly and dedicated guide. 18. That is the easiest route taken by Kelvin. 19. We bought a cage for John to keep his hamster in. 20 .

There are no small boys and girls in the yard for him to play with. 21 .

There isn’t enough salad for the guests to go around, I’m afraid. 22. Have you seen them performing yet? 23. She has finally made a decision to leave. 24. Nelly isn’t capable of lying and she has no reason for not telling the truth .

Exercise 9. Read and translate the sentences. Comment on the syntactical function of the verbals .

1. He was interrupted in this task by the opening of the door, and looking up, was surprised to see his niece. 2. Having once made up her mind she was not likely to change it. 3. I don’t like the habit of making people wait .

4. I had to spend all my day off duty on the day of the concert trying to make up for the neglect of my nails and hair. 5. Liza was able to make her own living by working at the factory. 6. Now she stopped crying, like a good girl. 7. I had to eat the cake because she came and stood over me and watched me doing it. 8. Reaching his destination, he found Mr. and Mrs .

Molly waiting for him at the corner. 9. If Tony expected her to rush into his arms he was very much mistaken. 10. I haven’t had a chance to see my dog this morning. 11. The Careys had had a chance of welcoming their nephew. 12. It is no use deceiving ourselves. 13. He was distinguished from most Englishmen by his perfect indifference to comfort. 14. You can get the book recommended by our teacher in the library. 15. He asked her to go on with her story, promising not to interrupt her again. 16. Not having received any letters from her son, she sent him a telegramme. 17 .

Having been defeated, the enemy was obliged to retreat. 18. Having signed the letter the manager gave it to the secretary asking her to send it off at once. 19. He gave her a look that made her heart beat and she felt blushing all over. 20. There was a silence for a minute, then she turned to him with shining eyes. 21. They have the gift of making you feel at home. 22. I feared you might feel angered at me for having given the task for them without your warning. 23. She did her best to have her son educated. 24. It took four men to have the piano removed to the upper floor .

Exercise 10. Translate into English using infinitives, gerunds, participles or complexes with them. State the functions .

1. Отступить (to quit) значит проиграть. 2. Лучший способ потерять вес — изменить привычки в еде (eating habits). 3. Есть три способа сделать это. 4. Если я передумаю, то ты первый узнаешь об этом. 5 .

Она никогда не может прийти к финишу первой. 6. Я в это время случайно оказался в госпитале. 7. Он отправился на кухню, чтобы приготовить бутерброды. 8. У меня есть признание, которое я должен сделать. 9. Иногда он невыносим. Он хочет все делать по-своему. 10 .

А еще что-нибудь нужно сделать? 11. Бесси ворвалась в комнату, чтобы сообщить, что меня ждет посетитель. 12. Ему пришлось повысить голос, чтобы быть услышанным. 13. Когда я шел домой, я остановился, чтобы купить газету. 14. Чтобы выиграть соревнование, Полу нужна удача. 15. Для нее курить — это поднимать самоуважение. 16. Она любит, когда ею восхищаются, фотографируют, пишут о ней в газетах. 17. Предполагают, что он сделал это из ревности. 18. Известно, что он глава фирмы в течение последних десяти лет. 19. Их проинформируют, в какое время уезжать. 20. Они не знали, как ее успокоить. 21. Нам лучше поторопиться, чтобы не пропустить поезд. 22. Громкий стук двери заставил его вздрогнуть. 23. Это было единственное, что он мог сделать. 24. Видели, как такси ждало кого-то у подъезда. 25. Они были очень хорошо знакомы. 26. Когда к ней обратились, она показала нам самый короткий путь к вокзалу .

Exercise 11. Read and translate the following phraseological units with non-finite forms of the verb. Comment on the function. Learn and use them in your situations and dialogues .

1. Easier said than done. Easier to talk about than to do .

2. The least said, the soonest mended .

3. Even reckoning makes long friends .

4. True friends are known to be like diamonds, precious — but rare .

5. False friends are said to be like autumn leaves found everywhere .

6. Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise .

7. First come, first served .

8. What can’t be cured must be endured .

9. A fault confessed is half redressed .

10. He is the man to be born with a silver spoon in the mouth .

11. It’s never too late to learn .

12. No sooner said than done .

13. Well begun is half done. A good beginning is half the battle .

14. Without turning an eyelash .

15. Bad habits are easy to acquire and hard to break .

16. Being ambitious is the driving force to success .

17. Seeing is believing .

18. Deciding is acting .

19. Knowledge is not something to boast about .

20. The money spent on the brain is never spent in vain .

Bibliography

1. Блох М.Я. Практикум по английскому языку: Грамматика .

Сборник упражнений: Учеб. пособие для вузов / М.Я. Блох, А.Я .

Лебедева, В.С. Денисова.—M.: АСТ — Астрель, 2000. — 240 с .

2. Голицынский Ю.Б. Грамматика: Сборник упражнений / Ю.Б .

Голицынский. — СПб.: КАРО, 2005. — 544 с .

3. Гордон Е.М. Грамматика современного английского языка / Е.М .

Гордон, И.П. Крылова. — М.: Высш. школа, 1980. — 335 с .

4. Каушанская В.Л. Грамматика английского языка / В.Л .

Каушанская, Р.Л. Ковнер, О.Н. Кожевникова и др. — Л., 1973. — 320 с .

5. Kobrina N.A. An English Grammar. Morphology / N.A. Kobrina, Korneyeva. — М., 1985 .

6. Кунин А.В. Англо-русский фразеологический словарь / А.В .

Кунин. — М., Рус.яз., 1984. — 994 с .

7. Натанзон Е.А. Практическая грамматика английского языка для заочников / Е.А. Натанзон. — М., Высшая школа, 1973. — 304 с .

8. Рушинская И.С. The English Verbals and Modals: Практикум / И.С .

Рушинская. — М.: Флинта: Наука, 2003. — 48 с .

9. Саакян А.С. Упражнения по грамматике современного английского языка / А.С. Саакян. — М.: Рольф, 2001. — 448 с .

10. Foley, M., Hall, D. Advanced Learners’ Grammar. A self-study reference and practice book with answers / M. Foley, D. Hall. — Longman, 2003. — 384 p .

11. Fried-Booth, Diana L. Pet. Preliminary English Test / D.L. FriedBooth. — Longman, 2004. — 136 p .

12. Hancock, M. Singing Grammar / M. Hancock. — Cambridge University Press, 1998 .

13. Longman Student Grammar of Spoken and Written English / D. Biber, S. Conrad, G. Leech. — Longman, 2002. — 487 p .

14. Murphy, R. English Grammar in Use / R. Murphy. — Cambridge, 1994. — 327 p .

Contents

Unit One. The Infinitive…………………………………………. 5 Forms of the Infinitive…………………………………………… 5 Functions of the Infinitive………………………………………... 8 Complexes with the Infinitive …………………………………. 18 The use of the Infinitive without the particle to …………………. 34 Unit Two. The Gerund…………………………………………... 38 Forms of the Gerund…………………………………………….. 38 Functions of the Gerund………………………………………… 40 The Gerundial Complex ………………………………………… 47 Unit Three. The Participle I, II………………………………….. 52 The Participle I …………………………………………………. 52 Forms of the Participle I………………………………………… 52 Functions of the Participle I…………………………………….. 54 Complexes with the Participle I………………………………. 58 The Participle II…………………………………………………. 63 Forms of the Participle II……………………………………….. 63 Functions of the Participle ……………………………………… 64 Complexes with the Participle II……………………………… 68 Unit Four. Revision Exercises………………………………….. 76 Bibliography …………………………………………………….. 83

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