«Chapter 10 has a robust and large set of practicals. The tutor will most likely wish to complete only select practicals. The extra practicals could be assigned for extra credit or the class ...»


Chapter 10 has a robust and large set of practicals. The tutor will most likely wish to

complete only select practicals. The extra practicals could be assigned for extra credit or

the class can divide the assignments up between three or four small groups .

Comments on Practical 10.1:

The following sample TT for practical 10.1 will facilitate the generation of student-based

TTs. Legal documents have complicated syntax, a preponderance of prepositional phrases, and specialized terminology. In some cases, the specialized terms are everyday words (e.g. дело, инструкция, сила, наказание, учт, обвинение, и др.). The term наказание may be “punishment, penalty, sentence (приговор)” – it will depend directly on the context and style of the legal document .

We strongly recommend Russian-English Legal Dictionary of Civil, International, and Private Law (Moscow: Mir, pravo, informacija, 2002) .

There are several good dictionaries of abbreviations published in Russia. One of the newer ones, commissioned by the Russian government, is entitled Давайте говорить ПРАВИЛЬНО! Новые и наиболее распространенные сокращения в современном русском языке (СПб: Филологический факультет СПбГУ, 2004) .

Sample TT:

1. Causal prepositional phrases

1. By operation of article 79 of the Criminal Procedural Code of the Russian Soviet Union Federal Republic it is mandatory to conduct expert analysis of the psychiatric well-being of the accused in those instances where there is doubt about his sanity .

2. In conjunction with this the cassation (appeals) court reversed the sentence and forwarded the case for new judicial (legal) consideration .

3. Together with the reduction of the degree of punishment in certain cases, sentences were reversed due to the necessity of applying a law either about a more serious crime or the leniency of the designated sentence. Note, however, that these instances have significantly decreased since 1993 .

4. In this connection the criminal cases concerning Larin and Petrova have been dismissed due to an absence of criminal behavior in their actions .

5. By request of the encumbrancer the following certificate of registration of the motor vehicles’ bond is given and replaces any former certificates .

2. Prepositional phrases of intent

1. The following goods are considered for the purpose of taxation: product (object, item);

buildings, structures and other forms of real estate; electrical and heat energy, gas, water .

2. Reconstruction and re-planning of living and auxiliary spaces can be conducted only for the purpose of improving the amenities of the apartment .

3. In execution of paragraph 4, point 3 by order of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation concerning the enactment of the Russian Federation law of October 9, 1992, “Concerning regulation of hard currency and hard currency control,” the following changes will be made to the regulations…

3. Prepositional constructions that provide the basis of actions

1. Removal of registration by permanent address of citizens who have been convicted and given a prison sentence, if they are being held in custody, is conducted on the basis of the court’s sentence going into effect .

2. In accordance with article 9 of the Russian Federation law, “Concerning customs tariffs”, the antidumping duty tax is applied to those goods imported to the customs territory of the Russian Federation that are less expensive than their normal cost in the country of export at the moment of export…

3. In accordance with part 2 of article 48 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, every person detained, held in custody, or accused of committing a crime has the right to legal counsel from the moment of detainment, being held in custody of being presented with charges. Unfortunately, non-compliance during the conduct of the preliminary inquest of this constitutional provision is still quite wide-spread .

4. In accordance with article 81 of the Russian Federation Labor Code, the salary of specialists and employees is conducted as a rule on the basis of official salaries established by the administration of the enterprise, institution, or organization in full accordance with the position and the worker’s qualifications .

5. Based on the verdict of the People’s Court of the Nevskij Region of the city of St .

Petersburg, Viktorov was convicted based on article 17 and part 2 of article 89 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation for being an accomplice in the crime of Miroshnikov, in which a mini-van was stolen .

4. Temporal-based prepositional phrases

1. In the course of the circulation period of bills of exchange (term bills), commercial banks use them as instruments for attracting commercial credit under market conditions .

[The term вексель can be very challenging as a concept in banking systems outside of Russia. The most common translations of the term include bill of exchange, bill, paper, note, promissory note. The term veksel is used in other languages, including Norwegian and Danish..]

2. Decisions that are made in the course of an investigation shall be based on quantifiable data .

3. Whenever considering citizen cases, it is necessary to begin with proof presented by the plaintiff and the defendant .

4. Actual persons, who receive income that is taxable under chapters 3 and 4 of the present regulations, are required to declare these profits received and business expenses paid during the course of the calendar year at the end of the calendar year .

5. Conditional prepositional constructions

1. In the absence of documentation confirming the payment of federal taxes for the registration of a contract…

2. In the event that a customs agency does not have sufficient funds in their accounts for realization of a refund, then said refund may be executed from the account of the State Customs Committee of Russia .

Comments on Practical 10.2:

The sample TT is taken from the official web site of the President of the Russian

Federation (http://president.kremlin.ru/eng/articles/ConstEng2.shtml):

Article 62:

1. A citizen of the Russian Federation may have citizenship of a foreign state (dual citizenship) in accordance with federal law or an international treaty of the Russian Federation .

2. The possession of foreign citizenship by a citizen of the Russian Federation shall not diminish his (her) rights and freedoms and shall not release him from obligations stipulated for Russian citizenship, unless otherwise specified by federal law or an international treaty of the Russian Federation .

3. Foreign citizens and stateless persons shall enjoy rights and bear obligations in the Russian Federation on a par with citizens of the Russian Federation, except in those cases envisaged by federal law or by an international treaty of the Russian Federation .

Article 6. Dual Citizenship FEDERAL LAW NO .

62-FZ OF MAY 31, 2002 ON RUSSIAN FEDERATION CITIZENSHIP(with the Amendments and Additions of November 11, 2003, November 2, 2004) [Available on the web: http://www.legislationline.org]

1. A citizen of the Russian Federation who also has another citizenship shall be deemed by the Russian Federation only as a Russian Federation citizen, except for the cases stipulated by an international treaty of the Russian Federation or a federal law .

2. The acquisition by a Russian Federation citizen of another citizenship shall not cause termination of Russian Federation citizenship .


Additional pratical related to 10.2:

In those instances where the topic of dual citizenship is of great interest to the students, we provide a full Russian text with English translation for the entire law (except for Article 6, given above) .

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Статья 1. Предмет регулирования настоящего Федерального закона В настоящем Федеральном законе содержатся принципы гражданства Российской Федерации и правила, регулирующие отношения, связанные с гражданством Российской Федерации, определены основания, условия и порядок приобретения и прекращения гражданства Российской Федерации .

Статья 2. Законодательство о гражданстве Российской Федерации

Вопросы гражданства Российской Федерации регулируются Конституцией Российской Федерации, международными договорами Российской Федерации, настоящим Федеральным законом, а также принимаемыми в соответствии с ними другими нормативными правовыми актами Российской Федерации .

Статья 3.

Основные понятия Для целей настоящего Федерального закона используются следующие основные понятия:

гражданство Российской Федерации - устойчивая правовая связь лица с Российской Федерацией, выражающаяся в совокупности их взаимных прав и обязанностей;

иное гражданство - гражданство (подданство) иностранного государства;

двойное гражданство - наличие у гражданина Российской Федерации гражданства (подданства) иностранного государства;

иностранный гражданин - лицо, не являющееся гражданином Российской Федерации и имеющее гражданство (подданство) иностранного государства;

лицо без гражданства - лицо, не являющееся гражданином Российской Федерации и не имеющее доказательства наличия гражданства иностранного государства;

ребенок - лицо, не достигшее возраста восемнадцати лет;

проживание - проживание лица на законном основании на территории Российской Федерации или за ее пределами;

территория Российской Федерации - территория Российской Федерации в пределах Государственной границы Российской Федерации или территория РСФСР в пределах административной границы РСФСР на день наступления обстоятельств, связанных с приобретением или прекращением гражданства Российской Федерации в соответствии с настоящим Федеральным законом;

общий порядок приобретения или прекращения гражданства Российской Федерации - порядок рассмотрения вопросов гражданства и принятия решений по вопросам гражданства Российской Федерации Президентом Российской Федерации в отношении лиц, на которых распространяются обычные условия, предусмотренные настоящим Федеральным законом;

упрощенный порядок приобретения или прекращения гражданства Российской Федерации - порядок рассмотрения вопросов гражданства и принятия решений по вопросам гражданства Российской Федерации в отношении лиц, на которых распространяются льготные условия, предусмотренные настоящим Федеральным законом;

изменение гражданства - приобретение или прекращение гражданства Российской Федерации;

вид на жительство - документ, удостоверяющий личность лица без гражданства, выданный в подтверждение разрешения на постоянное проживание на территории Российской Федерации лицу без гражданства или иностранному гражданину и подтверждающий их право на свободный выезд из Российской Федерации и возвращение в Российскую Федерацию .

Статья 4. Принципы гражданства Российской Федерации и правила, регулирующие вопросы гражданства Российской Федерации

1. Принципы гражданства Российской Федерации и правила, регулирующие вопросы гражданства Российской Федерации, не могут содержать положений, ограничивающих права граждан по признакам социальной, расовой, национальной, языковой или религиозной принадлежности .

2. Гражданство Российской Федерации является единым и равным независимо от оснований его приобретения .

3. Проживание гражданина Российской Федерации за пределами Российской Федерации не прекращает его гражданства Российской Федерации .

4. Гражданин Российской Федерации не может быть лишен гражданства Российской Федерации или права изменить его .

5. Гражданин Российской Федерации не может быть выслан за пределы Российской Федерации или выдан иностранному государству .

6. Российская Федерация поощряет приобретение гражданства Российской Федерации лицами без гражданства, проживающими на территории Российской Федерации .

7. Наличие у лица гражданства Российской Федерации либо факт наличия у лица в прошлом гражданства СССР определяется на основании законодательных актов Российской Федерации, РСФСР или СССР, международных договоров Российской Федерации, РСФСР или СССР, действовавших на день наступления обстоятельств, с которыми связывается наличие у лица соответствующего гражданства .

Статья 5. Граждане Российской Федерации

Гражданами Российской Федерации являются:

а) лица, имеющие гражданство Российской Федерации на день вступления в силу настоящего Федерального закона;

б) лица, которые приобрели гражданство Российской Федерации в соответствии с настоящим Федеральным законом .

Статья 7. Предоставление защиты и покровительства гражданам Российской Федерации, находящимся за пределами Российской Федерации

1. Гражданам Российской Федерации, находящимся за пределами Российской Федерации, предоставляются защита и покровительство Российской Федерации .

2. Органы государственной власти Российской Федерации, дипломатические представительства и консульские учреждения Российской Федерации, находящиеся за пределами Российской Федерации, должностные лица указанных представительств и учреждений обязаны содействовать тому, чтобы гражданам Российской Федерации была обеспечена возможность пользоваться в полном объеме всеми правами, установленными Конституцией Российской Федерации, федеральными конституционными законами, федеральными законами, общепризнанными принципами и нормами международного права, международными договорами Российской Федерации, законами и правилами государств проживания или пребывания граждан Российской Федерации, а также возможность защищать их права и охраняемые законом интересы .

Статья 8. Гражданство Российской Федерации и брак

1. Заключение или расторжение брака между гражданином Российской Федерации и лицом, не имеющим гражданства Российской Федерации, не влечет за собой изменение гражданства указанных лиц .

2. Изменение гражданства одним из супругов не влечет за собой изменение гражданства другого супруга .

3. Расторжение брака не влечет за собой изменение гражданства родившихся в этом браке или усыновленных (удочеренных) супругами детей .

Статья 9. Гражданство детей

1. Гражданство ребенка при приобретении или прекращении гражданства Российской Федерации одним из его родителей либо обоими его родителями сохраняется или изменяется в соответствии с настоящим Федеральным законом .

2. Для приобретения или прекращения гражданства Российской Федерации ребенком в возрасте от четырнадцати до восемнадцати лет необходимо его согласие .

3. Гражданство Российской Федерации ребенка не может быть прекращено, если в результате прекращения гражданства Российской Федерации он станет лицом без гражданства .

4. Гражданство ребенка не изменяется при изменении гражданства его родителей, лишенных родительских прав. В случае изменения гражданства ребенка не требуется согласие его родителей, лишенных родительских прав .

Статья 10. Документы, удостоверяющие гражданство Российской Федерации Документом, удостоверяющим гражданство Российской Федерации, является паспорт гражданина Российской Федерации или иной основной документ, содержащие указание на гражданство лица .

Виды основных документов, удостоверяющих личность гражданина Российской Федерации, определяются федеральным законом .


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(with the Amendments and Additions of November 11, 2003, November 2, 2004) Adopted by the State Duma April 19, 2002 Approved by the Federation Council May 15, 2002

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Article 1. The Subject Matter Regulated by the Present Federal Law The present Federal Law comprises the principles of Russian Federation citizenship and the rules governing relations connected to Russian Federation citizenship, it sets out grounds, terms and the procedure for the acquisition and termination of Russian Federation citizenship .

Article 2. Legislation on the Citizenship of the Russian Federation

The issues of citizenship in the Russian Federation are regulated by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, international treaties of the Russian Federation, the present Federal Law, and also by other regulatory acts of the Russian Federation enacted pursuant thereto .

Article 3. Basic Terms

The following basic terms are used for the purposes of the present Federal Law:

“citizenship of the Russian Federation” means a stable legal relation of a person with the Russian Federation that manifests itself in an aggregate of their mutual rights and duties;

“other citizenship” means the citizenship (allegiance) of a foreign state;

“dual citizenship” means that a Russian Federation citizen has the citizenship (allegiance) of a foreign state;

“foreign citizen” means a person who is not a Russian Federation citizen and who has the citizenship (allegiance) of a foreign state;

“stateless person” means a person who is not a Russian Federation citizen and who has no proof that he/she has the citizenship of a foreign state;

–  –  –

“residence” means that a person is resident in the territory of the Russian Federation or outside of it;

“the territory of the Russian Federation” means the territory of the Russian Federation within the State Border of the Russian Federation or the territory of the RSFSR within the administrative border of the RSFSR as of the date of the emergence of circumstances relating to the acquisition or termination of Russian Federation citizenship under the present Federal Law;

“the general procedure for the acquisition or termination of Russian Federation citizenship” means a procedure for considering issues concerning citizenship and making decisions on issues of Russian Federation citizenship by the President of the Russian Federation in respect of persons subject to the ordinary conditions set out in the present Federal Law;

“the simplified procedure for acquisition or termination of Russian Federation citizenship” means a procedure for considering issues concerning citizenship and making decisions on issues of Russian Federation citizenship in respect of persons who enjoy the preferential treatment conditions set out in the present Federal Law;

“change of citizenship” means the acquisition or termination of Russian Federation citizenship;

“residence permit” means the personal identity document of a stateless person issued to confirm permission of permanent residence in the territory of the Russian Federation to a stateless person or a foreign citizen and confirming their right of free exit from the Russian Federation and return to the Russian Federation .

Article 4. The Principles of Russian Federation Citizenship and the Rules Regulating Issues of Russian Federation Citizenship

1. The principles of Russian Federation citizenship and the rules regulating issues of Russian Federation citizenship shall not contain provisions imposing restrictions on citizens’ rights by virtue of social, racial, ethnic, language or religion belonging .

2. Citizenship of the Russian Federation is uniform and equal, irrespective of the basis on which it is acquired .

3. Russian Federation citizen’s residence outside the Russian Federation does not terminate his/her Russian Federation citizenship .

4. A citizen of the Russian Federation shall not be deprived of Russian Federation citizenship or of the right to change it .

5. A citizen of the Russian Federation shall not be exiled out of the Russian Federation or handed over to a foreign state .

6. The Russian Federation shall encourage stateless persons residing in the territory of the Russian Federation to acquire Russian Federation citizenship .

7. The fact that a person has Russian Federation citizenship or that a person had USSR citizenship before shall be determined under legislative acts of the Russian Federation, the RSFSR or the USSR, international treaties of the Russian Federation or the USSR effective as of the date of the onset of the circumstances to which the person’s having a specific citizenship is related .

Article 5. Citizens of the Russian Federation

The following are citizens of the Russian Federation:

a) persons having citizenship of the Russian Federation as of the date when the present Federal Law enters into force;

b) persons who have acquired citizenship of the Russian Federation in compliance with the present Federal Law .

Article 7. The Granting of Defence and Protection to Russian Federation Citizens Staying Outside of the Russian Federation

1. The citizens of the Russian Federation who stay outside the Russian Federation shall be granted the Russian Federation’s defence and protection .

2. The governmental bodies of the Russian Federation, the diplomatic missions and consular institutions of the Russian Federation located outside the Russian Federation, the officials of the said missions and institutions shall assist in Russian Federation citizens’ getting an opportunity to enjoy the full scope of all the rights established by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal constitutional laws, federal laws, generally accepted principles and norms of international law, international treaties of the Russian Federation, the laws and rules of the states where Russian Federation citizens reside or stay, and also an opportunity for defending their rights and law-protected interests .

Article 8. Russian Federation Citizenship and Marriage

1. Marriage or divorce between a citizen of the Russian Federation and a person not having the Russian Federation citizenship shall not cause a change in the citizenship of these persons .

2. Change of citizenship by one of the spouses shall not cause a change in the citizenship of the other spouse .

3. Divorce shall not cause a change in the citizenship of the children born in wedlock or adopted children .

Article 9. The Citizenship of Children

1. The citizenship of the child in the case of acquisition or termination of Russian Federation citizenship by one or both of the child’s parents shall be retained or shall be changed in compliance with the present Federal Law .

2. For a child aged 14 to 18 his/her consent shall be needed for the purpose of acquisition or termination of his/her Russian Federation citizenship .

3. The Russian Federation citizenship of a child shall not be terminated if the child is going to become a stateless person as the result of such termination .

4. The citizenship of a child shall not be changed if a change occurs in the citizenship of the child’s parents who have been deprived of their parental rights. In the case of a change in the citizenship of a child no consent is required from his/her parents who have been deprived of their parental rights .

Article 10. The Documents Whereby By Which Russian Federation Citizenship Is Certified The document whereby Russian Federation citizenship is certified shall be the passport of a citizen of the Russian Federation or another basic document in which the person’s citizenship is specified. The types of basic documents serving as the personal identity document of a citizen of the Russian Federation shall be designated by a federal law .

See Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 232 of March 13, 1997 on the Main Document Serving as the Personal Identity Document of a Citizen of the Russian Federation on the Territory of the Russian Federation

Comments on Practical 10.3:

This relatively new law was adopted on July 13, 2000. It reads a lot like former Soviet laws concerning the status of Hero Cities (Города-Герои). After completion of practicals 10.1 and 10.2, this practical will seem much simpler. The sections devoted to the inadmissibility of fascism and nationalism is worth taking note of. One might do a short comparison of Russian and English lexemes with the –ism suffix. The Backwards Dictionary of Russian (Обратный словарь русского языка, Москва: Изд. Советская энциклопедия, 1974) lists 574 lexemes in –ism .

Comments on Practical 10.4:

A sample gist translation of TT:

1. Foreign citizens may adopt Russian orphans if they are not adopted by Russian citizens or by relatives .

2. There is no restriction on where the relatives may be living at the time of adoption .

3. The major principle of Russian law on adoption is protection of the child’s interests .

4. Children may be adopted by foreign citizens only after three months have passed from the official entering of their information in the State Data Bank .

5. Several agencies and persons must approve the adoption, including the guardianship and trusteeship agencies, the head physician and the director of the orphanage .

This article mentions the terms дом ребенка and детский дом. In reality, these terms may refer to one and the same type of complex, but both terms are used as the official names of the major orphanages in the Russian Federation. In addition to these two, there is a different type of orphanage, детский дом-интернат, where children not only live, but also attend school. In the first two cases, there is generally not a school on the premises. Finally, there is also дом малютки, which is for newborns who are given up by their parents or lose their parents .

Comments on Practical 10.5:

The abbreviation, ГПУ, which in this passage means Главное правовое управление (при Президенте РФ) (Central Legal Division of the Office of the President of the Russian Federation), exists for four different organizations. The other three meanings


Главное политическое управление (при НКВД РСФСР) Главное производственное управление Главный пульт управления This passage clearly articulates the rights and obligations of Russian jurors, including the right to ask questions through the presiding judge (председательствующий) of any of the parties involved in the case. The class may enjoy discussion of the list of what the jurors are NOT supposed to do .

Comments on Practical 10.6:

These two excerpts from a Russian and English book contract are interesting in what aspects of the relationship between the author and publisher are stressed. The Russian ST is full of specific quantifiers related to (1) size of the work, (2) turn-around time frame for responding to the author, and (3) publishing of new editions of the work. This is a good place to bring back into the discussion the Halliday/House registers (field, tenor, mode). Once the field and tenor of the texts are defined, it is clear how contracts as texts differ from many of the other texts that we have seen up to this point .


Comments on Practical 11.1:

Sample TT:

1. несомненно, безусловно, без сомнения, вне всякого сомнения undoubtedly, absolutely, without a doubt, definitely

2. на самом деле, фактически, действительно in fact, in reality, the fact of the matter is

3. в конце, в заключении in conclusion, in the end

4. в конце концов, в итоге in the final analysis, in summary

5. отчасти, в какой-то мере, в известной степени, до известной степени to some degree, to a significant degree

6. вместе с тем, притом, в то же время additionally, in addition, at the same time

7. в общем, в общих чертах, в основном, в главном in general, basically

8. обязательно, непременно obligatorily, absolutely, no matter what

9. при любых обстоятельствах, во что бы то ни стало, не смотря ни на что regardless of the circumstances, no matter what, in spite of

10. особенно, больше всего, в особенности especially, more than anything, in particular, particularly

11. вот почему, по этой причине, поэтому therefore

12. в первую очередь, прежде всего, вначале, во-первых in the first place, firstly, most importantly

13. в последнюю очередь, в самом конце at the very end, only as a final step, finally

14. время от времени, и то и дело from time to time, here and again

15. в свое время at one point in time, in good time, at its appointed time

16. недаром, неслучайно it is no accident, it is not for nothing

17. вс еще, до этого времени, и сейчас, до сих пор since that time, still, even now

18. вс же, тем не менее, однако be that as it may, nevertheless, and yet

19. всякий раз, всегда, каждый раз any time, at any time, on any given occasion

20. в то время, тогда at that time, then

21. в целом, не касаясь частностей on the whole

22. в частности, в том числе, включая in particular, including

23. дело в том, что the fact (of the matter) is, the thing is

24. должно быть, по-видимому, наверное, вероятно probably, most likely, it is likely

25. до сих пор, до настоящего времени until the present day, until the present

26. и вот, и так and so

27. иной раз, иногда at some time, some time, sometimes

28. и тут, в этот момент, вдруг at that moment, suddenly

29. как видно, очевидно, ясно as is apparent, obviously, clearly

30. как ни странно as strange as it might seem, no matter how strange it may seem

31. как обычно as usual, like always

32. как правило, обычно as a rule, usually

33. как оказалось, стало известным, выяснилось as it turned out

34. как-то раз, однажды once, once upon a time, at one point (in time)

35. к сожалению, к несчастью unfortunately

36. к счастью fortunately,

37. меньше всего, совсем не least of all, not at all

38. можно сказать, действительно, несомненно one might/may say, undoubtedly, without a doubt, in point of fact

39. на время, временно, на небольшой срок for a while

40. на мой взгляд, по-моему, по моему мнению in my opinion, from my point of view, from where I’m standing

41. одним словом, в общем, короче говоря in a word, in short, to sum up

42. по всей вероятности, по-видимому, вероятно in all likelihood, in all probability, most likely, most probably

43. по крайней мере, хоть, хотя бы at least, at the very least

44. по сути, по сути дела, фактически, в действительности, в сущности the fact/heart/crux of the matter, in reality, practically, in essence

45. само собой (разумеется), безусловно, конечно that goes without saying, it is self evident, of course, unconditionally true

46. с одной стороны, с другой стороны on the one hand, on the other hand

47. собственно говоря, в сущности, по существу so, therefore, as one might say, so what you/we have is…

48. судя по всему based on what we’ve got, based on the facts/evidence

49. таким образом, итак, следовательно and thus, therefore, it follows that…

50. несмотря на это, но nevertheless, in spite of this, however, nonetheless, yet

Comments on Practical 11.2:

Genomics has become an important field of study across the globe. These excerpts from an interview with Academic L.L. Kiselev show that the vocabulary is not as prohibitive as we have seen before with legal texts. Because this is an oral interview, the sentences are generally short and simple. It will be interesting to see the degree to which the class embellishes upon the content in the article as they produce TTs for pre-college readers .

Some of their TTs may include footnotes or definitions of words like genome, gene, protein, pathology, ethnicity, nucleotides, DNA, Finno-Ugric, Bashkir, Tatar, and others .

Comments on Practical 11.3:

Below are a set of short texts that display the semantic range of the terms listed in Practical 11.3 .

1 .

В статье автор разбирает творчество молодого писателя и сравнивает его стиль с писателями девятнадцатого века .

Договор финансовой аренды описан в статье 665 ГК РФ .

2 .

На кухне кран течет – надо сменить прокладку .

В аптеке продавались французские прокладки для женщин .

3 .

Резко упал курс доллара на этой неделе .

Он всегда в курсе последних новостей .

Наташа учится на третьем курсе филфака .

Корабль взял курс на север .

4 .

Партия была, есть, и будет есть! (старый советский анекдот) Завод получил партию запчастей для новой марки автомобиля .

5 .

Включи телевизор, сейчас начнется моя любимая передача .

В родильный дом не пускают посетителей: разрешаются только передачи .

6 .

Где мой ключ? Не могу его найти .

Жизнь бьет ключом, и вс – по голове. (поговорка) 7 .

Заседание кафедры назначено на понедельник .

Он такой маленький, что с кафедры его почти не видно .

8 .

Большая рыба попала в сеть .

В нашем районе работает сеть магазинов электротоваров .

Я не могу выйти в сеть .

Дочка вс время сидит в сети (в Интернете), и поэтому наш телефон занят .

9 .

У него было два привода в милицию из-за пьянки .

Я вс-таки предпочитаю полный привод – расход бензина больше, зато безопаснее ездить .

10 .

Отец получил кандидатскую степень в двадцать пять лет .

До известной степени Михаил Николаевич прав .

11 .

В Петербурге сегодня очень много развлекательных заведений .

В связи с Болонским процессом полностью меняются программы в российских высших учебных заведениях .

12 .

Не забудь сделать ссылки на ученых, которых ты упоминаешь в своей статье .

Академика Сахарова отправили в ссылку в город Горький .

13 .

Я вышел из игры, потому что ставки были слишком большими для меня .

У нас на кафедре нет свободных ставок .

14 .

Сына забрали на военные сборы на два месяца .

Я ненавижу долгие сборы .

15 .

У сына в классе 28 человек .

Моя дочь учится в первом классе .

Такие красивые туфли – класс!

16 .

Мне надо поменять свечи в карбюраторе .

Вчера вечером у нас не было электричества – сидели при свечах .

Comments on Practical 11.4:

Sample TT:

It is also said, that Russia as a nation was almost completely illiterate. This is not entirely correct. Statistical data, collected by the academician A.I. Sobolevskij on the signatures to documents of the fifteenth through seventeenth centuries, demonstrates the significant literacy of the Russian people. At first, these data were treated with great skepticism, but the findings of A.V. Arcixovskij, which include the Novgorod birch bark deeds, prove that these documents were signed by simple tradesmen and peasants .

In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the Russian Far North, where there had not been any peasant slavery, was almost completely literate, and until the last war in peasant families of the area there were often large libraries of book manuscripts, the remains of which we are successfully putting back together at the present time .

… The research of Marina Mixajlovna Gromyko and her students shows through the study of folklore that peasants had a highly developed base of knowledge in agriculture, fishery, hunting, and Russian history. We have to acknowledge that there are different types of cultures, and the culture of the Russian peasant, such as it was, was certainly not the same as university-based culture. Academic, university-based culture appeared in Russian relatively late, but in the 19th and 20th centuries quickly achieved very high levels, especially in the fields of philology, history and Oriental studies .

Востоковедение in Russian universities is markedly distinct from its counterpart in American universities. This could be an opportunity to consider the “studies” word in English, and then bring up specific disciplines that use the term, including cultural studies, Asian studies, Slavic studies, Gender studies, and others .

Comments on Practical 11.5:

Sample TT:

Euclidean space

6.1. The linear space of geometric vectors is an important example of linear space. The general notion of linear space historically was formulated more or less along natural categories. The operations of combining vectors and multiplying them into number values, and also the concepts of linear dependency, base, and others, which is founded on them, plays a major role in the theory of geometric vectors .

Comments on Practical 11.6:

Lev Vygotsky presented a very sophisticated typology of different types of speech and the role that each of them plays in the development of the child. It is unfortunate that what is clearly a three-way distinction (эгоцентрическая, внутренняя, внешняя) is often remembered as a two-way distinction (inner/external speech). In fact, it is possible to argue that internal is a better translation than inner. However, Vygotsky has found a place in most English-language first year psychology textbooks, and the term inner is the standard. What is often forgotten in this context is the fact that internal speech does not disappear; rather, it changes it form in development and loses its vocalization. These passages reveal the importance of viewing these phenomena as dynamic processes that fundamentally change their manifestation in development .


Comments on Practical 12.1:

Sample TT:

From the very first days of the enactment of the new RF Federal Law “Concerning mandatory liability insurance for owners of motor vehicles” in July of 2003, RSA (the Russian Union of Automobile Insurance Companies) began receiving information about instances of counterfeit automobile liability insurance policies and the specialized state symbol car stickers. The distribution of the false documentation covered a territory

extending from St. Petersburg to Vladivostok. The source of the distribution:

automobile markets, customs warehouses, areas next to official state offices that license motor vehicles (GAI – State Automobile Inspection [ГАИ - Госавтоинспекция], GIBDD – State Safety Inspection of Highway Traffic [Государственная инспекция безопасности дорожного движения]) .

The quality of the copies of the false insurance policies varied from simple ones prepared on a xerox machine and printed on newspaper to high-quality type set. The automobile owners who received these documents had no idea that they were committing a crime, which falls under article 327 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation .

According to article 327, all parties involved in the production and selling of these documents could be incarcerated for up to four years! The prison sentence would increase in those instances where the policy owner were to attempt to receive compensation from the insurance company. Law enforcement agencies are prepared to work on these criminal activities together with the security divisions of the insurance companies .

The best way to guarantee that your policy is authentic is to purchase it directly on the premises of the insurance company office. It is essential that the insurance company has a good reputation and the required licenses from the Russian Federation Ministry of Finance .

ROSGOSSTRRAX is precisely one of those companies!

Below is a list of special features of authentic policies:

1. The official stamp of the insurance company should be in the left upper corner of the policy .

2. Computer-readable code. There should also be a computer security code on the back side of the policy .

3. The official paper of the policy must have the appropriate water marks. All policies are prepared on special stamped paper with water marks at state printing presses, including Goznak, which brings with it the same degree of protection that money has .

These forms are all identical throughout the Russian Federation and are strictly accounted for .

4. The hidden abbreviation of the All Russian Union of Automobile Insurance Companies (RSA) .

5. Microprint text .

See the attached document of an actual sample policy .

The accident form is complicated primarily in terms of the numerous abbreviations:

ТС – транспортное средство ДТП – дорожно-транспортное происшествие ГИБДД - Государственная инспекция безопасности дорожного движения ФИО – Фамилия, имя, отчество VIN- vehicle identification number

Comments on Practical 12.2:

The answers to these prepositional exercises are made easier in that the required case forms are provided in the exercise. If the tutor wants to make this more challenging, then the prepositional object could be given in the nominative with instructions to the students to provide the correct case form .

Answers to 12.2:


1. В результате

2. Благодаря

3. Вследствие

4. В связи

5. В результате (2)

1. В целях

2. С целью (3)

1. в соответствии

2. На основании

3. За счет (4)

1. В процессе

2. При

3. В ходе

4. В течение (5)

1. при

2. при

3. В случае

Comments on Practical 12.3:

One of the most common types of documents necessary for many everyday situations in Russia today is the so-called ДОВЕРЕННОСТЬ. The typical translations of this term include power of attorney, proxy, letter of authority. In practical 12.3, we provide a copy of a typical form required for any person who is driving a car that does not belong to them. In most countries, this type of document is not required, but in Russia it is obligatory. [One of the reasons that such documentation may be required is due to the high percentage of car thefts that take place each year in the Russian Federation.] If the driver is stopped and does not have the required papers, the car may be confiscated .

This type of permission from the owner at one time required a notary public, but in the past decade it has now become possible to produce this document at home, with or without the official form. The document may be typed or written by hand, and only requires the owner’s signature. The type of permission form given in this practical is to give full rights from the owner to her husband to bear responsibility for maintaining the vehicle, including all of the obligatory services, yearly inspections, even selling the vehicle. When all of these features are included, the form is called генеральная доверенность, and this type of proxy requires a notarized signature. There is one other permission that is also available in this type of proxy form, but is missing here – permission to give these rights to another person .

Comments on Practical 12.4:

Natalja Tolstaya, sister of Tatiana Tolstaya, is also a famous contemporary writer. Her works are not as well known as Tatiana’s, but she is a formidable presence in contemporary Russian short fiction. Her wit and sarcasm are refreshing, and she is also able to bring her readers to tears with her honesty and talent for capturing and expressing human emotions. This story, Хочу за границу, is a light and humorous account of the realities associated with travel beyond the borders of the late Soviet Union .

The structure of иностранный отдел was mentioned briefly in chapter one of TRT in connection with the practical comparing American and Russian university administration .

This division deals with foreigners who come to Russia, as well as Russians who wish to go abroad. In the Soviet period, иностранный отдел was closely connected to state security organizations like the KGB, and it was quite difficult to receive permission to travel abroad. Even in the rare case when the university supported a given candidate for travel abroad, this did not mean that the candidate would actually receive permission to travel from the Soviet government. The process of obtaining permission is described in Tolstaya’s text realistically, but also with humor. In fact, reading this text today is not as sad since Russian citizens can now travel freely once they receive a visa from the country to be visited .

The recommendation form (характеристика) required for permission to travel abroad had certain formulaic sections that were obligatory in order for the recommendation to be


политически грамотен (грамотна) и морально устойчив(а) In the case of travel to a capitalist country like Denmark, there were 3 commissions at different levels that interviewed the candidate for travel. The questions could range from naming members of the Politburo and events of the last Communist Party congress to specific questions concerning the history of the country to which one intended to visit .

The Russian word бланк refers to an official form; in other contexts, it may also refer to official letter head of an organization or department. According to current Russian law, if a document is typed and signed on such an official form/letter head, then the stamp (печать) is not required .

The final verb in the last sentence of the story, зашиваемся, is a very common expression of spoken Russian – we are overwhelmed with work and can’t get everything done that needs to be done on time .

Comments on Practical 12.5:

Gladil’shchikov’s article is supposed to be a review of the film, The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor. However, because of a contract that he signed with Universal Studies, where he agrees not to review the article until it appears in theatres, Gladil’shchikov has to write about other films instead .

Translation of the title of the article is far from trivial because the typical first part of the expression is missing entirely .

The title of this piece is a rephrasing of the second part of a common Russian expression:

Ты – дурак! – От дурака и слышу. You’re an idiot. – It takes one to know one .

Ты – лентяй! – От лентяя и слышу. You’re so lazy. – Like you’re not .

The title is already on the defensive, and the author is starting off the piece with a phrase that claims that if anyone is to be blamed for what is written in the article, then it would have to be the sequel, not the journalist. The crux of the article is a criticism of the Hollywood system itself and the films that it produces, which are merely a collection of special effects without any real content or artistry. The real idiots are the studios in Hollywood that make idiots out of their viewers – a catch 22. In short, the viewers have been ruined by years of viewing bad films .

This tirade is the journalist’s revenge for being forced to sign a contract with Universal Studios in which he relinquishes his right to criticize in print the film he is about to see in this early, pre-release viewing. [Of course, Gladil’ikov didn’t have to sign the contract

– he could have just walked away and not attended the viewing.] He is, however, allowed to criticize the film once it has been released (in theatres across the globe). The phrase до его выхода в прокат does not mean until the film is released as a DVD .

The tone of movie reviews can be very biting and sarcastic, both in English and in Russian. It would be useful to have the class read some English ST film reviews as a prelude to completing their TT of this article .

Comments on Practical 12.6:

The following series of articles about the Russian Mining Company, Meel. The early years of the 21st century witnessed a shift in the power base of post-Soviet Russia. In those years, many of the so-called oligarchs were either arrested (Xodorkovskij), run out of the country (Berezovskij), or convinced to become more helpful to the government .

The following texts trace the events around the difficulties that arose between the Russian government and the Meel mining company. The story begins with an article (ST1) from Vedomosti (July 9, 2008) about Meel’s intentions to sell their preferred stocks at home and abroad. Their intention was to attract up to $3,000,000,000 (3 billion). The article also mentions how Meel informed their potential investors of possible risks due to law suits between Meel and the Russian IRS. The first article ends with the expression of an expert opinion from the Russian bank “TRUST” that this problem between Meel and the governmental tax organ should not be a problem for investors .

The second article from July 28, 2008 is more focused on the Russian stock market, and reviews the drops in market values, especially oil and gas stocks. Then, the focus shifts to the Prime Minister’s criticism of Meel, one of the largest producers of coke coal in Russia. Putin points out that Meel was selling their goods abroad at a price that was two times less than what they were charging at home. The result of Putin’s criticism on Meel’s stocks was a loss of 5 billion dollars in five minutes on the stock exchange. The piece ends with a list of the charges against Meel from the Russian federal antimonopoly agency (FAS), which include their price for coal concentrates and the fact that they stopped providing their coal concentrates without due cause to different companies .

The French borrowing into Russian, маржа, refers to the profit margin between the actual cost of the item and the selling price .

If the translator does not understand how the stock markets work across the globe, or even in one particular country, the article is very difficult to translate. For on-line

dictionary sources of specialized financial terminology, see:

http://www.finam.ru/dictionary http://www.glossary.ru The tutor may wish to provide the students with the meanings of the numerous abbreviations given in these articles, or send them on a mission to find out what they mean. All abbreviations are given below with some additional information .

ST1 and ST2:

The hardest parts of these texts are the vocabulary given below, including abbreviations (which are also given at the end of the first article):

(1) Привилегированная акция [ПРЕФЫ] (preferred share; preferred stock; also called preference shares) Привилегированная акция - акция, которая не дает права голоса, если иное не предусмотрено уставом акционерного общества .

Выплаты дивидендов по привилегированным акциям производятся после выплат на облигации и до выплат по обыкновенным акциям. Обычно по привилегированным акциям владельцу гарантируется фиксированный размер дивиденда (в процентах к номинальной стоимости акции) .

(from www.finam.ru) Preferred stocks do not carry voting rights unless specified in the documents of the stock company (certificate of designation). Dividends are paid after bond payments (debt holders) but before payments of common stocks. The owner of preferred shares is usually given a fixed dividend in terms of the percentage vis--vis the normal cost of the shares .

(2) РТС – Российская торговая система (Russian Trade System) RTS is the oldest market for capital securities in Russia .

(3) ММВБ – Московская межбанковская валютная биржа (Moscow InterBank Hard Currency Exchange) (4) GDR – global depositary receipts (ГДР и GDR: глобальные депозитарные расписки) These global depositary receipts are used to enable a foreign company to make its stock shares available abroad .

(5) НДПИ - Налог на добычу полезных ископаемых (tax on harvesting of useful minerals) The minerals that are harvested may be in the form of ore, or in various processed forms .

(6) ФАС – Федеральная антимонопольная служба (Federal antimonopoly agency) [Note: The Russian noun (not abbreviation) фас, borrowed into Russian from German, is the command to an animal to attack. No pun intended.] (7) ВТБ – Внешторгбанк [ЗАО – закрытое акционерное общество] (External Trade Bank) (something like Citibank) (8) ТД – торговый дом (Trade business – sells goods) (9) ХК – холдинговая компания (holding company) (10) НЛМК - Новолипецкий металлургический комбинат (Novolipetsk Metallurgy Enterprise) (11) GAAP - Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (12) NYSE – New York Stock Exchange


The controversy over the future of Meel continues in the short article from РусскийNewsweek. This short piece provides commentary missing from the previous articles. Igor’ Ivanov, the author, notes that the guilt or innocence of Meel is irrelevant;

rather he states that the company will be found guilty no matter what. Ivanov also notes that Meel was not the only Russian mining company selling their coke coal at these high prices – he states the in the first quarter of 2008, all such companies were selling their goods at these high prices .

This article is much simpler than the first two, and can be read without having read the first two .

ЮКОС (НК) – YUKOS Oil Company (abbreviation formed from two name:

«Юганскнефтегаза» and «КуйбышевнефтеОргСинтеза») YUKOS was created by presidential degree in 1992 (No. 1403) at the same time as Lukoil, and was declared bankrupt in 2006. Its former owner, Xodorkovskij, was convicted in 2005 and at the time of publication is still in prison .

НК – нефтяная компания


The newspaper Kommersant reports that the conflict between the Russian government and the Russian mining company Meel is purely a matter of collecting the appropriate taxes. The borrowing трансфертное refers to transfer agreements between countries. In this case, it concerns the fact that Meel sold coke coal cheaper to its international partners than to Russian companies .


Meel makes an official statement expressing its concern over the situation with the Russian government and explicitly states its desire to cooperate fully with all federal agencies involved and provide full disclosure for all questions asked. At the end of this brief article is a short description of the Meel company .

Comments on Practical 12.7:

Sample TT:

Помнишь себя в подростковом возрасте, какие чудеса творил за баранкой?

Вспомнил. Теперь добавь мобильный телефон, кофе-латте с соей и ванилью и МП3 плеер .

Неважно что ты делаешь – эсэмэсишься, выпиваешь или ищешь любимую песню в плеере –такое поведение за рулм вдвойне увеличивает риск автокатастрофы .

Пора запретить все виды отвлекающей аппаратуры .

Надо усилить ограничения вождения машины подростками .

Поговори с ребенком .

Как ни удивительно, 75 процентов подростков утверждают, что именно родители могут больше всего влиять на их поведение и безопасность за рулм .


Comments on Practical 13.1:

Sample TT:

Death in the Chat-Room (This sample TT translates Death as a “she.” In fact, Death in Russian is a noun with feminine grammatical gender, and the narrator of the story is a male. One could argue that Death can be translated as “he” or “she”, and depending on which choice is made, the translator may wish to maintain the gender difference between Death and the narrator.) I was sitting at the computer when suddenly, I heard a knock. It’s as clear as day – knock, knock! Who could that be at two in the morning? Strange – so I just keep sitting there. Then, the door slowly opens and something walks in dressed in a big robe. And with a sickle .

- Who are you? -- I ask, timidly at first .

-Death – she quietly answers. She’s shy .

- W-why are you here?

She just stands there, rocking back and forth from one foot to the other, and spinning her sickle .

- No reason, really – she says. – I was walking by and decided to drop by….Why? It is a problem?

- No, -- I answer more confidently. – Why would you think that? Come on in .

You want some tea?

She shrugs his shoulders as if she’s a bit embarrassed. Then she sits down on the end of the chair. And I go and get the tea. I have to boil the water first, and then put in the sugar. I couldn’t possibly serve tea without sugar… .

When I get back to the living room, Death is sitting at my computer typing something. Very slowly typing. I can tell that she hasn’t had much experience with a computer .

- What’s up? – I ask .

- I’m in a chat room – she says proudly .

Oh, what the hell! Let her do some on-line chatting. Why should I care? I’m not cheap .

I sit down next to her and look at the screen. Death is using Nasty as her chat name. She’s writing a bunch of nonsense, greeting the other chatters, throwing around smiley faces. It looks like she’s figured out what to do .

So anyway, we finally have our tea – with gingerbread, by the way. I’m not cheap. Anything for good old Death. Let her enjoy his tea and cookies. So, we finish our tea and she gets ready to leave .

- I’ve got to go, she says. – Got lots to do. You understand .

- Of course – being agreeable – Gotta take care of business. Drop by anytime .

- Sure thing!

And she smiles. I think she likes me. Actually, I’m a really nice guy. People like me .

And then she leaves. And here I am – back to chatting on-line. My fellow chatters probably got tired waiting for me, but wait – what’s this? I get on line and there’s no one there. The old messages are still there, but there aren’t any new ones. The final message says: “So, you idiots, have you finally gotten what you asked for? From Nasty. I’ve seen that nickname somewhere before….Oh well, no big deal. I think I’ll go and check my e-mail .

Comments on Practical 13.2:

The ST in this practical is a set of warranty statements published in an HP Russian ad .

The wording, especially in numbers 3 and 4, is very opaque in Russian and it is not clear at all what is actually under warranty. As a genre, warranties are often unclear, and these examples are certainly no exception. Enjoy!

1. Warranty: Limited warranty for three years. Service provided at the installation site .

2. Warranty: Three year warranty on all parts and service at the installation site. Next day service guaranteed. Some limitations apply. The conditions of the warranty are subject to change .

3. Warranty: Three year warranty, including exchange of the equipment .

4. Warranty: Life-time warranty, including equipment replacement on the next work day (available in most countries) .

5. Warranty: Three year warranty, including service on-site at the customer’s home or work place .

Supplementary Practicals for Chapter 13:

(1) Generate a TT for the set of STs on computer and internet topics;

(2) Notice the usage of English words in the Latin alphabet for some of the terms .

How do you explain this phenomenon?

(3) Look for English borrowings in the ST. How do they change between the ST and TT?

13.3 [Excerpt from D. Usenkov, «Человек и компьютер», http://nauka.relis.ru/07/9807/07807074.htm]

–  –  –

Иногда при загрузке подготовленного в более ранней версии Microsoft Word русскоязычного текста в Word из комплекта Office-97 пользователи сталкиваются со следующей проблемой: вместо символов кириллицы упорно выводится "абракадабра". Причина этого, по мнению фирмы Microsoft, - использование TrueТyре-шрифтов, изготовленных сторонними фирмами, а зачастую и доработанных хакерским способом. Если в заголовке файла шрифта отсутствует признак наличия в нем кириллицы, то текст не может быть правильно преобразован в формат Unicode (формат, принятый для хранения документов в Microsoft Office-97). Избежать этого позволит специальная программа-конвертор Cyrfonts, разработанная фирмой Microsoft, которую можно переписать с сервера фирмы .

Заплатка на ошибку

В русской версии Word for Windows 95 содержится программная ошибка, не позволяющая модифициро вать параметры принтера. На сервере Microsoft имеется свободно распространяемая "заплатка", исправляющая эту ошибку. Здесь же имеются исправления для Excel 95, Excel 97 и PowerPoint 97, а также пакет дополнений и исправлений для русской и английской (международной) версий Office-97 в целом .

13.4 [From Vyacheslav Redkin, «Cyberpunk: вчера, сегодня, завтра», http://psqfiles.narod.ru/neiro/sf-art.html] Киберпанк – это довольно молодое литературное движение в современной фантастике, и вам, надеюсь, будет интересно немного узнать о нем. Движение “cyberpunk” зародилось в США в начале-середине 80-х годов ХХ столетия .

Отцами-основателями стали Ульям Гибсон и Брюс Стерлинг. Первый написал такие культовые романы как “Нейромант”, ставший священным знаменем движения "киберпанков" и открывший серию о "киберпространстве" (cyberspace), или "виртуальной реальности" (virtual reality); “Мона Лиза Овер драйв”, ”Граф Ноль”, а также, например, рассказ “Джонни-мнемоник”, по которому в Голливуде был снят фильм с Киану Ривз в главной роли. Надо сказать, что термин для названия нового литературного направления, хотя и появился случайно, оказался весьма удачным и емким. Первый корень в этом слове, "кибер", связан со словом "кибернетика" и подразумевает, что это направление описывает будущее, в котором повседневная жизнь людей коренным образом изменилась под воздействием высоких технологий .

13.5 [From Dmitrij Pisarenko, Langust Agency 1999-2008, «Языковой беспредел, или Как мы будем разговаривать в будущем», http://www.langust.ru/news/16_07_03.shtml] Значит ли это, что у русских глаголов скоро отвалятся окончания и мы будем использовать в разговорной речи лишь их "обрезки"? Похожим образом, кстати, поступают интернетчики. Чатясь (разговаривая в Сети), они сокращают написания разных слов: здря или при вместо здравствуй или привет. "Ну, до такого кошмара, я надеюсь, дело не дойдет, - смеется Поликарпов, - но грамматические нормы постепенно расшатываются, ослабляются. Типичная ошибка - речевая избыточность. Пример: сочетание "самый лучший". Но лучший - и так превосходная степень прилагательного "хороший". А самый лучший - это, видимо, дважды самый хороший" .

… Возможно, язык готовится (да-да, не зря считают, что это живой организм) к тому, чтобы ввести в обиход "еще более лишние" предлоги, которые придадут словам новый, пока непонятный смысл. Ну, например: факты о чем-то будет обозначать одно, а факты над чем-то - что-то другое. Вам кажется странным это словосочетание? Но ведь мы привыкли склонять "наперекосяк" числительные .

… "Русский язык - синтетический, и он имеет свойство обогащаться за счет заимствований, так что вырождение ему не грозит, - уверен Анатолий Поликарпов. - Несомненно, влияние английского будет ощущаться и дальше, но любые заимствования как бы растворяются в русском языке, удачно вписываются в него. Скажем, пришло к нам слово "спонсор". Теперь оно прочно обосновалось в языке, вытеснило синоним "меценат", произвело от себя глагол (спонсировать), прилагательное (спонсорский) и даже используется в переносных значениях: кто сегодня спонсирует выпивку? В смысле: кто сегодня платит за выпивку?"


Comments on Practical 14.1:

The style of Luria’s narrative is very concise and fits tightly with the genre of scientific writing. One of the ways in which to work with this text is to highlight grammatical and lexical forms in the text and (1) contrast them with more colloquial and generic styles, (2) trace word-formative families across various parts of speech, and (3) provide broader contexts of usage for common lexemes found in the text .

The following commentary on individual passages is given in the same order given in the text itself .

1. …получил полевое ранение черепа Compare with: Его ранило в голову Note that the more generic syntactic and grammatical structure uses an impersonal construction (with no grammatical subject, only an accusative object) .

2. Пуля вошла…, прошла,… и остановилась .

This construction is analogous to general usage of verbs of motion. For example:

Она вошла в дом, прошла в гостиную и остановилась у камина .

3. ранение – medical term for more generic term рана .

4. Ранение сопровождалось длительной потерей сознания… .

The prefix CO- is used frequently with the following verb forms and deverbalized nouns:

сопровождаться, сопровождение соучаствовать, соучастие соавторствовать, соавторство, соавтор сочувствовать, сочувствие сотрудничать, сотрудничество сопереживать, сопереживание

There are also a series of nouns with the suffix –ник, including:

соученик, собутыльник, собеседник, сотрудник, соучастник и др .

5. своевременная обработка – “prompt treatment,care” Note that своевременно means to do something before it is too late (вовремя) .

The expression в сво время refers to a specific time in the past, present or future (Вс в сво время; В сво время я был лучшим теннисистом нашей школы) .

6. Начавшийся процесс рубцевания вызвал изменения… .

The verb вызывать/вызвать is used in a wide variety of expressions, including:

вызвать (у кого) реакцию вызвать милицию (куда, к кому) вызвать (во мне, у меня) раздражение вызвать врача на дом Appropriate English translations of this verb include evoke, call. It is important to note the verbal government that accompanies the different contexts in which the pair вызывать/вызвать is used in Russian .

7. The verbs застревать (застреваю, застреваешь), застрять (застряну, застрянешь) [here, meaning “to be lodged”] are used frequently in normal Russian discourse in the

meaning of be stuck, to be trapped:

Я опоздал на работу, потому что застрял в пробках .

Где Саша? – Застрял в библиотеке, наверное .

8. The expression повлечт за собою…атрофию…. can also use the more modern

ending за собой:

Авария на атомной станции повлекла за собой страшные последствия .

9. Пуля осталась неизвлечнной – ну и что же?

This sentence is a wonderful example of a participial form used as an adjective and some discourse markers. This is also part of the ST that is missing from the TT .

The root –влечь gives an important set of prefixed verb forms in CSR. The following set

of examples can be used for further translation practice:

a. Я никак не пойму, как извлечь пользу из этой ситуации .

б. Извлеки квадратный корень из двадцати пяти .

в. Вы когда-либо привлекались к судебной ответственности?

г. Своим поступком она навлекла на себя подозрение .

д. Брат увлекается футболом, а сестра – театром .

е. Твоя подруга очень привлекательная девушка .

ж. На дискотеке Саша пытался завлечь сестру своего приятеля, но ничего не получилось .

з. Эта тема всегда вовлекает студентов в разговор .

и. Чем ты развлекаешься?

10. The verb предотвратить has two prefixes, pred- and ot-. Other verbs with pred- and

compound forms with pred- include:

предпочитать предугадать предсказать предположить предписать предвидеть предвкушать предусмотреть предостерегать предоставить предназначить предохранить

–  –  –

*Verbs used to refer to smelling include: пахнуть, вонять, благоухать, нести, отдавать, тянуть, разить. Note the following examples:

1. От тебя хорошо пахнет .

2. От него воняет – скажи ему, чтобы он помылся!

3. Почему от тебя пахнет лимоном?

4. Твоя собака воняет .

5. В саду благоухает цветами .

6. В лесу пахло весной .

7. Откуда-то тянет дымом .

8. Из гаража пахнет бензином .

9. В лаборатории запахло газом .

10. Бочка отдат рыбой .

11. От него разит чесноком .

12. От него нест перегаром .

One of the areas that often presents problems in translation from English to Russian has to do with differences in transitive vs. intransitive verbs, where the English forms correspond to two forms in Russian. Note the following examples of verbs related to the

five senses:

–  –  –

Comments on Practical 14.3:

This practical brings together specific goals and purposes for the TTs to be generated .

One of the most important aspects of the financial part of ST1 is the designation of у.е .

(условная единица), which may be in dollars or euros. Given the distinct exchange differences between these two currencies, this will be one of the essential points for correct realization in the TT .

ST2 is given together with a corresponding TT. There are significant differences between the two texts, including additions and omissions .

ST3 gives some of the most commonly-asked questions by policy holders .

The first Q&A is relevant for those who cancel or postpone their trip. According to the document, the insurance company will either redo your policy for a later trip, or return your money in case of cancellation. The second and third questions are more essential in case health care is needed. In the first instance, the policy holder must have with him or her a copy of the policy or the insurance card. In the second instance, the insurance service center will help with (1) setting up an appointment with the doctor in-country, (2) facilitate either visiting a medical clinic or a hospital stay, (3) cover medical expenses, (4) aid in transportation, evacuation and many other things .

It is precisely point three which is covered in ST4, in which it becomes very clear that only a certain percentage of costs incurred are covered by the policy. The table shows that the insurance company will cover up to 5% of the total amount covered by the policy for a broken wrist. If the policy amount is 50,000 у.е. (i.e. $50,000), then the policy covers up to $2500 for medical care related to the broken wrist .

Comments on Practical 14.4:

Medications sold in the Russian Federation follow a general pattern for categories that

are covered in the instructions provided with medications:

Active ingredients (together with the chemical name) Description Purpose Uses Warnings special warning for women who are pregnant or breast-feeding Directions Side effects In case of overdose Interaction with other medications Storing information Expiration Date Sold with or without a prescription Address In both sets of texts, the directions only appear after the warnings are given. The English text sets out warnings in separate bold-face lines, while the Russian texts classify them under specific types of problems (side effects, overdose, interaction with other

medications). The Russian texts are more detailed in most categories with one exception:

they do not state that the medication should not be used if the seal is broken. The reason for this is not all medications are in packaging with inner seals .


Practicals 15.1 and 15.2 are very thoroughly discussed in the textbook for students .

Instead of returning to those practicals, below are additional texts that may be used for editing and revision purposes .


The following is a set of short excerpts from Evgeny Zamiatin’s novel We. We have chosen Zamiatin’s text for two major reasons: (1) the genre is hybrid, including not only literary but diary format; (2) the numerous, excellent TTs that already exist make it possible to divide the class into groups and have them work with separate TTs .

Bulgakov’s text has been selected because of the multiple, professional TTs .


The excerpts given here deal with the abbreviation of a secret organization, МЕФИ .

There are 3 TTs provided from the translations of G. Zilboorg, N. Randall and B.G .

Guerney. Note that there are some unusual punctuation marks in some of the TTs, and not all of the TTs duplicated the * note given in the passage. Retaining the original centigrade temperature of 40° is probably important since the number FORTY is so important within the context of the novel.

[For more examples of the use of the numeral 40, see chapters 25, 26 and 40 of the novel.] ST: (Запись 26-я) Еще пять, десять шагов – и меня тоже облило холодной водой, качнуло, сшибло с тротуара… На высоте примерно 2-х метров на стене – четырехугольный листок бумаги, и оттуда – непонятные – ядовито-зеленые буквы:


А внизу S–образно изогнутая спина, прозрачно колыхающиеся от гнева или от волнения крылья-уши. Поднявши вверх правую руку и беспомощно вытянув назад левую – как больное, подбитое крыло, он подпрыгивал вверх – сорвать бумажку – и не мог, не хватило вот столько .

Вероятно, у каждого из проходивших мимо была мысль: «Если подойду я, один из всех – не подумает ли он: я в чем-нибудь виноват и именно потому хочу…»

Сознаюсь: та же мысль была и у меня. Но я вспомнил, сколько раз он был настоящим моим ангелом-хранителем, сколько раз он спасал меня – и смело подошел, протянул руку, сорвал листок .

S оборотился, быстро-быстро буравчики в меня, на дно, что-то достал оттуда. Потом поднял вверх левую бровь, бровью подмигнул на стену, где висело «Мефи». И мне мелькнул хвостик его улыбки – к моему удивлению, как будто даже веселой. А впрочем, чего же удивляться. Томительной, медленно подымающейся температуре инкубационного периода – врач всегда предпочтет сыпь и сорокаградусный жар: тут уж, по крайней мере ясно, что за болезнь .

«Мефи», высыпавшее сегодня на стенах, – это сыпь. Я понимаю его улыбку*… Спуск в подземку – и под ногами, на непорочном стекле ступеней – опять белый листок: «Мефи». И на стене внизу, на скамейке, на зеркале в вагоне (видимо, наклеено наспех – небрежно, криво) – везде та же самая белая, жуткая сыпь .

*Должен сознаться, что точное решение этой улыбки я нашел только через много дней, доверху набитых событиями самыми странными и неожиданными .

TT1: (B.G. Guerney 1960:285-6) Five steps more, then ten – and I in my turn was doused with cold water that made me sway, knocking me off the curb. Upon the wall, at the height of 2 meters or thereabouts, there was a square piece of paper, and staring from it were incomprehensible

letters of a venomous green:


– while below it I saw a back bent in the form of an S and wing-ears transparently swaying from wrath or agitation. With his right arm raised and his left helplessly stretched back as if it were an aching, maimed wing, S- kept leaping upward to tear down the bit of paper – and couldn’t manage it, missing it by the tiniest margin .

Probably each one of the passers-by had the same thing in mind: “If, out of all these numbers, I should be the only one to approach him, isn’t he likely to think that I am guilty of something and that it is for that very reason that I want to help him –” I confess that I, too, had the very same thing in mind. But I recalled how many times he had been my veritable Guardian angel, how many times he had come to my rescue – and, bolding approaching, I stretched out my hand and tore down the small sheet .

S- turned around, quickly; ever so quickly he sank the tiny drills in his eyes into me, to the very bottom, got something out of there. Then he cocked his left eyebrow, sort of winked with that brow in the direction of the wall where the mephi thing had been hanging. And the tail end of his smile flitted before me – to my astonishment it seemed to be actually a gay smile .

But then, what is there to be astonished at? The physician will always prefer a rash or a fever of 40° centigrade to the exhausting, slowly rising temperature of an incubational period: the high temperature at least makes clear the nature of the disease. This mephi which has broken out on the walls is a rash. I understood his smile.* The stairs leading down into the subway – and underfoot, on the immaculate glass of the steps, again a small white sheet: MEPHI. And on the wall of the platform – on a bench – on a mirror in the car (evidently these stickers had been slapped on in haste, carelessly, crookedly): the same white, gruesome rash was everywhere .

*I must confess that I found the exact solution for that smile only after many days that were chock-full of the strangest and most unexpected events .

TT2: (G. Zilboorg 1924/1952: 139-40) Another five or ten steps and I, too, felt a spurt of cold water that struck me and threw me from the sidewalk; at a height of approximately two meters a quadrangular piece of paper was pasted to the wall, and on that sheet of paper, unintelligible,

poisonously green letters:

–  –  –

And under the paper – an S-like curved back and wing ears shaking with anger or emotion. With right arm lifted as high as possible, his left arm hopelessly stretched out backward like a hurt wing, he was trying to jump high enough to reach the paper and tear it off, but he was unable to do so. He was a fraction of an inch too short .

Probably every one of the passers-by had the same thought: “If I go to help him, I, only one of the many, will he not think that I am guilty of something and that I am therefore anxious to…” I must confess I had that thought. But remembering how many times he had proved my real Guardian Angel and how often he had saved me, I stepped toward him and with courage and warm assurance I stretched out my hand and tore off the sheet. Sturned around. The little drills sank quickly into me to the bottom and found something there. Then he lifted his left brow, and winked toward the wall where “Mephi” had been hanging a minute ago. The tail of his little smile even twinkled with a certain pleasure, which greatly surprised me. But why should I be surprised? A doctor always prefers a temperature of 40°C. and a rash to the slow, languid rise of the temperature during the incubation period of a disease; it enables him to determine the character of the disease .

Today “Mephi” broke out on the walls like a rash. I understood his smile .

In the passage to the underground railway, under out feet on the clean glass of the steps, again a white sheet: “Mephi.” And also on the walls of the tunnel, and on the benches, and on the mirror of the car (apparently pasted on in haste as some were hanging on a slant). Everywhere, the same white, gruesome rash .

TT3: (N. Randall 2006: 131-2) Five, ten paces more and I was also drenched with the cold water, rocked and knocked off the sidewalk… On the wall, approximately two yards up, written on a square

piece of paper, the incomprehensible poison-green letters:

–  –  –

And underneath it, an S-like curved spine and wing-ears transparently fluttering in rage or anxiety. He was stretching his right hand up, and his left arm, behind him, was helpless like a hurt, broken wing. He was jumping up to tear down the piece of paper but couldn’t as he was just not close enough .

Everyone who was passing by probably had the same thought: “If I…me, one of many…go up and help him…won’t he think that I am guilty of something and that is the reason I want to …?” I admit: I had that very same thought. But I remembered how many times he had been my real guardian angel, how many times he had saved me and so I dared to go up, reach up my arm, and tear down the piece of paper .

S turned around and quickly-quickly his gimlets were into me, to my depths, where he found something. Then he raised his left eyebrow and with this eyebrow, nodded at the wall, where “MEPHI” had hung. And the tail of his smile flashed at me – it was actually rather cheerful, to my surprise. But then again, what’s there to be surprised about anymore? Given the choice of the agonizingly slow-rising temperature of the incubation of an illness or a rash with a 104-degree fever, a doctor will always prefer the latter: at least the illness is clearly present. The “MEPHI,” which broke out on the wall today, is a rash. I can understand this smile…* On my way down to the subterranean rail, there was another white piece of paper on the immaculate glass of the steps: “MEPHI.” And down inside, it was on the wall, on the bench, and on the mirror of the train car (glued, apparently, in haste) – that same white, terrifying rash was everywhere .

*I should say that I only discovered the exact grounds of this smile after many days, after being filled to the brim with events both strange and unexpected .


The following ST is a set of passages from Mixail Bulgakov’s novel, Master and Margarita [Petrozavodsk: “Karelia”, 1994, pp. 9, 11, 14, 15], where the word чрт is used in the original Russian. The sample TTs do not attempt to maintain the same lexeme in each instance, and as such, the evocation of the devil, which leads to his actual appearance in the story, is lost .

ST: (page 9) «Что это со мной? Этого никогда не было… сердце шалит… я переутомился .

Пожалуй, пора бросить вс к чрту и в Кисловодск…»

– Фу ты чрт! – воскликнул редактор, – ты знаешь, Иван, у меня сейчас едва удар от жары не сделался! Даже что-то вроде галлюцинации было, – он попытался усмехнуться, но в глазах его еще прыгала тревога, и руки дрожали .

(page 11)

– Если я не ослышался, вы изволили говорить, что Иисуса не было на свете? – спросил иностранец, обращая к Берлиозу свой левый зелный глас .

– Нет, вы не ослышались, – учтиво ответил Берлиоз, – именно это я и говорил .

– Ах, как интересно! – воскликнул иностранец .

«А какого чрта ему надо?» – подумал Бездомный и нахмурился .

(page 14) Тут литераторы подумали разное. Берлиоз: «Нет, иностранец!», а Бездомный: «Вот чрт его возьми! А?»

ТТ1: The Master and Margarita by Mikhail Bulgakov, translated by Mirra Ginsberg .

New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1967, pp. 4, 5, 7, 8, 12 .

“What’s wrong with me? This never happened before. My heart is playing up….I’m overworked….Perhaps I ought to drop everything and run down to Kislovodsk….” … .

“What the devil!” the editor exclaimed. “You know, Ivan, I nearly had a heatstroke just now! There was even a kind of hallucination….” He tried to smile, but anxiety still flickered in his eyes, and his hands trembled .

“If I heard correctly, you said that Jesus never existed?” he asked, turning his green left eye to Berlioz .

“You heard correctly,” Berlioz answered courteously. “That is precisely what I said.” “Ah, how interesting!” exclaimed the foreigner .

“What the devil does he want?” Homeless thought, frowning .

The literary gentlemen had different thoughts. Berlioz said to himself, “No, he is a foreigner!” And Homeless thought, “The devil…have you ever!....” TT2: The Master and Margarita by Mikhail Bulgakov, translated by Michael Glenny .

New York and Evanston: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1967, pp. 4, 5, 8, 11 .

“What’s the matter with me? This has never happened before. Heart playing tricks… I’m overstrained… I think it’s time to chuck everything up and go and take the waters at Kislovodsk.” … “The devil!” exclaimed the editor. “D’you know, Ivan, the heat nearly gave me a stroke just then! I even saw something like a hallucination….” He tried to smile, but his eyes were still blinking with fear and his hands trembled .

“If I’m not mistaken, you were saying that Jesus never existed, were you not?” he asked, turning his green left eye on Berlioz .

“No, you were not mistaken,” replied Berlioz courteously. “I did indeed say that.” “Ah, how interesting!” exclaimed the foreigner .

“What the hell does he want?” thought Bezdomny and frowned .

Their reactions were different. Berlioz thought, “No, he’s a foreigner,” Bezdomny thought, “What the hell is he?”

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