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1. . [ ]. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/analiz-konkurentosposobnosti-ekonomiki-respublikitadzhikistan-na-mirovom-rynke ( 12.02.2018) .

2. . [ ]. URL: https://articlekz.com/article/8738 ( 12.08.2018) .

3. . , / .// . . (). -2013. -2, .10-15 .

4. : [ ]. URL:https://camonitor.kz/31251dualnoe-obuchenie-v-kazahstane-opyt-i-perspektivy.html ( 09.09.2018) .

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URL:https://agartu.com/index.php?newsid=243 ( 09.09.2018)

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https://tj.sputniknews.ru/country/20181017/1027134704/tajikistan-reyting-konkurentosposobnost-ekonomika.html ( : 11.11.2018) .

9. [ ]. URL:https://camonitor.kz/31141kazahstan-uluchshit-svoi-pozicii-v-globalnom-reytinge.html ( : 12.12.2018) .

10. . : [ ]. URL:https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/dualnaya-sistema-professionalnogo-obucheniya-usloviya-primeneniya-vrossii ( 26.12.2018) .

11. XXI : / . . . . .: -, 2018.-.222 .

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URL:http://akvobr.ru/opyt_dualnogo_obuchenia.html ( : 01.01.2019) .

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URL:http://tguk.tj/failes/sovet/zashita/Umed_R/Avtoreferat_Raimdodov.pdf ( : 23.12.2018) .

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15. . [ ]. URL:https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/chelovecheskiy-kapital-kak-istochnik-razvitiya-iuspeshnosti-sovremennogo-predprinimatelya ( : 11.11.2018) .

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URL:https://articlekz.com/article/10736 ( : 12.12.2018) .

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## HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IN THE REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN

The article is devoted to the issues of human capital development strategy in the Republic of Tajikistan. The system of dual education, which is widely practiced in the developed countries of the world, including Germany, France, Italy, etc., which has worked well in comparison with the traditional system, has been chosen as one of the mechanisms. Features of the introduction of such systems in the conditions of Central Asia certainly have their own specifics, which is a reflection of the state of the economies of the region. The Republic of Kazakhstan is the country that started the introduction of this system into the educational space of the country, the experience and example of which can help to introduce this system in the Republic of Tajikistan. Responsible persons from the Ministry of Education and Science, the Ministry of Labor, Migration and Employment of the country should study the experience of this country in order to minimize problems that may arise when introducing this system into the system of secondary special and higher education. The system of dual education is offered by the author as one of the tools for improving the quality of human capital in the republic, which will enable more likely to create conditions for the formation of an innovative economy and increase the competitiveness of our country in the regional and world economy. The main elements of human capital are education or the intellect of the subject, his health, labor skills and experience, the value system of the individual. In our opinion, the main emphasis in the existing and developing regulatory documents on the development strategy of the Republic of Tajikistan should be placed on human capital, its development and effective use, as is done in the Republic of Kazakhstan .

Keywords: human capital, education system, dual education, innovative economy, competitiveness, human capital development, government-business partnership, education reform, Central Asia, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Germany .

: , , . : 734025 .

, . , . 17. : (+ 992) 918614886. E-mail:

fsalimov@tojikiston.com Intelligence about the author: Salimov Farrukh Nasimovich - Tajik National University, Ph.D., Associate Professor of the Department of Diplomacy and Foreign Policy of the Republic of Tajikistan. Adress: 734025. Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, 17 Rudaki av. Tel: (+992) 918614886, email: fsalimov@tojikiston.com, farrukh.n.salimov@gmail.com [352/354 (573.3]

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## FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CIVIL SERVANTS EDUCATION SYSTEM

The article consolers the main issues of formations and development of training system of state employees in the country and analyses all forms of training. Emphasize the training of state employees has been formal gradually and there were created logistical and intellectual prerequisites for normal functioning. Also its noted hat due to need of organizing the training of state employees there was established an authorized institution. Its activation where expanded in 2013 .

The author emphasizes the training retraining and advanced training of state employees is implemental on the basis of curricula, learning standards. State oriole of training the state employees, plan schedule refresher courses and state employees practice. According to the anther the system training of state employees at the level of bachelor, magistracy, second higher education and advanced training of state employees will improve and gradually reach the world standard of education. its emphases the training is the main core of developing human resources of state employees according to this principle. it works at the effectiveness of stat employees activities, improvement and strengthening the newest state and statehood in the Republic of Tajikistan Key words: training, public administration, system of education, stat employees, training, state employees, institute, stat odder of stat employees training, training, retraining, advanced training, magistracy, bachelor, development of human resources, formation of human resources .

: - , , , . : 734003, , ., , 33. : (+992 37) 228-91-51. E-mail: b.p.alizoda63@mail.ru Information about the author: Alizoda Bahriddini Pirmuhammad - Institute of Public Administration under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan, Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor, Chief Researcher of the Research Institute of Public Administration and Civil Service. Address: 734003, Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Said Nosir street,

33. Phone: (+992 37) 228-91-51. E-mail: b.p.alizoda63@mail.ru 68 : 93/94 (575.3)

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## CENTRAL ASIA AS ZONE OF NATIONAL INTERESTS REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN

In article the zone of national interests of the Republic of Tajikistan at the present stage is considered. National interest definitely key element in the system of the modern international relations. This concept which arose in the 17th century with formation of the Westphalian system and formation of the national states and finally issued after World War II is an integral part of world politics. Therefore national interests are a priority factor within definition of foreign policy reference points. The author considers the Central Asian region as a zone of national interests of the Republic of Tajikistan .

The extreme importance in the foreign policy of the state, in clarification of interference of external and internal factors, in studying of peripetias of the international relations is attached to a concept. Concepts of national security and military, doctrines of the states contain obligatory references to "national interests", as on a basis and the initial principle of identification of the main threats to sovereignty and territorial integrity, definitions of priorities of foreign policy, elaboration of defensive strategy and economic prosperity. One of the defining principles in foreign policy to the Republic of Tajikistan is integration. Integration within Central Asia not only are objective reality, but also vital need. Existence of any state always assumes interaction with other countries both in a bilateral format and in a multilateral format. This interaction the fundamental principle of the international relations. Thus in article also the role and the place of integration as fundamental element within the Central Asian foreign policy is mentioned 72 Keywords Central Asia, foreign policy, national interest, neo-realism, concept of foreign policy, doctrine of national security, multi-vector nature .

: , , . : 734025, , . , 17.

E-mail:

khosiyat.komilova@gmail.com : 985622323 .

Information about authors: Komilova Khosiyat Gufronovna Tajik national university, candidate of historical sciences,

the doctoral candidate. Address 734025, Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Rudaki Avenue 17.E-mail:

khosiyat.komilova@gmail.com Phone: 985622323 .

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## INTEGRATIONG INITIATIVES IN CENTRAL ASIA

The article considers the process of Integration initiatives in Central Asia. Were covered the types of integration (humanitarian, military, cultural, economic, political) and the possibility of creating a legal, democratic, secular region of Central Asia. It is noted by scientists that in order to ensure general security and prosperity of the entire region, and not individual states, more attention should be paid to the design of regional identity based on common points of contact of the Central Asia countries, since there are objective prerequisites for uniting the region in within the Central Asian Union. It is indicated that a positive phenomenon can be called a process of gradual integration in the Central Asia countries based on economic and cultural aspects. It emphasizes the importance of conducting certain work aimed at awakening regional identity among the peoples, and this work should be carried out by the scientific, political and creative elites of the countries of the region, as well as public organizations at the regional level, which will be funded by regional development funds. It is emphasized that none of the regional problems of the post-Soviet period can be solved unilaterally and even bilaterally, through the policies and efforts of one or two countries. The conclusion is that the basis for integration should be the need for the comprehensive development of trade, economic and cooperation collaboration, the creation of a selfsufficient and secure common market .

Key words: integration, region, Central Asia, state, cooperation, country, people, union, process, initiative, policy .

: , 1 (). : 734025, , .

, 17. E-mail: khojafarrukh@gmail.com. : 502-00-11-22 Information about the author: Khojaev Farrukh Toirovich - Tajik National University, 1st year postgraduate student of the Russian group of the Faculty of International Relations (diplomat) Address: 734025, Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Rudaki Avenue 17. E-mail: khojafarrukh@gmail.com. Phone: 502-00-11-22 : 930.25 (575.3)

, , , , . , - , , , . , . , . , : , , , [1, .4]. , , 76 . , XX , - , , , , , , , . , . , : , , [2]. , , . , 1 , 2,5 . , 2050 9 , . , - 50% .

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2018-2028 . , 21 2016 , . . . , , .

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## TAJIKISTAN INITIATOR IN SOLVING THE WORLD WATER PROBLEMS

The years 2018-2028 were declared within the framework of the United Nations as the International Decade for Action Water for Sustainable Development. The relevant resolution is the fourth global initiative of Tajikistan on waterrelated issues, which was adopted on December 21, 2016 at a plenary session of the UN General Assembly. The problem of clean drinking water has always been and remains an important urgent problem of all times, and today many modern research scientists diligently conduct their research work within the framework of solving this global problem, which stands not only before individual countries, but throughout the world. In this article, the authors point out the importance of solving water problems and their role in the development of society and the daily life of mankind. This material enables a wide range of consumers to familiarize themselves with the important proposals of the Founder of Peace and National Unity - Leader of the Nation, President of the Republic of Tajikistan esteemed Emomali Rahmon, in solving problems related to the problem of clean water, both in the region and globally, and for familiarization and their use in daily scientific and work activities .

Key words: Leader of the Nation, sustainable development, goal, area of development, Millennium Declaration, clean water, life for life, symposium, forum, initiative, international .

: - - , . : 734067, . . , 64/14. : + 992 919-76E-mail: Qalandarov_A@mail.ru - - , ,. : 734067, . . , 64/14. : + 992 918-24-34-53.

E-mail:

Mahmadmurodov_A@mail.ru - , . : 734067, . . , 64/14. : + 992 931-98-01-53.

E-mail:

bahabahtiyor@mail.ru Information about authors: Qalandarov Asomuddin - Tajik State Financial and Economic University, Associate Professor of the Department of Natural Sciences. 734067, sh. Dushanbe to. Nakhimov, 64/14. Phone: + 992 919-76-91-10 .

E-mail: Qalandarov_A@mail.ru Mahmadmurodov Abdusalim - Tajik State Financial and Economic University, Associate Professor of the Department of Natural Sciences. 734067, sh. Dushanbe to. Nakhimov, 64/14. Phone: + 992 918-24-34-53 .

E-mail: Mahmadmurodov_A@mail.ru Burhonov Bakhtiyor - Tajik State Financial and Economic University, Art. Lecturer, Department of Statistics. 734067, sh .

Dushanbe to. Nakhimov, 64/14.Phone: + 992 918-24-34-53. E-mail: bahabahtiyor@mail.ru 80 : 930 (575.2) (575.3)

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## THE ROLE OF KYRGYZSTAN IN RESOLVING THE INTER-TAJIK CONFLICT

The article discusses the role of Kyrgyzstan in the peaceful resolution of the inter-Tajik conflict. It is known that the role of this country, taking into account the historical past and the level of good neighborliness, is on the first row in the matter of normalizing the civil war in our country. The article shows how Tajikistan faced with a number of difficulties after independence and the role of Kyrgyzstan in resolving the inter-Tajik conflict. Based on this, it is noted that the development of political negotiations between the warring parties of the Republic of Tajikistan is associated primarily with the attempts of the countries of the region, holding negotiations in various countries, including Kyrgyzstan. The author emphasizes that the need to normalize the situation can be traced not only in the interests of ensuring the security and stability of Tajikistan, but is also a factor of stability in the region of Central Asia. The article also emphasizes the role of the historical intelligence of the Tajiks in achieving peace and universal agreement. In addition, the mediation mission of the countries of the region is emphasized; the role of the Leader of the Tajik nation in peacemaking is emphasized .

Key words: Kyrgyzstan, observer, peacekeeping forces, and peace process, inter-Tajik talks, Tajikistan, Central Asia, countries guarantors of the world .

: - , . : 734025, , ., 17.

:

(+992) 904-40-44-44. E-mail: ajam4444@mail.ru Information about author: Abdulloev Jamshed - Tajik National University, graduate student of the Department of International Relations. Address: 734025, Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Rudaki Avenue 17. Phone: (+992) 904-40E-mail: ajam4444@mail.ru 84 :930 (575.3) (1-87)

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, 2010. . 321 .

7. . / . . .. . .: (), 1999. . 321

## ͌ ˯

. , 踚 . . , , , ., , , , . , . . , , , , .

: , , , , , , , .

## -

. , . , , , , , .

, , - , . , . . , , , , , , , .

: , , , , , , , .

## THE HISTORY OF CREATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

The history of the creation and development of international organizations should be viewed and analyzed through the prism of the transformation and evolution of international relations and humanity as a whole. This situation is conditioned by objective economic and political factors, such as the need for international cooperation. The article attempts to reflect the history of the emergence and disintegration of the largest, in our opinion, international organizations, for the creation of which it was necessary that certain historical events took place in the world, which would lead humanity to the idea of interaction. The article also notes that at the present time, when there is a process of dynamic development of scientific and technological progress, it is impossible for States to exist without their interaction. It can be implemented in various ways, such as economic and political relations. In the modern world, cooperation between countries is carried out with the support of international organizations. Thus, we can say that the great interest we have in the history and development of international organizations in the modern conditions of the transforming world is primarily due to the fact 88 that the intensive processes of globalization have a significant impact on their development, as well as on the development of all modern States .

Key words:history of creation of international organizations, international organizations, subjects of international relations, United Nations, liquidation of international organizations, international treaties, international system, institutionalization of international organizations .

: , , , . : 734025, , . , , 17. E-mail: gavharibrogimova@mail.ru Information about the author:IbragimovaGavharSaimuddinova Tajik National University, candidate of historical sciences, associate professor, head of the Department of modern and contemporary history of foreign countries .

Address: 734025, Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Rudaki Avenue, 17.E-mail: gavharibrogimova@mail.ru :347+341.215

## ԁ

, 1400 , , . .

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1. . // . [ ]. URL: https://www.ozodi.org/a/afghan-ambassador-says-tajikistan-and-afghanistan-have-no-anyissues/26723273.html ( : 20/09/2018) .

2. . / . // . , 1997. 7 [ ]. URL: http://www/-c\datarus\bd_rus/shtml ( : 20/09/2018) .

3. . , // [ ]. URL: http://ruzgor.tj/siyosat/7198-amniyat-nemati-bebahost-ba-qadrashbirasem-8242.html ( : 20/09/2018) .

92

4. . / .

// II - . , 1997. . 58-62 .

5. .. . / .. . , 2001. 168 .

6. .. (1991-2014 .) / .. // . : -, 2017. 224 .

7. . [ ]. URL:

http://osiyoavrupo.tj, http:// anrt.tj (20/09/2018) .

8. // Aga Khan Development Network [ ]. URL: http://www.akdn.org/tajikistan_regional_r.asp ( : 20/09/2018) .

9. .. : - / .. 2- .. .: , +, 2004. 220 .

10. . : // . [ ]. URL: http://afghanistan.ru/doc/23800.html ( :

20/09/2018) .

## Ί

ԁ , , , . , 90- , , , , , . , , . , . , .

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: , , , , , ,

## THE DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURAL RELATIONS BETWEEN TAJIKISTAN AND AFGHANISTAN

The article analyzes, studies and considers the development of cultural relations between Tajikistan and Afghanistan, as well as the main factors and approaches to the development of cultural cooperation between these two countries after gaining state independence. The political crisis that emerged in the 1990s was a serious blow to the rich culture of the Tajik people, undermining the conditions and standards of human life, affecting their national and social psychology, as well as causing political, ethnic and religious conflicts in Afghanistan. The crisis exacerbating endanger the sovereignty and territorial integrity of these countries, the negative impact of this phenomenon is still noticeable in Afghanistan. The author focused on the impact of the Afghan crisis, on the formation, development, promotion of cultural cooperation between the Republic of Tajikistan and Afghanistan. These analyzes indicate that the problem can be solved only by joint efforts of the Tajikistan and Afghanistan .

Keywords: Tajikistan, Afghanistan, crisis, culture, science, cultural relations, scientific relations : , .

: 734025, , . , . , 17. E-mail: hashmatullahomid@gmail.com : 919-89Information about the author: Shermuhammad Hashmatullah Omid - the master of chair of ancient, medieval history

and archeology of the Tadjik national university and the assistant of department of history of Balkh university. The address:

734025, Tajikistan, Dushanbe, avenue Rudaki, 17. An E-mail: hashmatullahomid@gmail.com Tell: 919-89-33-36;

+93 788 74 94 33 93 : 94(575.3)

## Ȼ 60

, , , . 60- . , 1951 . , , , , .

. , (1951-1963 .), 7 , .., .., .., .., .., .. . [8, .116; 4]. , , . , . 350 , 70 . , .

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. 1940 . , 30 .., 1976 . .. .

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1963 . [6, .122; 7, .294]. 9 1963 . . .

19 1963 . , . . - .. . 2, 3 . - . , , , , .

, , , .

1. .. - . / ... , 1961. - 153 .

2. .. . / ... , 1964. - 249 .

3. .. - . / ... , 1964. - 193 .

4. .. . / ... , 1958. - 120 .

5. .. . / .. . , 1953. -.1. 154 .

6. .. / ... , 1956. - 122 .

95

7. .. . / ... , 1962. .

8. .. -. / ... , 1952. - 116 .

## Ҍλˌ 60

. . .

, . 60- . , . . , , , , , - آ . 60- .

: , , , , , , , , .

Ȼ 60 , . . . , , , , . 60- . , - . . , , , , , - . 60- .

: , , , , , , , , .

## PERIOD OF THARMING 60 YEARS OF THE XX CENTURY

The question of the preservation of nature and the rational use of natural resources, has acquired in our days of particular relevance and great importance for all mankind. This issue is directly related and actively influences the most important aspects of the life of modern society. In the age of electronics and atomic energy, the appearance of the earth is changing rapidly. Humankind has a global task - to ensure that these changes are positive, constructive, and not negative, destructive. The article deals with the study of the natural resources of Tajikistan during the so-called thaw of the 60s of the twentieth century. It is noted that in the period under review, various research institutes in the natural sciences direction conducted work on studying the natural wealth of Tajikistan and based on the data, articles and monographs of famous scientists were published. Scientific data on the study and development of the republics natural resources are also analyzed. The author, on the basis of an analysis of the results achieved in studying geography, natural resources, geology, botany, zoology of this period, concludes that the contribution of natural scientists to the development of the Tajik SSR was truly enormous. And the results achieved in the science of natural sciences in the 1960s are used by scientists of the modern period .

Key words: nature, expedition, chemistry, zoology, geology, botany, parasitology, exploration, scientist .

: () , , . : 734025, , .

. . , 3.: +992907800865, E-mail:rakhmatova31@mail.ru .

About the author: Rakhmatova Zarrina Yunusovna Russian-Tajik (Slavonic) University, candidate of Historical Science, associate Professor, Department of national history,. Address: 734025 Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, M .

Tursunzade 30. Phon: +992907800865, e-mail: rakhmatova31@mail.ru 96 947(575.3)

, . - . , ,

- .

, , , , , [19, .11]. , , , , , , .

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97 , - . , , , , .

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, 20 2006 . // . 14.-67 .

13. . . : (: ) / . . . - : , 1995; : .- : , 1996; .- : , 1996; .- : , 1996; .- : , 1998;

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17. . [ ]. - : , 2001; .- , 2003; .- , 2006 .

18. . : . / . . - , 2001 .

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.- : , 2008.- 164 .

100

## Ȍ ̌ Ί

Ҍ Ȩ ǯ . , , , , , 띿 . , 띜 , .

띜 .

: , , , , 띿, , , 蚿 .

. , , - , , , . , , . - .

: , , , , , , , .

## CENTRAL ASIA

The article provides information about the historiography of the relationship of the Republic of Tajikistan with the states of Central Asia The history and historiography of political, economic and cultural relations of the Republic of Tajikistan with the states of Central Asia in the period of independence of our republic is a relatively young and new field of scientific research, and in this area the first steps are taken by humanitarian scientists - historians, economists, political scientists, specialists in areas of international relations and diplomacy .

It is noted that the Tajik people from ancient times have close connection, fraternal chains of cooperation with the peoples of Central Asia. The study of the history of mutually beneficial relations and cooperation of Central Asian peoples in various stages of history is of great scientific and practical importance .

Keywords: Republic of Tajikistan, Central Asia, historiography, state independence, international relationship, political collaboration, diplomacy, foreign affair .

: - .

. , . : 735700, , ., , 1 E-mail: dilruh@bk.ru Information about the author: Farmonova Dilrukhsor Jumaboevna - Khujand State University named after academician B.Gafurov, andidat of History sciences. Address: 735700, Republic of Tajikistan, Khujand, travel Mavlonbekov, 1 E-mail: dilruh@bk.ru [352/354 (573.3]

## Ί ء¯ ΁ ȍ

. .

60 16 1929 1991 Ȋ , , - .

آ آ آ () 띿 آ . آ 14- 1926 آ [3,.382], . 1926 1925 . آ 40 , 70-80 , , 101 . . 253 , 75 , 19 () 6 , . آ 60% [3,.386]. آ . آ . آ . .

آ , آ , ,  . , [5,.40] .

, , , , , آ , , , , , , ,  . , , , .

, , 37 [6,.40], 1991 . آ , () , .

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( 2002, 2008) , , . , آ . , (, , , , , , ) .

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آ , , ,  , , . آ (, ) .

, () , 102 . آ , : - [5,.42] .

80- 1989 . 1991 , 1992 . , , . . - , : , , , . , , , [8,.28] .

, VI , 1992 , , .

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, [6, .

3]. , , , , , . , , . , .

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.

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1. . -1998. -11. -.13-26 .

2. . -: , 2002. -416 .

3. .V. (1927-1941.) / . ... -, 2004. -752 .

4. 2005// . -2007. - 3 .

5. .. . / .. , . , ., . . - : , 2012. -168 .

6. . -: , 2009. - 427 .

7. 2005-2015, 15 2006 1713 .

8. . . . . /.. . - : , 2006. -228 .

## ء¯ ΁ ȍ

آ , , آ .

, - , آ . آ () 띿 آ . , , آ , . , 1989 , 1992 . , .

: آ, آ, , , , , , , , .

- . , - . . . , , . 1989 , 1992 . . .

: , , , , , , , , .

## TAJIKISTAN IN THE SOVIET PERIOD AND AT THE BEGINNING OF INDEPENDENCE PERIOD

The article deals with the issues of the history of the formation of public administration and civil service in the period of Soviet power and at the initial stage of independence in Tajikistan, it is emphasized. The author emphasizes that new forms of government in modern Tajikistan were formed after the national-territorial division of Central Asia and the formation of the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. As a result of its transformation into the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, the management system was improved. Before the independence was achieved, the system of government of the Tajik SSR was implemented on the basis of Councils of People's Deputies under the leadership of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic. The article notes that in the post-war years and in the period of development of the Soviet 105 state, the main activities of the governing bodies were improved, and with some changes, this form of public administration and civil service in Tajikistan continued until independence was gained. As a result of democratic reforms in 1989, the presidential form of government was introduced for the first time in Tajikistan, which lasted till November 1992. In the years of independence, as a result of constitutional reform, the presidential form of government was restored and significant changes took place in the system of government of Tajikistan. As a result of structural transformation, the governing bodies were adjusted to the requirements of the time .

Keywords: Soviet power, Soviet Tajikistan, public administration, civil service, government, independence, presidential government, constitutional reform, law .

: - , , , . : , 734003, , . , 33. : E-mail b.p.alizoda63@mail.ru Information about the author: Alizoda Bahriddini Pirmuhammad - PhD in Philology, Main Specialist of the Research Institute of public Administration and public service affairs of the Institute of public Administration under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan. Adress: 33, str. Said Nosir, Dushanbe, 734003, Tajikistan. E-mail b.p.alizoda63@mail.ru

. , . 1925 . 1925 , , , . , , .

. [1] .

1930 , , , . 80- , 4 . . . , [2]. آ , , , . آ , 106 . 14 22- 1992 , 242 .

, , , . , , . , , .

.

, , .. . 1999 [3] 176 . , , . - .

, , - . , 2001 [4]. 185 . . , 42 .

, , , . , . , . , , .

. , .

. [5] . . , , . , , , , , . , 107 . . 1999 [6] , . , , , 10 . , . , , , .

:

) 5%;

) 10%;

) 15% .

, , , , , .

22 . 2002 10 : [7] 189 . , , . , , - - . , . , , . , , , : , . , , , .

Ȩ

1. .. . , / .. . : , 1972. -723 .

2. . . / . .

- : , 1998. - 420 .

3. .. . / .. . - : , 1999. -176 .

4. . . : , 1985. - 126 .

5. .. . / . .

. : , 1998. -28 .

6. .. : . / .. . : , 1989. - 478 .

7. . : . / . . -:

, 1998. - 193 .

8. . . , 2002. - 185 .

9. . . / . . : , 2001. -186 .

108

10. .. . / .. . : , 2011. -190 .

## ( )

. , . , . . 1999 ... .. ... .. 98 , . . . . . , . - , .

: , , , , , , , , , , .

## ( )

, , . . , , , . . 1999 . ... .. , 98 , .

. ., ., ., . .

: , , , , , , , , , .

## (HISTORIOGRAPHICAL QUESTION)

The history of the formation of the system of customs authorities, as in other countries, has its beginning. But after independence, this system is being modernized and improved. On the other hand, the customs authorities, with the exception of ensuring economic security, also ensure the security of the country. About the formation of the history and development of this structure of public institutions, many figures and scholars have written and write their works and articles. In 1999, the researchers of this structure, Karaev F.K. and Nasriddinov F.B published a book entitled The History of the Development of Customs Authorities of 98 pages, which is a good guide to the history of this structure of public institutions. P. B., Abdusalomov R., Rakhmatov A., Kendzha Khasanov and many others also published their works and articles in the study of this branch. All works and articles are more scientific in nature and contain interesting materials from the history of the creation of this structure .

Keywords: history of education, institution, independence, customs system, country, first studies, scientists, republic, comprehensive research .

: , . : 734025, , ., , 17. : 907-64-84-64 Information about the author: Kadirzade Hushbakht Safar - Tajik National University graduate student of the department of the history of the Tajik people of the Faculty of History. Address: 734025, Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Rudaki avenue 17. Telephone: 907-64-84-64

, , . , , , , [1,.41] .

, , , , , . , . , , , . , , , , , , [2,.296] .

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