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ERA V. KUZNETSOVA: A LIFE INSCHOLARSHIP AND SCHOLARSHIP AS LIFE* ** *** Liudmila Babenko Yuri Kazarin Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg, Russia Theauthors consider ...

DOI 10.15826/qr.2018.3.333

378-057.175:80+378.11+811.161.1'1

ERA V. KUZNETSOVA: A LIFE INSCHOLARSHIP

AND SCHOLARSHIP AS LIFE* ** ***

Liudmila Babenko

Yuri Kazarin

Ural Federal University,

Yekaterinburg, Russia

Theauthors consider thelife and scholarly activity of Era Vasilyevna Kuznetsova

(19271988), a doctor of philology, professor, and thefirst head of theDepartment

of theModern Russian Language atUral State University. Thearticle describes her rich inner world of emotions and scholarly thinking, focusing onthe peculiarities of her academic style and themanner and direction of her work. Her biography isconsidered within thehistorical and social context and thecircumstances of her private life, scholarly research, and achievements. Being an outstanding linguist, Kuznetsova was a remarkable and open-minded person with a wonderful capacity for communication. She sincerely believed insocial justice and was convinced that itwas possible to change theworld ethically and socially inaccordance with thelaws of social harmony. She was a talented scholar: one could not doubt her linguistic gift. Her manner of thinking was logical; she easily became fascinated with new ideas and knew how to introduce them to others. She was a prominent scholar and theleader of a research group which laid thefoundations for lexicological and lexicographic studies atUral State University .

Kuznetsova released her main works during the1970s and 1980s, when structural semantic linguistics was being formed amidst heated discussions and arguments. Inacademia, she isknown as themost influential specialist inlexical semantics, thesystemic organisation of vocabulary, and thesemantics and grammar of theRussian verb, theauthor and editor of a number of monographs and a textbook, and theorganiser and head of theRussian Verb research group, which gave rise to theUral Semantic School inthe late 1990s .

Keywords: E.V. Kuznetsova; lexicology; lexicography; theRussian Verb research group; Ural State University; Ural Semantic School .

* The work is sponsored by a grant of the Russian Science Foundation (poject 16-18-02005) .

** Thefirst publication of E. V. Kuznetsovas biography: []. See also: [ : : ;

, 2011; , 2013; ] .

*** itation: Babenko, L., Kazarin, Yu. (2018). Era V. Kuznetsova: A Life inScholarship and Scholarship as Life. InQuaestio Rossica, Vol. 6, 3, p. 877888. DOI 10.15826/qr.2018.3.333 .

: Babenko L., Kazarin Yu. Era V. Kuznetsova: A Life in Scholarship and Scholarship as Life // Quaestio Rossica. Vol. 6. 2018. 3. . 877888. DOI 10.15826/ qr.2018.3.333 .

Quaestio Rossica Vol. 6 2018 3, p.877888 Babenko L., Kazarin Y., 2018 878 Heritage: nomina et scholae (19271988), , , . . . . , , , . - , .





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Era Vasilyevna Kuznetsova was born on7 February 1927 inthe town of Polevskoy, Sverdlovsk Region, to thelarge family of Maria Konstantinovna and Vasily Nikolayevich Kalugin, an officer of the Red Army, veteran of World War I, and recipient of the Order of St George. Commander of a cavalry regiment and devoted to the ideas of the Revolution during theCivil War, he was awarded theOrder of theRed Banner and silver weapons .

To thepresent day, Polevskoy has remained a town typical of thesecond half of the20th century, a synthesis of town and village which developed around a large factory. However, it is also a special place for the Urals, as it is the birthplace of the Russian writer Pavel Bazhov, the glorifier of mining masters famous for his poetic depiction and personification of things as small as stones. This isan important factor for understanding Era Vasilyevnas cultural evolution. Itwas her father who named her Era, which stands for era (E), revolution (R), and apogee (A). Despite thefact that her father died at the hands of Soviet power, Era Vasilyevna was L. Babenko, Y. Kazarin Era V. Kuznetsova: A Life in Scholarship a member of theParty, strongly believing that theSoviets had theability to build a new society and that theSoviet Union was a country of justice and humanity. However, she was not blinded by her belief inthe Soviet future;

shortly before her passing, she bitterly recognised that all revolutions ended in blood being shed and that any attempt to change the social structure of theworld isaccompanied by crimes. This was not thedisillusionment of a hardened communist but therevelation of a person capable of critical thinking, comparison, and reaching conclusions .

While Kuznetsova was talented and goal-oriented by nature, she was not a favourite of fortune. She faced difficulties both in her family life and career. She dreamt of studying philosophy and went to Moscow State University to do so, but as she was a daughter of a political prisoner, she was not allowed to enter the Faculty of Philosophy. Instead, she was permitted to enter theFaculty of Philology, where she studied from 1944 to 1949. Among her teachers were outstanding philologists, such as V. V. Vinogradov, S. I. Ozhegov, R. A. Avanesov, etc. She was a devoted student completely absorbed by her work. Being an emotional and lively person, she took part in the social life of both the faculty and

university. There were remarkable people among her fellow students, too:

E. A. Zemskaya, G. A. Zolotova, and S. P. Lopushanskaya later became eminent linguists. She defended her graduate thesis cum laude, her academic supervisor being S. I. Ozhegov, an outstanding lexicographer and scholar. Hence, itis no surprise that her academic life came to be closely connected with issues of semantics, lexicology, and lexicography .

Upon graduating with honours, itwas recommended that she continue her studies as a postgraduate student. However, the university refused to enrol her, since she was a daughter of an enemy of thepeople. She had to look for justice and assert her rights to carry out research: this defined her spirit, as she frequently had to rely onherself inchallenging circumstances and demonstrate strength of mind. This was a typical situation atthe time .

Professor G. A. Zolotova, Era Kuznetsovas fellow student atuniversity, writes:

We were peers with Era. I remember her well: she was a slim girl with a face of a Madonna, thin, graceful, and natural. Everyone seemed to like her, she was very emotional, too, and all her feelings could be seen on her face. She was sincere, open, passionate, and susceptible. She never used to hide her feelings from others, and always shared her happiness. Everyone was aware if she was inlove with someone. Just like others, she wore modest and simple clothes, and even looked poor. But no one ever felt uncomfortable or miserable because of thestate of things inthose times. Many girls only had one dress, but they shared common aspirations and hopes, looking forward to future success and enjoying their studies .

We got close just before graduation. Era, E. A. Zemskaya, and I were proposed for postgraduate studies and very soon afterwards denied enrolment for one and thesame reason: theyear of 1937. They acted deceitfully and claimed that we all had bad references. But we knew for a fact that theDeans Office 880 Heritage: nomina et scholae had provided good references for us. We tried to clarify things in the Party Committee, where we were told about our untrustworthiness as daughters of political prisoners, about anti-Soviet dissent, etc. They heard us retort, Little do you know about thepsychology of Soviet youth [, . 487488] .

In her memoirs, S. P. Lopushanskaya depicts the student community of Moscow University and relates warmly about Era Kuznetsova (ne

Kalugina):

MSU, the1940s, thehard war and postwar years. But itis worth mentioning that there were special people among university professors and students, ones fascinated by research, brought up by intellectual work and their friends support, by kindness and selflessness. They had an innate idea of honesty and decency. This mutual trust was to be tested by the years to come. The student community was formed inthe academic group, inthe reading halls of theGorky Library, and especially inthe student hostel on32 Stromynka Str .

The pictures that I still have are rather rare: in one of them, you can see a group of friends, graduates of the Russian Language Faculty of the 1950s, infront of themonument to M. V. Lomonosov. I also have pictures with Andrey Sinyavsky, Liudmila Matyushenko, Elena Zemskaya, Era Kalugina, and others. I met Erochka atthe student hostel, we lived next door there and celebrated holidays together, bought books together, had lots of arguments when discussing what our older peers brought from the front, and what the first foreign trainees of thepostwar years told us. Years passed, and I lost contact with some people, some went far away, and some were forgotten. But Era Kalugina [Kuznetsova] still holds a special place inmy heart. She was called a very person, as she was very beautiful, very Russian, very smart, hardworking, principled, and very thoughtful. This ishow Era Vasilyevna will be remembered by those who knew her, communicated with her, and worked with her. After thepassage of many years had taken us to different places and cities, I met with her inVolgograd in1987. She took part inthe State Examination Commission and generously helped our young university to establish an academic school of lexicology and, more particularly, verb semantics .

Books by Era Kuznetsova, her smile and radiant blue eyes, her charm and sincerity are still with us [, . 488489] .

Between 1950 and 1952, Kuznetsova took a postgraduate course and defended her PhD thesis TheWord Stock of theDialect of Polevskoy District, Sverdlovsk Region inthe spring of 1952. Her academic supervisor was Petr Savvich Kuznetsov, a specialist inphonetics, morphology, and Russian dialectology. Thetopic of her thesis and its materials are directly connected with Era Vasilyevnas native land and her hometown, where she first started doing fieldwork, laying thegroundwork for thefuture dialectological expeditions of theFaculty of Philology. Her first articles were based onthe thesis and devoted to thepeculiarities of theword stock of theRussian vernacular [, 1958], thestructure of a dictionary entry ina regional L. Babenko, Y. Kazarin Era V. Kuznetsova: A Life in Scholarship dictionary [, 1960], and thedescription of reflexive verbs inthe dialects of theCentral Urals [, 1963] .

From March to May 1953, she worked as a senior lecturer atthe Department of theRussian Language atKhabarovsk Pedagogical Institute: she then moved to Sverdlovsk (Yekaterinburg), working there until 1962 first as a research assistant and then a senior lecturer atthe Department of theRussian Language and General Linguistics of Ural University, headed by its founder P. A. Vovchok from 1940 to 1960. In the 1950s, he put forward the idea of creating theDictionary of Russian Dialects of theCentral Urals, authored a preface to thefirst volume of thedictionary as its editor, and supervised thework of its contributors. Era Kuznetsova (Glazyrina) joined theproject and successfully compiled thesection entitled Verb Vocabulary [ ]. Her interest inverbs and joint lexicographic work determined Kuznetsovas lifelong academic priorities .

Atthe same time, Kuznetsova published papers onissues connected with verbs, verb semantics, and systemic relations among lexical units. In1962, Era Vasilyevna had to leave for Donetsk due to family reasons: there, she worked as a senior lecturer of the Department of the Russian Language of Donetsk University until 1968. Itwas inDonetsk where she wrote and published her first methodical instructions and materials for thespecialised seminar Systemic Relations inVocabulary, which were thebasis of her longer textbooks [, 1968] .

Thefield of linguistics inthe 1970s saw thedevelopment of theconcept of semantic dictionaries and their introduction to lexicographic practice. Upon her return to Ural University, Era Vasilyevna actively supported and developed the prophetic ideas of Yu. N. Karaulov, V. V. Morkovkin, and D. N. Shmelyov, which were related to theneed to study vocabulary as a system and its representation by means of lexicographic parameters. During theperiod inquestion, vocabulary was predominantly classified semantically onlogical and notional grounds, where linguistic investigation proceeded from a general notion forming semantic groups of words to the identification and description of such groups. Kuznetsova put forward her own linguistic method to reveal thecontent of lexical semantic sets of various classes, based onan approach opposite to that used in the conventional study of vocabulary, i. e. starting with theanalysis of lexical semantics and proceeding to general notions and basic categories represented by different semantic groups of words. She paid special attention to thedevelopment of a methodology that would make it possible to carry out a step-bystep identification of the lexical meanings of verbs: this would reveal basic identifiers that could be further used as bases for lexical semantic groups of words. Thebasic principles and algorithm of her method were described inher report TheMethod of Step-by-Step Identification inthe Description of Lexical Semantic Groups of Words, which was delivered atan inter-university conference ongenerative grammar inTartu and published inthe proceedings [, 1967] .

882 Heritage: nomina et scholae . Kuznetsova spent a lot of time and effort working on the development of the general theory of the systemic organisation of vocabulary (especially that of theverb), where she studied thenature of lexical sets and the practical application of the theory connected with the identification of thecomposition of lexical semantic groups of words belonging to different classes. Later, supervised by E. Kuznetsova and referring to methods of stepby-step identification, a group of her students worked onthe systematisation of verb vocabulary and its identification as part of lexical semantic groups. These were presented as lists of verbs and included inthe dictionary Lexical Semantic Groups of Verbs [- , 1988] .

In1974, Era Vasilyevna defended her habilitation thesis, entitled Russian Verbs of Object Inclusion as a Functional Semantic Class of Words:

Onthe Notion of Lexical Semantic Groups of Words. G. A. Zolotova warmly

recalls theevent:

Years passed. In1974, Era Vasilyevna defended her habilitation thesis inthe Academy of Sciences, and I was one of her external examiners. I remember thefeast atthe Praha restaurant, where we were joined by Khaburgayev and Nikita Tolstoy. Theatmosphere was very warm and friendly. E. V. Kuznetsova always grasped new ideas, concepts, and trends. She started studying verb semantics, relying onthe concept proposed by Yu. D. Apresyan, in1960 and took part inconferences onstructural linguistics. She occupied a well-deserved and important place in academia: she worked honestly and enthusiastically, as she must have done throughout her life. I have not been to Sverdlovsk, but I think her coworkers loved her. The last time we went to a conference inVoronovo, we stayed inthe same room. We shared our excitement before making our reports and talked about everything. She spoke about her family with love and care [, . 488] .

In1974, Kuznetsova became thefounder and head of theDepartment of theModern Russian Language atthe Faculty of Philology atUral State University. She employed a few young lecturers who wrote their theses under her supervision and defended them during the1980s. Era Vasilyevnas first students were the key specialists of the Department and the core of thescholarly group TheRussian Verb. Kuznetsova took great pains to instil genuine academic culture inher scholarly group, which meant effective scholarly communication and exchange, consultation ethics, and thepeculiar atmosphere of an academic community .

After 1976, Kuznetsova not only worked onsemantics and paradigmatics, but also focused onsyntactic aspects. She wrote several works devoted to the word as an element (object) of grammatical and lexical semantic research, grammatical classes of words, and their interaction with lexical semantic groups of words. She studied the statuses of words (onomatheme syntagma); she substantiated two types of paradigm and examined thecategory of semantic identifiers; and she studied and worked out thetheory of functional semantic groups of words with reference to thesystemic L. Babenko, Y. Kazarin Era V. Kuznetsova: A Life in Scholarship approach. She also worked out her own method of componential analysis of thelexical meaning of a word, focusing onthe functional equivalence of words, especially verbs, as part of a lexical semantic group .

She described her ideas in several works on the student dictionary of semantic and lexical grammatical groups of Russian verbs. In 1980, she published a textbook for the specialised course Russian Vocabulary as a System, which isa noteworthy work [, 1980]. Onthe one hand, it synthesised all aspects of the lexical system of language (lexical paradigmatics, syntagmatics, and contextology), while, onthe other, ithad a lot of potential for further study, taking scholarly thought towards systemic functional research. In 1982, Kuznetsova published her innovative textbook TheLexicology of theRussian Language [, 1982; , 1989], which was published twice inthe Moscow publishing house Vysshaya Shkola (Higher School) and recommended for all universities of Russia, a mark of high recognition. The textbook has not lost its relevance. Together with the focus on traditional sociolinguistic aspects of thestructure of languages word stock, ithas sections onsystemic structural approaches to thestudy of language, which had never been done previously, and reflected theachievements of thetheoretical study of vocabulary inthe 1970s and 1980s. Issues of paradigmatic, syntagmatic, and variant relations, as well as functional equivalence, theinteraction of polysemy and synonymy, etc., were considered for thefirst time ina book meant for university students. Time has demonstrated that the textbook is a bible for every linguist studying Russian lexicology and semasiology .

Era Vasilyevnas scholarly bravery was a factor that helped her contribute to controversial issues regarding thesemantics of a sentence: this was connected with thesearch for methods to describe semantic models with reference to theverb and verb semantics (the denotative direction of syntax) [, 1985]. Kuznetsovas approach to polysemy was also original atthe time, as she studied itin terms of its correlation with synonymy as a manifestation of variant relations in vocabulary (the variability of the form of words with identical content in cases of synonymy and thevariability of content of words with an identical form incases of polysemy). Inthis respect, synonymy was considered first and foremost as functional equivalence [, 1978]. She developed this approach (which belongs to epidigmatics) in her articles, reports, and thesis topics of her postgraduate students, as well as inlectures .

Inthe mid-1980s, Kuznetsova was wholly involved injoint work. Itwas then that theresearch group TheRussian Verb started functioning under her supervision. Its work resulted in the reference book and dictionary Lexical Semantic Groups of Russian Verbs and a monograph of the same name (both were published posthumously) [- , 1989]. These works were significant for linguists and university lecturers for teaching Russian as a second language, as vocabulary was not listed alphabetically but thematically, e. g. verbs of motion, speaking, behaviour, etc. This classification of verbal word classHeritage: nomina et scholae es reflected how Russian people conceived of processes and events as part of their worldview, which was essential for understanding thenational and cultural peculiarities of theRussian verb .

Era Vasilyevna was a lover of life inall senses of theword; as a scholar, she was not a loner who denied herself all thepleasures of life for thesake of her research. She was an excellent cook and enjoyed having people ather place and treating them to what she lovingly prepared. She preferred traditional Ural cuisine, cooking cottage cheese and onion pastry, cabbage, potato, and mushroom pies, and pelmeni (dumplings). She liked nature, too .

Together with her second husband Vladimir Leontyevich, she had a plot of land ina collective garden, with high birches and pear and cherry trees instead of theusual vegetable patches. She dreamt of a detached house of her own inthe forest, which she talked about a lot during thelast year of her life .

Era Vasilyevna Kuznetsova was a truly Russian person, a hard worker, a homemaker, and a leader atwork. She loved life deeply, and she loved her family. She enjoyed holidays, and her house was hospitable. She always welcomed guests and took pleasure ininviting them for feasts with pickled vegetables, snacks, larger dishes, and theever-present pies and pastry. Such meals were always accompanied by talks, jokes, laughter, and songs. She enjoyed singing solo and singing along. Even atevents atthe Department, everyone always sang her favourite song TheBrigantine Sets Sail Kuznetsova was a perfect leader: she knew everything about everyone and had a deep understanding of all problems; she was very thoughtful (but not overprotective) and took part inthe academic and personal lives of her students and colleagues .

She was a figure capable of animating ideas, and her vitality (or, more precisely, excessive vitality) and high speed of life helped her succeed inher personal, social, and academic life. Such people cannot be stopped: they die without love for people, for their vocation, and for life ingeneral. Kuznetsova was a very smart, wise, and kind person. But just like all extremely talented people, she was also extremely nave: she thought that she was surrounded by people just like her, decent, conscientious, sincere, devoted to a common cause, frank, open, intelligent, selfless, and kind. Era Vasilyevna did not tolerate irresponsibility, indecency, and, above all, meanness and betrayal .

InOctober 1986, Kuznetsovas second term as head of theDepartment was coming to an end: being onleave inorder to write a preface for a reference book and dictionary of lexical semantic groups of Russian verbs, she asked for her re-election date to be put off until December. She worked at home and rarely came to theuniversity. She got up at5 am every day and started work. She felt creative and inspired. The previous five years had been very prolific: theresult of her scholarly activity for theperiod was impressive, with everyone admiring its scale, as they continue to do so. She had supervised several PhD candidates, published numerous anthologies, edited and submitted for publication theDictionary of Lexical Semantic Groups of Russian Verbs and a joint monograph, made 16 reports atinter-university conferences, and much more. Era Vasilyevna was 59, theaverage age of a professor today. Itwas an age when her talent, spiritual potential, and creative abilities were infull L. Babenko, Y. Kazarin Era V. Kuznetsova: A Life in Scholarship bloom: itwas also an age of wisdom. However, she was not to continue her work: she died suddenly and prematurely atthe age of 60 on28 April 1988 .

Her academic path was difficult, purposeful, bright, and dynamic .

Era Vasilyevna could only live inan atmosphere of love. She shared her love with the surrounding world and the people around her: her family (her children, grandchildren, husband, and sisters), her students and their family members, her coworkers, and the acquaintances she met throughout her life. Her relationship with her husband was particularly touching, and itcould not have been otherwise. They treated each other with tenderness and stood by each other. Every evening, they strolled along thestreets of thecity, spending time together and showing a lot of love for their children and grandchildren. Being energetic and strong, Era Vasilyevna was not only the centre of her family: much of the Departments everyday life was also fueled by her energy. Her scholarly ideas have not lost their relevance, as they continue to develop inthe works of her students: this isvital, since thebest way of remembering a person is to do so through actions, through work .

Most of thework of her PhD students focused ondifferent aspects of verb semantics and verb vocabulary. After their teachers death, her students continued their research onstructural systemic and functional aspects and focused onlexicography as part of TheRussian Verb research group: others, meanwhile, started new academic trends. None of them abandoned academia or stopped looking for new ways to study theRussian language .

Kuznetsovas students did their best to preserve and further develop the Department and the research trend she started, as well as to continue thework of theresearch group. Inthe 1990s, itbecame well known far outside Yekaterinburg and Russia due to the fundamental publications of theDepartment of theModern Russian Language: these laid thefoundations for theUral Semantic School [ , 2011;

, 2013], which was being formed at the time. Members of the school continued their research on the fundamental issues of semantics and thesystemic organisation of verb vocabulary, which resulted intwo monographs published inthe late 1990s, and turned to look atthe semantics of nouns, adjectives, synonyms, sentences, and fictional texts .

They continued working onthe theoretical and practical issues of lexicography as part of theresearch topic of theUral Semantic School known as Ideographic Lexicography: New Types of Dictionaries and their Role inthe Preservation of theNational Language and National Culture. Over twenty ideographic dictionaries of different types have been published during this 30-year period, including list-type thesauruses and complex explanatory ideographic dictionaries (see, for example: [ ; ; ; ]) .

Kuznetsova was a unique personality: a rare combination of a human being and scholar, a woman and a leader, a teacher and a public figure. Her name was widely known in national linguistics. In every university city of Russia, she used to have like-minded friends, adherents, 886 Heritage: nomina et scholae amiable opponents, and scholars she knew well both from their work and social contact. Uniting them all was what unites all linguists the unity of academic life. Academia, her personal life, and the rhythm of daily existence were thethree key factors that helped Kuznetsova stand strong. She was a direct and straightforward person, unbiased inher perception of people and everyday events. One could love her or not: there was no in-between. She rarely remained indifferent, worrying about everything from a scholars achievements inacademic life to their personal problems: she always tried to help, and not only by giving advice. She seemed to see through people and know what they felt deep inside. Era Kuznetsovas ideas, image, and strength will be remembered by scholars for years to come, pushing them to go further and attain their goals .

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Kuznetsova, E. V. (1967). Metod stupenchatoi identifikatsii v opisanii leksiko-semanticheskikh grupp slov [Method of Step-by-step Identification in the Description of Lexical Semantic Groups of Words]. In Mezhvuzovskaya konferentsiya po porozhdayushchim grammatikam. Tezisy dokladov. Tartu, Tartuskii gosudarstvennyi universitet. pp. 6567 .

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