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1. TASK 1 .

Choose the most suitable heading from the list below for paragraphs 1-5. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning .

List of Headings A. Discarding toxic parts and breaking the rules .

B. A fairly short lifetime .

C. Longer-lasting technology .

D. All TV parts are recycled.-extra E. Trying to determine what theyre made of .

G. Hurrying to purchase new technology .

H. Who is responsible?

THE ERA OF HIGH-TECH POLLUTION

0 G. Hurrying to purchase new technology .

The recycling of high tech garbage is becoming a big concern. In the last few decades weve been like children in a toy shop, rushing to get our hands on the latest electronic gadgets .

Manufacturers have brought out new toys faster than we can buy them. And of course the more we buy, the more we end up throwing away .

1_____________

The speed of turnover is frustratingly high. Anyone who has ever bought a computer will be aware of the fact that a PC is out of date as soon as you buy it. Computers have an average lifespan of five years, and the speed of development, combined with high prices, is reducing this further. If a computer has a fault, it is more economical to throw it away and buy another than to mend it .

2_____________

This trend isnt confined to computers either. Germany, Europes richest nation, discards 1,5 million tons of electrical appliances every day. Only about 100,000 units are recycled. The vast majority are incinerated or thrown on the tip and this causes serious problems. One of the countrys major recycling firms has been charged with dumping toxic waste containing the substance PCB, once widely used in TVs and computers as insulation. Since 1985 its production has been illegal, and disposal is governed by strict rules. But the rules are not being followed .

3_____________

Even such seemingly simple things as computer casings are bafflingly recycle-proof. Siemens Nixdorf, which runs a very expensive recycling programme for its old equipment, says there are more than 100 different plastics in its computer casings. Few records were kept while they were being made and no one knows precisely what went into each model. The only certainty is that all the casings contain bromine, a kind of toxic flame retardant, which is almost impossible to recycle .





4_____________

So what is to be done about electronic waste? Eco-visionaries propose a future in which appliances, not bought but leased, remain the manufacturers responsibility to the bitter end. This would be a tricky practice, though. Who would take back the equipment the dealer, manufacturer or importer? What if the firm has gone out of business? Who is going to monitor the manufacturers and ensure that the goods arent just shipped to countries with laxer regulations? And, of course, in the long run its a lot more expensive to hire a TV or computer than it is to buy one .

5_____________

The answer to all these problems lies in intelligent construction, with an emphasis not only on economy but also on ease of disposal. Increasing the life-expectancy of products would also alleviate the problems. The manufacturer Loewe has developed a green TV which contains just 39 grams of plastic as opposed to the standard 6.7 kilos and 50 grams of toxic materials against 5 kilos. It is expected to last up to 30 years, twice as long as other TVs. Companies like this are showing the way forward, and it is to be hoped that the others will soon follow .

TASK 2 .

Read the text again and decide whether the following statements (6-10) agree with the

information in the text? Mark them:

T if the statement agrees with the text F if the statement does not agree with the text NG if there is no information about this in the text

6. The supply of electronic goods is lower than the actual demand .

7. The computer is considered to be old-fashioned in just 5 years .

8. Plastic computer components are difficult to dispose of .

9. Manufacturers will be obliged to recycle electronic gadgets .

10. The extension of high tech goods life span is the key to the recycling problem .

2. For questions 11-24 listen to a radio broadcast about three different arts festivals on Bethania island .

Listen and complete the notes below. Write NO MORE THAN ONE WORD for each answer .

Living (11) .. week Talks (12) lunches Book (13) .

(14) .. for children This years (15) . is Island Life The (16) . Arts A painting (17) .

Discussion of the (18) process Workshops at local (19) . .

Display of local (20) .

(21) .. of Voices Several performances will be (22) .

(23) theatre

   

For questions 25-40, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the space in the same line .

   

TASK 1. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant .

You should write at least 150 words .

   

:

Task 1: 1-B; 2-A; 3-E; 4-H; 5-C. D extra heading Task 2: 6-F; 7-F; 8-T; 9-NS; 10-T

:

Script:

For those of you who are interested in aesthetics, why not consider a visit to Bethania Island this year? The island will host three arts festivals, each one showcasing different areas of the art world. First, there is Living Writers Week. Throughout the week there will be talks by local and international writers and a chance to dine with them at the various literary lunches. Youll also be able to pick up old and new editions at the very large book fair. The little ones havent been forgotten and so there are plenty of childrens activities planned as well. As is the case each year, there will be a theme for the festival and this year it is Island life .

Later in the year, there will be a celebration of the visual arts. There are some very famous and accomplished painters in residence on the island and their work will be featured in a wonderful exhibition. Works by Alex Green, whose paintings depict the beautiful scenery this island is famous for, will be a prominent feature. Visitors to the festival will get the chance to discuss the creative process with the artists and there will also be opportunities to try out your own artistic skills at the workshops being held at various galleries on the island. To top it all off, there will be a display of crafts created by emerging artists. Youll be amazed at the intricate wooden carvings produced by local craftsmen .

And finally, if you love music then you shouldnt miss the Festival of Voices. You will be able to hear performers from around the world. What makes it even more interesting is that some of this years performances are going to be interactive so members of the audience will be invited to participate as well. One of the stages will be devoted to showcasing musical theatre and the good news is that there will be plenty of free concerts for everyone to enjoy .

Answers:

11. Writers

12. Literary

13. fair

14. Activities

15. theme

16. Visual

17. exhibition

18. creative

19. galleries

20. crafts

21. Festival

22. interactive

23. Musical

24. Concerts

, :

25. failing

26. decision

27. has created

28. does not recognize

29. imbalance

30. ecologist

31. melting

32. generation

33. evolved

34. stabilize

35. leader

36. construction

37. getting

38. renewable

39. plans

40. sustainability






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